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Technical Paper

Experimental Assessment of Reynolds-Averaged Dissipation Modeling in Engine Flows

2007-09-16
2007-24-0046
The influence of the constant C3, which multiplies the mean flow divergence term in the model equation for the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation, is examined in a motored diesel engine for three different swirl ratios and three different spatial locations. Predicted temporal histories of turbulence energy and its dissipation are compared with experimentally-derived estimates. A “best-fit” value of C3 = 1.75, with an approximate uncertainty of ±0.3 is found to minimize the error between the model predictions and the experiments. Using this best-fit value, model length scale behavior corresponds well with that of measured velocity-correlation integral scales during compression. During expansion, the model scale grows too rapidly. Restriction of the model assessment to the expansion stroke suggests that C3 = 0.9 is more appropriate during this period.
Technical Paper

Physical Properties of Bio-Diesel and Implications for Use of Bio-Diesel in Diesel Engines

2007-10-29
2007-01-4030
In this study we identify components of a typical biodiesel fuel and estimate both their individual and mixed thermo-physical and transport properties. We then use the estimated mixture properties in computational simulations to gauge the extent to which combustion is modified when biodiesel is substituted for conventional diesel fuel. Our simulation studies included both conventional diesel combustion (DI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI). Preliminary results indicate that biodiesel ignition is significantly delayed due to slower liquid evaporation, with the effects being more pronounced for DI than PCCI. The lower vapor pressure and higher liquid heat capacity of biodiesel are two key contributors to this slower rate of evaporation. Other physical properties are more similar between the two fuels, and their impacts are not clearly evident in the present study.
Technical Paper

Late-Cycle Turbulence Generation in Swirl-Supported, Direct-Injection Diesel Engines

2002-03-04
2002-01-0891
Cycle-resolved analysis of velocity data obtained in the re-entrant bowl of a fired high-;speed, direct-injection diesel engine, demonstrates an unambiguous, approximately 100% increase in late-cycle turbulence levels over the levels measured during motored operation. Model predictions of the flow field, obtained employing RNG k-ε turbulence modeling in KIVA-3V, do not capture this increased turbulence. A combined experimental and computational approach is taken to identify the source of this turbulence. The results indicate that the dominant source of the increased turbulence is associated with the formation of an unstable distribution of mean angular momentum, characterized by a negative radial gradient. The importance of this source of flow turbulence has not previously been recognized for engine flows. The enhanced late-cycle turbulence is found to be very sensitive to the flow swirl level.
Technical Paper

The Evolution of Flow Structures and Turbulence in a Fired HSDI Diesel Engine

2001-09-24
2001-01-3501
In-cylinder fluid velocity is measured in an optically accessible, fired HSDI engine at idle. The velocity field is also calculated, including the full induction stroke, using multi-dimensional fluid dynamics and combustion simulation models. A detailed comparison between the measured and calculated velocities is performed to validate the computed results and to gain a physical understanding of the flow evolution. Motored measurements are also presented, to clarify the effects of the fuel injection process and combustion on the velocity field evolution. The calculated mean in-cylinder angular momentum (swirl ratio) and mean flow structures prior to injection agree well with the measurements. Modification of the mean flow by fuel injection and combustion is also well captured.
Technical Paper

High-Pressure Spray and Combustion Modeling Using Continuous Thermodynamics for Diesel Fuels

2001-03-05
2001-01-0998
Practical diesel fuel sprays under high-pressure conditions were investigated by using multidimensional modeling combined with continuous thermodynamics and high-pressure multicomponent fuel vaporization models. Transport equations, which are general for the moments of the distributions and independent of the distribution function, are derived for the continuous system consisting of the both gas and liquid phases. A general treatment of the vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) is conducted, and the Peng-Robinson Equation of State (EOS) is used to find the surface equilibrium composition. Relations for the properties of the continuous species are formulated. The KH-RT model is used for spray breakup prediction. The fuel droplets are assumed to be well mixed with uniform temperature and composition within each droplet. The turbulent flow field is calculated using the RNG k -ε turbulence model.
Technical Paper

Multidimensional Simulation of PCCI Combustion Using Gasoline and Dual-Fuel Direct Injection with Detailed Chemical Kinetics

