Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Optical Measurements of Water Droplet Characteristics in Turbulent Gasoline Pipe Flow

2001-05-07
2001-01-1965
The liquid fossil fuel contaminated by water can make some troubles in combustion processes and endurance of a combustion system. The optical sensor monitoring the water concentration instantaneously in a fuel pipeline is an effective means for controlling the fuel quality. In two component liquid flows of oil and water, the flow pattern and characteristics of water droplets are changed with various flow conditions. Then, the light scattering of the optical sensor measuring the water concentration is also dependent on the flow patterns and droplet characteristics. Therefore, it is important to investigate the detailed behavior of water droplets in the pipeline of the fuel transportation system. In this study, the flow patterns and characteristics of water droplets in the turbulent pipe flow of two component liquids of gasoline and water were investigated using optical measurements.
Technical Paper

Integrated, Feed-Forward Hybrid Electric Vehicle Simulation in SIMULINK and its Use for Power Management Studies

2001-03-05
2001-01-1334
A hybrid electric vehicle simulation tool (HE-VESIM) has been developed at the Automotive Research Center of the University of Michigan to study the fuel economy potential of hybrid military/civilian trucks. In this paper, the fundamental architecture of the feed-forward parallel hybrid-electric vehicle system is described, together with dynamic equations and basic features of sub-system modules. Two vehicle-level power management control algorithms are assessed, a rule-based algorithm, which mainly explores engine efficiency in an intuitive manner, and a dynamic-programming optimization algorithm. Simulation results over the urban driving cycle demonstrate the potential of the selected hybrid system to significantly improve vehicle fuel economy, the improvement being greater when the dynamic-programming power management algorithm is applied.
Technical Paper

The Reverse Engineering of a Turbocharged Diesel Engine through a Unified Systems Approach

2001-03-05
2001-01-1244
The need for a rigorous systems engineering approach to automotive powertrains has been addressed in this work from the perspective of the diesel engine. A high-fidelity engine simulation has been integrated with a total vehicle model for the purpose of reverse engineering the optimal powerplant for a given vehicle mission. Engine parameters have been coordinated between the simulations to develop a framework for total vehicle design. The design strategies discussed in this paper allow engine researchers to set targets for individual system components and to analyze the tradeoffs associated with different vehicle mission objectives. A detailed case study employing these techniques is presented for a conventional vehicle where the most fuel-efficient engine is found that simultaneously conforms to the desired performance criteria.
Technical Paper

Effect of Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) on Diesel Engine and Vehicle System Transient Response

2001-03-05
2001-01-1247
Variable geometry turbines (VGT) are of particular interest to advanced diesel powertrains for future conventional trucks, since they can dramatically improve system transient response to sudden changes in speed and load, characteristic of automotive applications. VGT systems are also viewed as the key enabler for the application of the EGR system for reduction of heavy-duty diesel emissions. This paper applies an artificial neural network methodology to VGT modeling in order to enable representation of the VGT characteristics for any blade (nozzle) position. Following validation of the ANN model of the baseline, fixed geometry turbine, the VGT model is integrated with the diesel engine system. The latter is linked to the driveline and the vehicle dynamics module to form a complete, high-fidelity vehicle simulation.
Technical Paper

Multi-Zone DI Diesel Spray Combustion Model for Cycle Simulation Studies of Engine Performance and Emissions

2001-03-05
2001-01-1246
A quasi-dimensional, multi-zone, direct injection (DI) diesel combustion model has been developed and implemented in a full cycle simulation of a turbocharged engine. The combustion model accounts for transient fuel spray evolution, fuel-air mixing, ignition, combustion and NO and soot pollutant formation. In the model, the fuel spray is divided into a number of zones, which are treated as open systems. While mass and energy equations are solved for each zone, a simplified momentum conservation equation is used to calculate the amount of air entrained into each zone. Details of the DI spray, combustion model and its implementation into the cycle simulation of Assanis and Heywood [1] are described in this paper. The model is validated with experimental data obtained in a constant volume chamber and engines. First, predictions of spray penetration and spray angle are validated against measurements in a pressurized constant volume chamber.
Technical Paper

