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Technical Paper

Experimental Assessment of Reynolds-Averaged Dissipation Modeling in Engine Flows

The influence of the constant C3, which multiplies the mean flow divergence term in the model equation for the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation, is examined in a motored diesel engine for three different swirl ratios and three different spatial locations. Predicted temporal histories of turbulence energy and its dissipation are compared with experimentally-derived estimates. A “best-fit” value of C3 = 1.75, with an approximate uncertainty of ±0.3 is found to minimize the error between the model predictions and the experiments. Using this best-fit value, model length scale behavior corresponds well with that of measured velocity-correlation integral scales during compression. During expansion, the model scale grows too rapidly. Restriction of the model assessment to the expansion stroke suggests that C3 = 0.9 is more appropriate during this period.
Technical Paper

Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements in the Piston Bowl of a DI Diesel Engine

Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to make gas velocity and turbulence measurements in a motored diesel engine. The experiments were conducted using a single-cylinder version of the Caterpillar 3406 production engine. One of the exhaust valves and the fuel injector port were used to provide optical access to the combustion chamber so that modifications to the engine geometry were minimal, and the results are representative of the actual engine. Measurements of gas velocity were made in a plane in the piston bowl using TiO2 seed particles. The light sheet necessary for PIV was formed by passing the beam from a Nd:YAG laser through the injector port and reflecting the beam off a conical mirror at the center of the piston. PIV data was difficult to obtain due to significant out-of-plane velocities. However, data was acquired at 25° and 15° before top dead center of compression at 750 rev/min.
Technical Paper

On the Dependence of Spray Angle and Other Spray Parameters on Nozzle Design and Operating Conditions

In the Atomization regime, liquid jets breakup either within the nozzle or immediately upon entering the chamber gas and drops much smaller than the jet diameter are formed. The mechanism of Atomization, which is presently unknown, was investigated by the simultaneous use of two photographic techniques. The initial transient was observed with a 106 frames/s camera and the steady state by a technique similar to spark photography. The experiment range was: liquid pressure 500 to 2500 psia; five mixtures of water and glycerol to vary the liquid viscosity; air, nitrogen, helium, and xenon at up to 600 psia as chamber gases to separate gas pressure from gas density effects; and 14 nozzle designs. Not changed were the temperature (room value), the nozzle diameter (340 μ), and the surface tension (70 dyne/cm).
Technical Paper

The Influence of Swirl Ratio on Turbulent Flow Structure in a Motored HSDI Diesel Engine - A Combined Experimental and Numerical Study

Simultaneous two-component measurements of gas velocity and multi-dimensional numerical simulation are employed to characterize the evolution of the in-cylinder turbulent flow structure in a re-entrant bowl-in-piston engine under motored operation. The evolution of the mean flow field, turbulence energy, turbulent length scales, and the various terms contributing to the production of the turbulence energy are correlated and compared, with the objectives of clarifying the physical mechanisms and flow structures that dominate the turbulence production and of identifying the source of discrepancies between the measured and simulated turbulence fields. Additionally, the applicability of the linear turbulent stress modeling hypothesis employed in the k-ε model is assessed using the experimental mean flow gradients, turbulence energy, and length scales.
Technical Paper

Application of Schlieren Optical Techniques for the Measurement of Gas Temperature and Turbulent Diffusivity in a Diesel Engine

A new technique which is based on optoacoustic phenomena has been developed for measuring in-cylinder gas temperature and turbulent diffusivity. In the experiments, a high energy Nd:YAG pulsed laser beam was focused to cause local ionization of air at a point in the combustion chamber. This initiates a shock wave and creates a hot spot. The local temperature and turbulent diffusivity are determined by monitoring the shock propagation and the hot spot growth, respectively, with a schlieren photography system. In order to assess the validity and accuracy of the measurements, the technique was also applied to a turbulent jet. The temperature measurements were found to be accurate to within 3%. Results from the turbulent jet measurements also showed that the growth rate of the hot spot diameter can be used to estimate the turbulent diffusivity. In-cylinder gas temperature measurements were made in a motored single cylinder Caterpillar diesel engine, modified for optical access.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Assessment of Turbulence Production, Reynolds Stress and Length Scale (Dissipation) Modeling in a Swirl-Supported DI Diesel Engine