2007-04-16
2007-01-0190
Homogeneous or partially premixed charge compression ignition combustion is considered to be an attractive alternative to traditional internal combustion engine operation because of its extremely low levels of pollutant emissions. However, since it is difficult to control the start of combustion timing, direct injection of fuel into the combustion chamber is often used for combustion phasing control, as well as charge preparation. In this paper, numerical simulations of compression ignition processes using gasoline fuel directly injected using a low pressure, hollow cone injector are presented. The multi-dimensional CFD code, KIVA3V, that incorporates various advanced sub-models and is coupled with CHEMKIN for modeling detailed chemistry, was used for the study. Simulation results of the spray behavior at various injection conditions were validated with available experimental data.
Technical Paper

The Use of Variable Geometry Sprays With Low Pressure Injection for Optimization of Diesel HCCI Engine Combustion

2005-04-11
2005-01-0148
A numerical study of the effects of injection parameters and operating conditions for diesel-fuel HCCI operation is presented with consideration of Variable Geometry Sprays (VGS). Methods of mixture preparation are explored that overcome one of the major problems in HCCI engine operation with diesel fuel and conventional direct injection systems, i.e., fuel loss due to wall impingement and the resulting unburned fuel. Low pressure injection of hollow cone sprays into the cylinder of a production engine with the spray cone angle changing during the injection period were simulated using the multi-dimensional KIVA-3V CFD code with detailed chemistry. Variation of the starting and ending spray angles, injection timing, initial cylinder pressure and temperature, swirl intensity, and compression ratio were explored. As a simplified case of VGS, two-pulse, hollow-cone sprays were also simulated.
Technical Paper

Study of Diesel Engine Size-Scaling Relationships Based on Turbulence and Chemistry Scales

2008-04-14
2008-01-0955
Engine design is a time consuming process in which many costly experimental tests are usually conducted. With increasing prediction ability of engine simulation tools, engine design aided by CFD software is being given more attention by both industry and academia. It is also of much interest to be able to use design information gained from an existing engine design of one size in the design of engines of other sizes to reduce design time and costs. Therefore it is important to study size-scaling relationships for engines over wide range of operating conditions. This paper presents CFD studies conducted for two production diesel engines - a light-duty GM-Fiat engine (0.5L displacement) and a heavy-duty Caterpillar engine (2.5L displacement). Previously developed scaling arguments, including an equal spray penetration scaling model and an extended, equal flame lift-off length scaling model were employed to explore the parametric scaling connections between the two engines.
Technical Paper

Multidimensional Simulation of the Influence of Fuel Mixture Composition and Injection Timing in Gasoline-Diesel Dual-Fuel Applications

2008-04-14
2008-01-0031
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion is considered to be an attractive alternative to traditional internal combustion engine operation because of its extremely low levels of pollutant emissions. However, there are several difficulties that must be overcome for HCCI practical use, such as difficult ignition timing controllability. Indeed, too early or too late ignition can occur with obvious drawbacks. In addition, the increase in cyclic variation caused by the ignition timing uncertainty can lead to uneven engine operation. As a way to solve the combustion phasing control problem, dual-fuel combustion has been proposed. It consists of a diesel pilot injection used to ignite a pre-mixture of gasoline (or other high octane fuel) and air. Although dual-fuel combustion is an attractive way to achieve controllable HCCI operation, few studies are available to help the understanding of its in-cylinder combustion behavior.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Investigation of Nozzle Geometry and Injection Condition Effects on Diesel Fuel Injector Flow Physics

2008-04-14
2008-01-0936
A three-dimensional homogeneous equilibrium model (HEM) has been developed and implemented into an engine computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code KIVA-3V. The model was applied to simulate cavitating flow within injector nozzle passages. The effects of nozzle passage geometry and injection conditions on the development of cavitation zones and the nozzle discharge coefficient were investigated. Specifically, the effects of nozzle length (L/D ratio), nozzle inlet radius (R/D ratio) and K or KS factor (nozzle passage convergence) were simulated, and the effects of injection and chamber pressures, and time-varying injection pressure were also investigated. These effects are well captured by the nozzle flow model, and the predicted trends are consistent with those from experimental observations and theoretical analyses.
Technical Paper

