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Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of High-Pressure Fast-Response Common Rail Injector Dynamics

2002-03-04
2002-01-0213
Managing the injection rate profile is a powerful tool to control engine performance and emission levels. In particular, Common Rail (C.R.) injection systems allow an almost completely flexible fuel injection event in DI-diesel engines by permitting a free mapping of the start of injection, injection pressure, rate of injection and, in the near future, multiple injections. This research deals with the development of a network-based numerical tool for understanding operating condition limits of the Common Rail injector. The models simulate the electro-fluid-mechanical behavior of the injector accounting for cavitation in the nozzle holes. Validation against experiments has been performed. The model has been used to provide insight into the operating conditions of the injector and in order to highlight the application to injection system design.
Technical Paper

Experimental Assessment of Reynolds-Averaged Dissipation Modeling in Engine Flows

2007-09-16
2007-24-0046
The influence of the constant C3, which multiplies the mean flow divergence term in the model equation for the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation, is examined in a motored diesel engine for three different swirl ratios and three different spatial locations. Predicted temporal histories of turbulence energy and its dissipation are compared with experimentally-derived estimates. A “best-fit” value of C3 = 1.75, with an approximate uncertainty of ±0.3 is found to minimize the error between the model predictions and the experiments. Using this best-fit value, model length scale behavior corresponds well with that of measured velocity-correlation integral scales during compression. During expansion, the model scale grows too rapidly. Restriction of the model assessment to the expansion stroke suggests that C3 = 0.9 is more appropriate during this period.
Technical Paper

Late-Cycle Turbulence Generation in Swirl-Supported, Direct-Injection Diesel Engines

2002-03-04
2002-01-0891
Cycle-resolved analysis of velocity data obtained in the re-entrant bowl of a fired high-;speed, direct-injection diesel engine, demonstrates an unambiguous, approximately 100% increase in late-cycle turbulence levels over the levels measured during motored operation. Model predictions of the flow field, obtained employing RNG k-ε turbulence modeling in KIVA-3V, do not capture this increased turbulence. A combined experimental and computational approach is taken to identify the source of this turbulence. The results indicate that the dominant source of the increased turbulence is associated with the formation of an unstable distribution of mean angular momentum, characterized by a negative radial gradient. The importance of this source of flow turbulence has not previously been recognized for engine flows. The enhanced late-cycle turbulence is found to be very sensitive to the flow swirl level.
Technical Paper

The Evolution of Flow Structures and Turbulence in a Fired HSDI Diesel Engine

2001-09-24
2001-01-3501
In-cylinder fluid velocity is measured in an optically accessible, fired HSDI engine at idle. The velocity field is also calculated, including the full induction stroke, using multi-dimensional fluid dynamics and combustion simulation models. A detailed comparison between the measured and calculated velocities is performed to validate the computed results and to gain a physical understanding of the flow evolution. Motored measurements are also presented, to clarify the effects of the fuel injection process and combustion on the velocity field evolution. The calculated mean in-cylinder angular momentum (swirl ratio) and mean flow structures prior to injection agree well with the measurements. Modification of the mean flow by fuel injection and combustion is also well captured.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection and Mean Swirl Effects on Combustion and Soot Formation in Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-0912
High-speed video imaging in a swirl-supported (Rs = 1.7), direct-injection heavy-duty diesel engine operated with moderate-to-high EGR rates reveals a distinct correlation between the spatial distribution of luminous soot and mean flow vorticity in the horizontal plane. The temporal behavior of the experimental images, as well as the results of multi-dimensional numerical simulations, show that this soot-vorticity correlation is caused by the presence of a greater amount of soot on the windward side of the jet. The simulations indicate that while flow swirl can influence pre-ignition mixing processes as well as post-combustion soot oxidation processes, interactions between the swirl and the heat release can also influence mixing processes. Without swirl, combustion-generated gas flows influence mixing on both sides of the jet equally. In the presence of swirl, the heat release occurs on the leeward side of the fuel sprays.
Technical Paper

2-Color Thermometry Experiments and High-Speed Imaging of Multi-Mode Diesel Engine Combustion