Simultaneous measurements of the radial and the tangential components of velocity are obtained in a high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine typical of automotive applications. Results are presented for engine operation with fuel injection, but without combustion, for three different swirl ratios and four injection pressures. With the mean and fluctuating velocities, the r-θ plane shear stress and the mean flow gradients are obtained. Longitudinal and transverse length scales are also estimated via Taylor's hypothesis. The flow is shown to be sufficiently homogeneous and stationary to obtain meaningful length scale estimates. Concurrently, the flow and injection processes are simulated with KIVA-3V employing a RNG k-ε turbulence model. The measured turbulent kinetic energy k, r-θ plane mean strain rates ( 〈Srθ〉, 〈Srr〉, and 〈Sθθ〉 ), deviatoric turbulent stresses , and the r-θ plane turbulence production terms are compared directly to the simulated results.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of Geometry Generated Turbulence on HCCI Engine Combustion

The present study uses a numerical model to investigate the effects of flow turbulence on premixed iso-octane HCCI engine combustion. Different levels of in-cylinder turbulence are generated by using different piston geometries, namely a disc-shape versus a square-shape bowl. The numerical model is based on the KIVA code which is modified to use CHEMKIN as the chemistry solver. A detailed reaction mechanism is used to simulate the fuel chemistry. It is found that turbulence has significant effects on HCCI combustion. In the current engine setup, the main effect of turbulence is to affect the wall heat transfer, and hence to change the mixture temperature which, in turn, influences the ignition timing and combustion duration. The model also predicts that the combustion duration in the square bowl case is longer than that in the disc piston case which agrees with the measurements.
Technical Paper

Principal Component Analysis and Study of Port-Induced Swirl Structures in a Light-Duty Optical Diesel Engine

In this work computational and experimental approaches are combined to characterize in-cylinder flow structures and local flow field properties during operation of the Sandia 1.9L light-duty optical Diesel engine. A full computational model of the single-cylinder research engine was used that considers the complete intake and exhaust runners and plenums, as well as the adjustable throttling devices used in the experiments to obtain different swirl ratios. The in-cylinder flow predictions were validated against an extensive set of planar PIV measurements at different vertical locations in the combustion chamber for different swirl ratio configurations. Principal Component Analysis was used to characterize precession, tilting and eccentricity, and regional averages of the in-cylinder turbulence properties in the squish region and the piston bowl.
Technical Paper

Intake Flow Simulation and Comparison with PTV Measurements

Intake flow simulations were carried out for a prototype DISI engine using the standard k-ε model and the RNG k-ε model. The results were compared with PTV (transient water analog) measurements. The study was focused on low load operations with engine speed at 400 rev/min. Two cases were studied, a single intake case in which one intake port was blocked and a dual intake port case. In the computations, the results show that the standard k-ε model tends to produce higher turbulence levels when turbulence is generated and decays faster when turbulence dissipates. Different turbulence models predict almost the same flow structures. However, the effects of the turbulence model on the predicted tumble and swirl ratios are significant. The TKE distributions at BDC predicted by the two models are also different. The standard k-ε model seems to be more diffusive. Good agreements with PTV data were obtained in the single valve case with the RNG k-ε model.
Technical Paper

Pressure-Swirl Atomization in the Near Field

To model sprays from pressure-swirl atomizers, the connection between the injector and the downstream spray must be considered. A new model for pressure-swirl atomizers is presented which assumes little knowledge of the internal details of the injector, but instead uses available observations of external spray characteristics. First, a correlation for the exit velocity at the injector exit is used to define the liquid film thickness. Next, the film must be modeled as it becomes a thin, liquid sheet and breaks up, forming ligaments and droplets. A linearized instability analysis of the breakup of a viscous, liquid sheet is used as part of the spray boundary condition. The spray angle is estimated from spray photographs and patternator data. A mass averaged spray angle is calculated from the patternator data and used in some of the calculations.
Technical Paper