Effects of Alternative Fuels and Intake Port Geometry on HSDI Diesel Engine Performance and Emissions

2001-03-05
2001-01-0647
This research explored methods to reduce regulated emissions in a small-bore, direct-injection diesel engine. Swirl was used to influence mixing of the spray plumes, and alternative fuels were used to study the effects of oxygenated and water microemulsion diesel fuels on emissions. Air/fuel mixing enhancement was achieved in the running engine by blocking off a percentage of one of the two intake ports. The swirl was characterized at steady-state conditions with a flowbench and swirl meter. Swirl ratios of 1.85, 2.70, and 3.29 were studied in the engine tests at full load with engine speeds of 1303, 1757, and 1906 rev/min. Increased swirl was shown to have negative effects on emissions due to plume-to-plume interactions. Blends of No. 2 diesel and biodiesel were used to investigate the presence of oxygen in the fuel and its effects on regulated emissions. Pure No. 2 diesel fuel, a 15% and a 30% biodiesel blend (by weight) were used.
Technical Paper

Efficient Simulation of Diesel Engine Combustion Using Realistic Chemical Kinetics in CFD

2010-04-12
2010-01-0178
Detailed knowledge of hydrocarbon fuel combustion chemistry has grown tremendously in recent years. However, the gap between detailed chemistry and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) remains, because of the high cost of solving detailed chemistry in a large number of computational cells. This paper presents the results of applying a suite of techniques aimed at closing this gap. The techniques include use of a surrogate blend optimizer and a guided mechanism reduction methodology, as well as advanced methods for efficiently and accurately coupling the pre-reduced kinetic models with the multidimensional transport equations. The advanced methods include dynamic adaptive chemistry (DAC) and dynamic cell clustering (DCC) algorithms.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Diesel Sprays Using an Eulerian-Lagrangian Spray and Atomization (ELSA) Model Coupled with Nozzle Flow

2011-04-12
2011-01-0386
High-pressure diesel sprays were simulated with an Eulerian-Lagrangian Spray and Atomization (ELSA) model, based on a multidimensional engine computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code KIVA-3V. The atomization of the dense liquid core in the near-nozzle region was modeled with turbulent mixing of the diesel fuel with the ambient gas. Under the continuum assumption of a fuel-air mixture in this region, two transport equations were solved for the liquid mass fraction and liquid surface area density. At a certain downstream location where the spray became dilute, a switch from the Eulerian to the Lagrangian approach was made to benefit from the advantages of the conventional Lagrangian droplet models, such as droplet collision and turbulent dispersion modeling. The droplet size and velocity to be initialized at this switch were determined by the local CFD cell properties.
Technical Paper

Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Heavy-Duty Engine Operation at Mid-and High-Loads with Conventional and Alternative Fuels

2011-04-12
2011-01-0363
Engine experiments and multi-dimensional modeling were used to explore Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) to realize highly-efficient combustion with near zero levels of NOx and PM. In-cylinder fuel blending using port-fuel-injection of a low reactivity fuel and optimized direct-injection of higher reactivity fuels was used to control combustion phasing and duration. In addition to injection and operating parameters, the study explored the effect of fuel properties by considering both gasoline-diesel dual-fuel operation, ethanol (E85)-diesel dual fuel operation, and a single fuel gasoline-gasoline+DTBP (di-tert butyl peroxide cetane improver). Remarkably, high gross indicated thermal efficiencies were achieved, reaching 59%, 56%, and 57% for E85-diesel, gasoline-diesel, and gasoline-gasoline+DTBP respectively.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Experiments of Dual-Fuel Engine Combustion and Emissions

2004-03-08
2004-01-0092
The combustion and emissions of a diesel/natural gas dual-fuel engine are studied. Available engine experimental data demonstrates that the dual-fuel configuration provides a potential alternative to diesel engine operation for reducing emissions. The experiments are compared to multi-dimensional model results. The computer code used is based on the KIVA-3V code and consists of updated sub-models to simulate more accurately the fuel spray atomization, auto-ignition, combustion and emissions processes. The model results show that dual-fuel engine combustion and emissions are well predicted by the present multi-dimensional model. Significant reduction in NOx emissions is observed in both the experiments and simulations when natural gas is substituted for diesel fuel. The HC emissions are under predicted by numerical model as the natural gas substitution is increased.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Reduced Reaction Mechanism for HCCI Engine Simulations