2005-10-24
2005-01-3842
Although in-cylinder optical diagnostics have provided significant understanding of conventional diesel combustion, most alternative combustion strategies have not yet been explored to the same extent. In an effort to build the knowledge base for alternative low-temperature combustion strategies, this paper presents a comparison of three alternative low-temperature combustion strategies to two high-temperature conventional diesel combustion conditions. The baseline conditions, representative of conventional high-temperature diesel combustion, have either a short or a long ignition delay. The other three conditions are representative of some alternative combustion strategies, employing significant charge-gas dilution along with either early or late fuel injection, or a combination of both (double-injection).
Technical Paper

The Effect of Swirl Ratio and Fuel Injection Parameters on CO Emission and Fuel Conversion Efficiency for High-Dilution, Low-Temperature Combustion in an Automotive Diesel Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0197
Engine-out CO emission and fuel conversion efficiency were measured in a highly-dilute, low-temperature diesel combustion regime over a swirl ratio range of 1.44-7.12 and a wide range of injection timing. At fixed injection timing, an optimal swirl ratio for minimum CO emission and fuel consumption was found. At fixed swirl ratio, CO emission and fuel consumption generally decreased as injection timing was advanced. Moreover, a sudden decrease in CO emission was observed at early injection timings. Multi-dimensional numerical simulations, pressure-based measurements of ignition delay and apparent heat release, estimates of peak flame temperature, imaging of natural combustion luminosity and spray/wall interactions, and Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) measurements of in-cylinder turbulence levels are employed to clarify the sources of the observed behavior.
Technical Paper

Study of Diesel Engine Size-Scaling Relationships Based on Turbulence and Chemistry Scales

2008-04-14
2008-01-0955
Engine design is a time consuming process in which many costly experimental tests are usually conducted. With increasing prediction ability of engine simulation tools, engine design aided by CFD software is being given more attention by both industry and academia. It is also of much interest to be able to use design information gained from an existing engine design of one size in the design of engines of other sizes to reduce design time and costs. Therefore it is important to study size-scaling relationships for engines over wide range of operating conditions. This paper presents CFD studies conducted for two production diesel engines - a light-duty GM-Fiat engine (0.5L displacement) and a heavy-duty Caterpillar engine (2.5L displacement). Previously developed scaling arguments, including an equal spray penetration scaling model and an extended, equal flame lift-off length scaling model were employed to explore the parametric scaling connections between the two engines.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Injection Rate Shape Using Active Control of Fuel Injection

2004-03-08
2004-01-0530
The effect of injection rate shape on spray evolution and emission characteristics is investigated and a methodology for active control of fuel injection is proposed. Extensive validation of advanced vaporization and primary jet breakup models was performed with experimental data before studying the effects of systematic changes of injection rate shape. Excellent agreement with the experiments was obtained for liquid and vapor penetration lengths, over a broad range of gas densities and temperatures. Also the predicted flame lift-off lengths of reacting diesel fuel sprays were in good agreement with the experiments. After the validation of the models, well-defined rate shapes were used to study the effect of injection rate shape on liquid and vapor penetration, flame lift-off lengths and emission characteristics.
Technical Paper

Assessment of RNG Turbulence Modeling and the Development of a Generalized RNG Closure Model

2011-04-12
2011-01-0829
RNG k-ε closure turbulence dissipation equations are evaluated employing the CFD code KIVA-3V Release 2. The numerical evaluations start by considering simple jet flows, including incompressible air jets and compressible helium jets. The results show that the RNG closure turbulence model predicts lower jet tip penetration than the "standard" k-ε model, as well as being lower than experimental data. The reason is found to be that the turbulence kinetic energy is dissipated too slowly in the downstream region near the jet nozzle exit. In this case, the over-predicted R term in RNG model becomes a sink of dissipation in the ε-equation. As a second step, the RNG turbulence closure dissipation models are further tested in complex engine flows to compare against the measured evolution of turbulence kinetic energy, and an estimate of its dissipation rate, during both the compression and expansion processes.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation on Spray Mixing and Combustion Characteristics for Spray C/D Nozzles in a Constant Pressure Vessel