Effects of Initial Conditions in Multidimensional Combustion Simulations of HSDI Diesel Engines

The effects of numerical methodology in defining the initial conditions and simulating the compression stroke in D.I. diesel engine CFD computations are studied. Lumped and pointwise approaches were adopted in assigning the initial conditions at IVC. The lumped approach was coupled with a two-dimensional calculation of the compression stroke. The pointwise methodology was based on the results of an unsteady calculation of the intake stroke performed by using the STAR-CD code in the realistic engine and port geometry. Full engine and 60 deg. sector meshes were used in the compression stroke calculations in order to check the accuracy of the commonly applied axi-symmetric fluid dynamics assumption. Analysis of the evolution of the main fluid dynamics parameters revealed that local conditions at the time of injection strongly depend on the numerical procedure adopted.
Technical Paper

Studying the Roles of Kinetics and Turbulence in the Simulation of Diesel Combustion by Means of an Extended Characteristic-Time-Model

A study was performed that takes into account both turbulence and chemical kinetic effects in the numerical simulation of diesel engine combustion in order to better understand the importance of their respective roles at changing operating conditions. An approach was developed which combines the simplicity and low computational and storage requests of the laminar-and-turbulent characteristic-time model with a detailed combustion chemistry model based on well-known simplified mechanisms. Assuming appropriate simplifications such as steady state or equilibrium for most of the radicals and intermediate species, the kinetics of hydrocarbons can be described by means of three overall steps. This approach was integrated in the KIVA-II code. The concept was validated and applied to a single-cylinder, heavy-duty engine. The simulation covers a wide range of operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Scaling Aspects of the Characteristic Time Combustion Model in the Simulation of Diesel Engines

Combustion simulations utilizing the characteristic time combustion model have been performed for four DI diesel engines ranging in size from heavy-duty to large-bore designs. It has been found that the pre-factor to the turbulent characteristic time acts as a scaling parameter between the engines. This phenomenon is explained in terms of the non-equilibrium behavior of the turbulent time and length scales, as is encountered in the rapidly distorting, spray-induced flows of DI diesel engines. In fact, the equilibrium assumption between turbulence production and dissipation, which forms the basis for the employed k-ε-type turbulence models, does not hold in these situations. For such flows, the real turbulent dissipation time scale is locally proportional to the turbulent characteristic time scale which is determined by a typical eddy turnover time.
Journal Article

Schlieren Methodology for the Analysis of Transient Diesel Flame Evolution

Schlieren/shadowgraphy has been adopted in the combustion research as a standard technique for tip penetration analysis of sprays under diesel-like engine conditions. When dealing with schlieren images of reacting sprays, the combustion process and the subsequent light emission from the soot within the flame have revealed both limitations as well as considerations that deserve further investigation. Seeking for answers to such concerns, the current work reports an experimental study with this imaging technique where, besides spatial filtering at the Fourier plane, both short exposure time and chromatic filtering were performed to improve the resulting schlieren image, as well as the reliability of the subsequent tip penetration measurement. The proposed methodology has reduced uncertainties caused by artificial pixel saturation (blooming).
Technical Paper

Late-Cycle Turbulence Generation in Swirl-Supported, Direct-Injection Diesel Engines

Cycle-resolved analysis of velocity data obtained in the re-entrant bowl of a fired high-;speed, direct-injection diesel engine, demonstrates an unambiguous, approximately 100% increase in late-cycle turbulence levels over the levels measured during motored operation. Model predictions of the flow field, obtained employing RNG k-ε turbulence modeling in KIVA-3V, do not capture this increased turbulence. A combined experimental and computational approach is taken to identify the source of this turbulence. The results indicate that the dominant source of the increased turbulence is associated with the formation of an unstable distribution of mean angular momentum, characterized by a negative radial gradient. The importance of this source of flow turbulence has not previously been recognized for engine flows. The enhanced late-cycle turbulence is found to be very sensitive to the flow swirl level.
Journal Article