2004-03-08
2004-01-0558
A reduced chemical reaction mechanism is developed and validated in the present study for multi-dimensional diesel HCCI engine combustion simulations. The motivation for the development of the reduced mechanism is to enhance the computational efficiency of engine stimulations. The new reduced mechanism was generated starting from an existing n-heptane mechanism (40 species and 165 reactions). The procedure of generating the reduced mechanism included: using SENKIN to produce the ignition delay data and solution files, using XSENKPLOT to analyze the base mechanism and to identify important reactions and species, eliminating unimportant species and reactions, formulating the new reduced mechanism, using the new mechanism to generate ignition delay data, and finally adjusting kinetic constants in the new mechanism to improve ignition delay and engine combustion predictions to account for diesel fuel cetane number and composition effects.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Injection Rate Shape Using Active Control of Fuel Injection

2004-03-08
2004-01-0530
The effect of injection rate shape on spray evolution and emission characteristics is investigated and a methodology for active control of fuel injection is proposed. Extensive validation of advanced vaporization and primary jet breakup models was performed with experimental data before studying the effects of systematic changes of injection rate shape. Excellent agreement with the experiments was obtained for liquid and vapor penetration lengths, over a broad range of gas densities and temperatures. Also the predicted flame lift-off lengths of reacting diesel fuel sprays were in good agreement with the experiments. After the validation of the models, well-defined rate shapes were used to study the effect of injection rate shape on liquid and vapor penetration, flame lift-off lengths and emission characteristics.
Technical Paper

Particle Size and Number Emissions from RCCI with Direct Injections of Two Fuels

2013-04-08
2013-01-1661
Many concepts of premixed diesel combustion at reduced temperatures have been investigated over the last decade as a means to simultaneously decrease engine-out particle and oxide of nitrogen (NO ) emissions. To overcome the trade-off between simultaneously low particle and NO emissions versus high "diesel-like" combustion efficiency, a new dual-fuel technique called Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been researched. In the present study, particle size distributions were measured from RCCI for four gasoline:diesel compositions from 65%:35% to 84%:16%, respectively. Previously, fuel blending (reactivity control) had been carried out by a port fuel injection of the higher volatility fuel and a direct in-cylinder injection of the lower volatility fuel. With a recent mechanical upgrade, it was possible to perform injections of both fuels directly into the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) in a Single-Cylinder Air-Cooled HSDI Diesel Engine

2012-10-23
2012-32-0074
An experimental investigation of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion was conducted in a small single-cylinder HSDI diesel generator engine and compared to standard Direct Injection (DI) diesel combustion to assess the validity of this combustion strategy for high efficiency operation and simultaneous NOx and soot emission reduction in cylinder for this type of engine. A Yanmar L70AE engine was modified from its unit injector mechanical fuel system to operate with a more flexible, electrically controlled common rail DI fuel system in order to achieve the high level of injection event control required for RCCI combustion. RCCI combustion was realized using split, early DI diesel fuel and Port Fuel Injected (PFI) gasoline for 25%, 50% and 75% engine loads (~3, 4.3 and 5.5 bar IMEPn). The effects of intake air temperature, DI injection timing and combustion phasing on engine efficiency, emissions and combustion stability were explored.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of Common Rail, Hydraulically Intensified Diesel Fuel Injection System Concepts and Rate Shapes

1998-08-11
981930
Hydraulically intensified medium pressure common rail (MPCR) electronic fuel injection systems are an attractive concept for heavy-duty diesel engine applications. They offer excellent packaging flexibility and thorough engine management system integration. Two different concepts were evaluated in this study. They are different in how the pressure generation and injection events are related. One used a direct principle, where the high-pressure generation and injection events occur simultaneously producing a near square injection rate profile. Another concept was based on an indirect principle, where potential energy (pressure) is first stored inside a hydraulic accumulator, and then released during injection, as a subsequent event. A falling rate shape is typically produced in this case. A unit pump, where the hydraulic intensifier is separated from the injector by a high-pressure line, and a unit injector design are considered for both concepts.
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