Plasma-Catalysis for Diesel Exhaust Treatment: Current State of the Art

2001-03-05
2001-01-0185
Nonthermal plasma discharges in combination with catalysts are being developed for diesel aftertreatment. NOx conversion has been shown over several different catalyst materials. Particulate removal has also been demonstrated. The gas phase chemistry of the plasma discharge is described. The plasma is oxidative. NO is converted to NO2, CH3ONO2 and HNO3. Hydrocarbons are partially oxidized resulting in aldehydes and CO along with various organic species. Soot will oxidize if it is held in the plasma. When HC is present, SO2 is not converted to sulfates. Suitable plasma-catalysts can achieve NOx conversion over 70%, with a wider effective temperature range than non-plasma catalysts. NOx conversion requires HC and O2. Electrical power consumption and required exhaust HC levels increase fuel consumption by several percent. A plasma catalyst system has demonstrated over 90% particulate removal in vehicle exhaust.
Technical Paper

Development of a Two-Zone HCCI Combustion Model Accounting for Boundary Layer Effects

2001-03-05
2001-01-1028
The Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion concept is currently under widespread investigation due to its potential to increase thermal efficiency while greatly decreasing harmful exhaust pollutants. Simulation tools have been developed to explore the implications of initial mixture thermodynamic state on engine performance and emissions. In most cases these modeling efforts have coupled a detailed fuel chemistry mechanism with empirical descriptions of the in-cylinder heat transfer processes. The primary objective of this paper is to present a fundamentally based boundary layer heat transfer model. The two-zone combustion model couples an adiabatic core zone with a boundary layer heat transfer model. The model predicts film coefficient, with approximately the same universal shape and magnitudes as an existing global model.
Technical Paper

Fuel Stratification in a Liquid-Phase LPG Injection Engine

2003-05-19
2003-01-1777
To investigate the mixture distributions in an LPG engine with Liquid phase port injection for heavy duty vehicles, an optical single cylinder engine, which is optically accessible both in side and bottom view, and laser diagnostic system were incorporated to apply PLIF (planar laser induced fluorescence) technique. Acetone was used as a dopant in LPG fuel, which was excited by KrF excimer laser (248nm), and its fluorescence images were acquired with ICCD camera. The effects of fuel injection timing, swirl intensity and excess air ratio were investigated. For the case of open valve injection, favorable stratification of fuel, both in axial and radial direction, was clearly observed compared to the closed valve injection, where reverse stratification in axial direction was observed. At the Ricardo swirl ratio of 3.4, it was apparent that excessive axial stratification of fuel got dominant, which would lead to poor engine performances.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Performance and Emissions of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-1068
This work studies the complex interactions resulting from the application and control of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on a production heavy-duty diesel engine system, and its effectiveness in reducing NOx emissions. The coupling between EGR, the Variable Geometry Turbocharger (VGT) and the EGR cooler critically affects boost pressure, air/fuel ratio (A/F), combustion efficiency and pumping work. It is shown that EGR provides an effective means for reducing flame temperatures and NOx emissions, particularly under low A/F ratio conditions. However, engine thermal efficiency tends to decrease with EGR as a result of decreasing indicated work and increasing pumping work. Combustion deterioration is predominant at higher load, low speed and low boost conditions, due to a significant decrease of A/F ratio with increasing EGR.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Alternative Strategies for Reducing Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions from Small Two-Stroke Engines

1996-02-01
960743
Five small two-stroke engine designs were tested at different air/fuel ratios, under steady state and transient cycles. The effects of combustion chamber design, carburetor design, lean burning, and fuel composition on performance, hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions were studied. All tested engines had been designed to run richer than stoichiometric in order to obtain satisfactory cooling and higher power. While hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions could be greatly reduced with lean burning, engine durability would be worsened. However, it was shown that the use of a catalytic converter with acceptably lean combustion was an effective method of reducing emissions. Replacing carburetion with in-cylinder fuel injection in one of the engines resulted in a significant reduction of hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Valve Seat Leakage