2018-09-10
2018-01-1783
The Engine Combustion Network (ECN) is a coordinate effort from research partners from all over the world which aims at creating a large experimental database to validate CFD calculations. Two injectors from ECN, namely Spray C and D, have been compared in a constant pressure flow vessel, which enables a field of view of more than 100 mm. Both nozzles have been designed with similar flow metrics, with Spray D having a convergent hole shape and Spray C a cylindrical one, the latter being therefore more prone to cavitation. Although the focus of the study is on reacting conditions, some inert cases have also been measured. High speed schlieren imaging, OH* chemiluminescence visualization and head-on broadband luminosity have been used as combustion diagnostics to evaluate ignition delay, lift off length and reacting tip penetration. Parametric variations include ambient temperature, oxygen content and injection pressure variations.
Technical Paper

Intake Flow Simulation and Comparison with PTV Measurements

1999-03-01
1999-01-0176
Intake flow simulations were carried out for a prototype DISI engine using the standard k-ε model and the RNG k-ε model. The results were compared with PTV (transient water analog) measurements. The study was focused on low load operations with engine speed at 400 rev/min. Two cases were studied, a single intake case in which one intake port was blocked and a dual intake port case. In the computations, the results show that the standard k-ε model tends to produce higher turbulence levels when turbulence is generated and decays faster when turbulence dissipates. Different turbulence models predict almost the same flow structures. However, the effects of the turbulence model on the predicted tumble and swirl ratios are significant. The TKE distributions at BDC predicted by the two models are also different. The standard k-ε model seems to be more diffusive. Good agreements with PTV data were obtained in the single valve case with the RNG k-ε model.
Technical Paper

Effects of Initial Conditions in Multidimensional Combustion Simulations of HSDI Diesel Engines

1999-03-01
1999-01-1180
The effects of numerical methodology in defining the initial conditions and simulating the compression stroke in D.I. diesel engine CFD computations are studied. Lumped and pointwise approaches were adopted in assigning the initial conditions at IVC. The lumped approach was coupled with a two-dimensional calculation of the compression stroke. The pointwise methodology was based on the results of an unsteady calculation of the intake stroke performed by using the STAR-CD code in the realistic engine and port geometry. Full engine and 60 deg. sector meshes were used in the compression stroke calculations in order to check the accuracy of the commonly applied axi-symmetric fluid dynamics assumption. Analysis of the evolution of the main fluid dynamics parameters revealed that local conditions at the time of injection strongly depend on the numerical procedure adopted.
Technical Paper

Studying the Roles of Kinetics and Turbulence in the Simulation of Diesel Combustion by Means of an Extended Characteristic-Time-Model

1999-03-01
1999-01-1177
A study was performed that takes into account both turbulence and chemical kinetic effects in the numerical simulation of diesel engine combustion in order to better understand the importance of their respective roles at changing operating conditions. An approach was developed which combines the simplicity and low computational and storage requests of the laminar-and-turbulent characteristic-time model with a detailed combustion chemistry model based on well-known simplified mechanisms. Assuming appropriate simplifications such as steady state or equilibrium for most of the radicals and intermediate species, the kinetics of hydrocarbons can be described by means of three overall steps. This approach was integrated in the KIVA-II code. The concept was validated and applied to a single-cylinder, heavy-duty engine. The simulation covers a wide range of operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Pressure-Swirl Atomization in the Near Field

1999-03-01
1999-01-0496
To model sprays from pressure-swirl atomizers, the connection between the injector and the downstream spray must be considered. A new model for pressure-swirl atomizers is presented which assumes little knowledge of the internal details of the injector, but instead uses available observations of external spray characteristics. First, a correlation for the exit velocity at the injector exit is used to define the liquid film thickness. Next, the film must be modeled as it becomes a thin, liquid sheet and breaks up, forming ligaments and droplets. A linearized instability analysis of the breakup of a viscous, liquid sheet is used as part of the spray boundary condition. The spray angle is estimated from spray photographs and patternator data. A mass averaged spray angle is calculated from the patternator data and used in some of the calculations.
Technical Paper