PIV Measurements in the Swirl-Plane of a Motored Light-Duty Diesel Engine

Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is used to investigate the structure and evolution of the mean velocity field in the swirl (r-θ) plane of a motored, optically accessible diesel engine with a typical production combustion chamber geometry under motoring conditions (no fuel injection). Instantaneous velocities were measured were made at three swirl-plane heights (3 mm, 10 mm and 18 mm below the firedeck) and three swirl ratios (2.2, 3.5 and 4.5) over a range of crank angles in the compression and expansion strokes. The data allow for a direct analysis of the structures within the ensemble mean flow field, the in-cylinder swirl ratio, and the radial profile of the tangential velocity. At all three swirl ratios, the ensemble mean velocity field contains a single dominant swirl flow structure that is tilted with respect to the cylinder axis. The axis of this structure precesses about the cylinder axis in a manner that is largely insensitive to swirl ratio.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulation of Scalar Dissipation Rate in an Internal Combustion Engine

A novel algebraic similarity model for subgrid scalar dissipation rate has been developed as part of the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) package KIVA3V-LES for diesel engine study. The model is proposed from an a priori study using Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of forced isotropic turbulence. In the a posteriori test, fully resolved turbulent passive scalar field measurements are used to validate the model in actual engine flows. For reason of the length limit by SAE and the specific interest in engine applications, only a prior test and a posteriori test in engine flows are included in this paper. A posteriori tests in isotropic cube flow, turbulent round jet and flame cases will be presented in separate papers. An engine LES simulation of multi consecutive cycles was performed in this study.
Technical Paper

Study of Diesel Engine Size-Scaling Relationships Based on Turbulence and Chemistry Scales

Engine design is a time consuming process in which many costly experimental tests are usually conducted. With increasing prediction ability of engine simulation tools, engine design aided by CFD software is being given more attention by both industry and academia. It is also of much interest to be able to use design information gained from an existing engine design of one size in the design of engines of other sizes to reduce design time and costs. Therefore it is important to study size-scaling relationships for engines over wide range of operating conditions. This paper presents CFD studies conducted for two production diesel engines - a light-duty GM-Fiat engine (0.5L displacement) and a heavy-duty Caterpillar engine (2.5L displacement). Previously developed scaling arguments, including an equal spray penetration scaling model and an extended, equal flame lift-off length scaling model were employed to explore the parametric scaling connections between the two engines.
Journal Article

The Impact of a Non-Linear Turbulent Stress Relationship on Simulations of Flow and Combustion in an HSDI Diesel Engine

In-cylinder flow and combustion processes simulated with the standard k-ε turbulence model and with an alternative model-employing a non-linear, quadratic equation for the turbulent stresses-are contrasted for both motored and fired engine operation at two loads. For motored operation, the differences observed in the predictions of mean flow development are small and do not emerge until expansion. Larger differences are found in the spatial distribution and magnitude of turbulent kinetic energy. The non-linear model generally predicts lower energy levels and larger turbulent time scales. With fuel injection and combustion, significant differences in flow structure and in the spatial distribution of soot are predicted by the two models. The models also predict considerably different combustion efficiencies and NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Multidimensional Modeling of Spray Atomization and Air-Fuel Mixing in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine

A numerical study of air-fuel mixing in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine was carried out. In this paper, the numerical models are described and grid generation methods to represent a realistic port-valve-chamber geometry is discussed. To model a vaporizing hollow-cone spray resulting from an automotive pressure-swirl injector, a newly developed sheet spray atomization model was used to compute the processes of disintegration of the liquid sheet and breakup of the subsequent drops. Computations were performed of a particular 4-valve pent-roof engine configuration in which the intake process and an early fuel injection scheme were considered. After an analysis of the intake-generated flow structures in this engine configuration, the spray behavior and the spatial and temporal evolution of fuel liquid and vapor phases are characterized.