1997-05-01
971638
A 1.9L four cylinder engine was evaluated for leakage of cylinder charge through the exhaust valve seats. Fast FID HC analyzer traces reveal leakage. Static leakdown tests do not correlate with the Fast FID measurement, unlike previously published reports for a different engine. The causes of exhaust valve seat leakage are likely to be Flakes of cylinder deposits lodging in the valve seat Valve seat distortion due to the thermal and pressure loading of the cylinder head structure Because deposit related effects are very history dependent, it is very difficult to obtain quantitative results. Some experimental observations: Static pressure leakage measurements show variation of leakage area with cylinder pressure, caused by flexing of the valve head. Dynamic leakage results are history dependent. Leakage is reduced after running at high speed/load, and gradually build up during extended light load low speed operation.
Technical Paper

An Early-Design Methodology for Predicting Transient Fuel Economy and Catalyst-Out Exhaust Emissions

1997-05-19
971838
An early-design methodology for predicting both expected fuel economy and catalyst-out CO, HC and NOx concentrations during arbitrarily-defined transient cycles is presented. The methodology is based on utilizing a vehicle-powertrain model with embedded maps of fully warmed up engine-out performance and emissions, and appropriate temperature-dependent correction factors to account for not fully warmed up conditions during transients. Similarly, engine-out emissions are converted to catalyst-out emissions using conversion efficiencies based on the catalyst brick temperature. A crucial element of the methodology is hence the ability to predict heat flows and component temperatures in the engine and the exhaust system during transients, consistent with the data available during concept definition and early design phases.
Technical Paper

A Coupled Methodology for Modeling the Transient Thermal Response of SI Engines Subject to Time-Varying Operating Conditions

1997-05-19
971859
A comprehensive methodology for predicting the transient thermal response of spark-ignition engines subject to time-varying boundary conditions is presented. The approach is based on coupling a cycle-resolved quasi-dimensional simulation of in-cylinder thermodynamic events with a resistor-capacitor (R-C) thermal network of the various component and fluid interactions throughout the engine and exhaust system. The dynamic time step of the thermal solution is limited by either the frequency of the prescribed time-dependent boundary conditions or by the minimum thermal time constant of the R-C network. To demonstrate the need for fully-coupled, transient thermodynamic and heat transfer solutions, model behavior is first explored for step-change and staircase variations of engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Plasma-Catalysis for Diesel NOx Remediation

1998-10-19
982429
A dielectric barrier discharge device has been built to test nonthermal plasma discharges for simulated diesel exhaust NOx removal. The device has also been tested with selected catalysts located after the plasma. Emissions are measured by conventional automotive emission analyzers, plus FTIR. Dielectric barrier discharges without catalyst convert input NO to a mix of NO2, HONO, HNO3, and organic nitrates. At 30 J/l energy deposition, approximately 26% of the input NO is “lost”. Some of the hydrocarbon input is converted to a variety of species, including CO, CO2, aldehydes, and alcohols. A Cu-ZSM catalyst after the plasma device eliminates the apparent NOx conversion seen with the bare plasma. This indicates that the apparent NOx conversion of the bare plasma is actually conversion to some (unmeasured) species which can be reconverted to NOx by the Cu-ZSM catalyst. Placing a proprietary catalyst within the plasma results in significant NOx conversion.
Technical Paper

Diesel NOx Reduction on Surfaces in Plasma

1998-10-19
982511
Recent work has shown that energy efficiencies as well as yields and selectivities of the NOx reduction reaction can be enhanced by combining a plasma discharge with select catalysts. While analysis of gas phase species with a chemiluminescent NOx meter and mass spectrometer show that significant removal of NOx is achieved, high background concentrations of nitrogen preclude the measurement of nitrogen produced from NOx reduction. Results presented in this paper show that N2 from NOx reduction can be measured if background N2 is replaced with helium. Nitrogen production results are presented for a catalyst system where the catalyst is in the plasma region and where the catalyst is downstream from the plasma. The amount of N2 produced is compared with the amount of NOx removed as measured by the chemiluminescent NOx meter. The measured nitrogen from NOx reduction accounts for at least 40% of the total NOx removed for both reactor configurations.
Technical Paper