Scaling Aspects of the Characteristic Time Combustion Model in the Simulation of Diesel Engines

1999-03-01
1999-01-1175
Combustion simulations utilizing the characteristic time combustion model have been performed for four DI diesel engines ranging in size from heavy-duty to large-bore designs. It has been found that the pre-factor to the turbulent characteristic time acts as a scaling parameter between the engines. This phenomenon is explained in terms of the non-equilibrium behavior of the turbulent time and length scales, as is encountered in the rapidly distorting, spray-induced flows of DI diesel engines. In fact, the equilibrium assumption between turbulence production and dissipation, which forms the basis for the employed k-ε-type turbulence models, does not hold in these situations. For such flows, the real turbulent dissipation time scale is locally proportional to the turbulent characteristic time scale which is determined by a typical eddy turnover time.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Vortex Center Location Algorithms for Particle Image Velocimetry Data in an Optical Light-Duty Compression Ignition Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0209
Ever decreasing permitted emission levels and the necessity of more efficient engines demand a better understanding of in-cylinder phenomena. In swirl-supported compression ignition (CI) engines, mean in-cylinder flow structures formed during the intake stroke deeply influence mixture preparation prior to combustion, heat transfer and pollutant oxidation all of which could potentially improve engine performance. Therefore, the ability to characterize these mean flow structures is relevant for achieving performance improvements. CI mean flow structure is mainly described by a precessing vortex. The location of the vortex center is key for the characterization of the flow structure. Consequently, this work aims at evaluating algorithms that allow for the location of the vortex center both, in ensemble-averaged velocity fields and in instantaneous velocity fields.
Technical Paper

Non-Equilibrium Turbulence Considerations for Combustion Processes in the Simulation of DI Diesel Engines

2000-03-06
2000-01-0586
A correction for the turbulence dissipation, based on non-equilibrium turbulence considerations from rapid distortion theory, has been derived and implemented in combination with the RNG k - ε model in a KIVA-based code. This model correction has been tested and compared with the standard RNG k - ε model for the compression and the combustion phase of two heavy duty DI diesel engines. The turbulence behavior in the compression phase shows clear improvements over the standard RNG k - ε model computations. In particular, the macro length scale is consistent with the corresponding time scale and with the turbulent kinetic energy over the entire compression phase. The combustion computations have been performed with the characteristic time combustion model. With this dissipation correction no additional adjustments of the turbulent characteristic time model constant were necessary in order to match experimental cylinder pressures and heat release rates of the two engines.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Measurement and Modeling of Liquid Fuel Spray Penetration in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

1997-05-01
971591
Liquid fuel penetration was measured using an endoscopebased imaging system in an operating single-cylinder heavy-duty direct injection diesel engine with simulated turbocharging. Sprays were imaged via the elastic backscatter technique without significantly altering the engine geometry. Light loads (or pilot injections) were also studied because the spray breakup, mixing and vaporization processes can be isolated since they are less influenced by heat feedback from the flame than in a full injection case. The pilot injections included cases with three different fuel amounts (10%, 15% and 20% of the fuel injected in the baseline case, i.e., 75% load and 1600 rev/min) with different start-of-injection timings. Maximum liquid penetration lengths beyond which the fuel is completely vaporized were observed for all the cases studied. The maximum lengths varied from 23 mm to 28 mm for the different start-of-injection timings.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Spray Evaporation and Mixing Using Blends of Commercial Gasoline and Diesel Fuels in Engine-Like Conditions

2017-03-28
2017-01-0843
Recent studies have shown that the use of highly premixed dual fuel combustion reduces pollutant emissions and fuel consumption in CI engines. The most common strategy for dual fueling is to use two injection systems. Port fuel injection for low reactivity fuel and direct injection for high reactivity fuel. This strategy implies some severe shortcomings for its real implementation in passenger cars such as the use of two fuel tanks. In this sense, the use of a single injection system for dual fueling could solve this drawback trying to maintain pollutant and efficiency benefits. Nonetheless, when single injection system is used, the spray characteristics become an essential issue. In this work the fundamental characteristics of dual-fuel sprays with a single injection system under non-evaporating engine-like conditions are presented.
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