A High Temperature and High Pressure Evaporation Model for the KIVA-3 Code

1996-02-01
960629
A high pressure and high temperature evaporation model was implemented in the KIVA-3 multidimensional engine simulation. The most significant features of the new evaporation model are: the effects of Stefan flow on transfer rates are included; internal circulation is accounted using the effective conductivity model of Abramzon and Sirignano [1]; equilibrium composition is calculated at high pressures using a real gas equation of state; and properties are evaluated as functions of temperature, pressure and composition. The evaporation of a continuous spray of n-dodecane injected in a chamber pressurized with nitrogen gas was simulated using the two models. Predictions of the evaporation rate, the spray penetration and fuel vapor distribution by the two models were significantly different. The differences persisted over a range of ambient pressures and temperatures, injection velocities, initial droplet sizes and fuel volatilities.
Technical Paper

Correlation Between Knock Intensity and Heat Transfer Under Light and Heavy Knocking Conditions in a Spark Ignition Engine

1996-02-01
960495
Instantaneous piston surface temperatures and heat flux rates were measured inside and outside the end-gas zone of a single-cylinder research engine operated under light and heavy knocking conditions. The engine was run with center and rear side spark-plug configurations, thus alternating the position of the heat flux probes relative to the end gas. Heat transfer data were collected over 88 engine cycles for each of which knock intensity was determined by heat release analysis. Under light knock, the ensemble-averaged peak heat-flux at locations near the end-gas increased with spark advance towards heavier knock, showing significant departure from its trend prior to the onset of knock. Under heavy knock, the ensemble-averaged peak heat-flux increased throughout the piston crown. Despite showing significant scatter, individual cycle, peak heat-flux values near the end-gas region were found to follow an increasing trend with knock intensity under light knocking conditions.
Technical Paper

The Potential of the Variable Stroke Spark-Ignition Engine

1997-02-24
970067
A comprehensive quasi-dimensional computer simulation of the spark-ignition (SI) engine was used to explore part-load, fuel economy benefits of the Variable Stroke Engine (VSE) compared to the conventional throttled engine. First it was shown that varying stroke can replace conventional throttling to control engine load, without changing the engine characteristics. Subsequently, the effects of varying stroke on turbulence, burn rate, heat transfer, and pumping and friction losses were revealed. Finally these relationships were used to explain the behavior of the VSE as stroke is reduced. Under part load operation, it was shown that the VSE concept can improve brake specific fuel consumption by 18% to 21% for speeds ranging from 1500 to 3000 rpm. Further, at part load, NOx was reduced by up to 33%. Overall, this study provides insight into changes in processes within and outside the combustion chamber that cause the benefits and limitations of the VSE concept.
Technical Paper

One-Dimensional Transient Dynamics of Fuel Evaporation and Diffusion in Induction Systems

1997-02-24
970058
Engine performance under transients is greatly affected by the fuel behavior in the induction systems. To better understand the fuel behavior, a computer model has been developed to study the one-dimensional coupled heat and mass transfer processes occurring during the transient evaporation of liquid fuel from a heated surface into stagnant air. The energy and mass diffusion equations are solved simultaneously to yield the transient temperatures and species concentrations using a modified finite difference technique. The numerical technique is capable of solving the coupled equations while simultaneously tracking the movement of the evaporation interface. Evaporation results are presented for various initial film thicknesses representing typical puddle thicknesses for multi-point fuel injection systems using heptane, octane, and nonane pure hydrocarbon fuels.
Technical Paper

Relating Subjective Idle Quality to Engine Combustion

1997-02-24
970035
Engine designers need an objective measurement which can be tested on the engine to indicate acceptable idle quality. An experiment was performed to select objective measures based on cylinder pressure data, and two measures were selected. Standard deviation of indicated mean effective pressure (SDimep) is a measure of the statistical instability of combustion. Lowest normalized value (LNV) is a measure of the tendency toward misfire. These two measures are shown for a set of typical engines. The body of data shows the relation of SDimep and LNV to burn duration and timing.
X