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Technical Paper

The Potential for Achieving Low Hydrocarbon and NOx Exhaust Emissions from Large Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles

2007-04-16
2007-01-1261
Two large, heavy light-duty gasoline vehicles (2004 model year Ford F-150 with a 5.4 liter V8 and GMC Yukon Denali with a 6.0 liter V8) were baselined for emission performance over the FTP driving cycle in their stock configurations. Advanced emission systems were designed for both vehicles employing advanced three-way catalysts, high cell density ceramic substrates, and advanced exhaust system components. These advanced emission systems were integrated on the test vehicles and characterized for low mileage emission performance on the FTP cycle using the vehicle's stock engine calibration and, in the case of the Denali, after modifying the vehicle's stock engine calibration for improved cold-start and hot-start emission performance.
Technical Paper

Alternative EHC Heating Patterns and Their Impact on Cold-Start Emissions Performance

1994-10-01
941996
EHC heating patterns which utilize zones covering less than the available inlet face cross-sectional area have been evaluated for cold-start FTP performance. Both NMHC and CO cold-start emission performance were found to be significantly reduced relative to an EHC-inactive basecase for heating patterns that covered as little as 44% of the cross-section. In low-mileage tests, NMHC and CO cold-start emission dependencies on heating patterns were found to be relatively constant for patterns with heating coverages of 44% or more of the inlet face cross-sectional area. In these low mileage tests, reductions in Bag 1 FTP NMHC and CO emissions averaged about 30% lower with the preferred zoned heating patterns relative to the EHC-inactive basecase. FTP tests run on a similar engine-aged EHC showed less asymptotic dependence on EHC zoned heating strategies.
Technical Paper

High-Temperature Substrates and Washcoats for Auto Exhaust Emission Control

1987-11-01
872131
The performance of a new monolith-type automobile exhaust catalyst is described. The catalyst under development employs a high-melting ceramic substrate (with about 200°C margin over cordierite). The washcoat's performance was found to be sufficient to permit a reduction of the catalyst's volume by about 30% while still showing competitive performance versus a full-size commercial catalyst. Engine dynamometer and vehicle emission test data are discussed for illustration. The new ceramic has a higher density than cordierite; the paper discusses the effects of catalyst density on emission performance in the heat-up and cool-down portions of emission cycles. The results show no density penalty in FTP tests with the new ceramic.
Technical Paper

Electrically Heated Metal Substrate Durability

1991-02-01
910613
Emission performance of an electrically heated catalytic converter is presented for both low-mileage tests and after exhaust aging using a 300 h dynamometer schedule. The aged converter system maintained its ability to significantly reduce cold start hydrocarbon and CO emissions on a late model gasoline-fueled passenger car. In these tests HC and CO emissions were reduced by 76% and 92%, respectively, during the first 140 seconds of the FTP urban driving cycle by operating the aged converter with resistance heating and air injection, in comparison to operation of the same aged converter in an unheated configuration. These reductions for heated operation versus unheated operation were comparable to the 80% HC and 96% CO cold start emission reductions observed in low-mileage testing of the same converter.
Technical Paper

DATA ANALYSIS OF INDEPENDENTLY RUN EHC PROGRAMS

1992-02-01
920850
In the last several years, there have been a number of independently run research programs evaluating the effects of electrically-heated catalysts (EHCs) on exhaust emissions from gasoline-fueled light-duty passenger vehicles. This paper “pools” data from several of these programs to determine the fleet effect by statistical methods. Evaluation of the overall data set from the eight car fleet indicates a very large reduction in total hydrocarbon (THC) and carbon monoxide (CO) but an accompanying increase (appreciably smaller in magnitude) in oxides of nitrogen (NOx). A follow-up program is under way to examine fuel sensitivity issues.
Technical Paper

Electrically Heated Catalysts and Reformulated Gasolines

1993-03-01
930385
A 1991 Volvo model 960 equipped with an electrically heated catalytic converter system (EHC) was evaluated in multiple FTP tests with three different gasolines: current certification fuel, the Auto/Oil industry average fuel (RF-A), and a fuel that meets the 1996 California Phase II reformulated gasoline standards. Tests of each fuel were run with a low-mileage EHC located upstream of either a low-mileage stock main converter or a stock converter that had been road aged for 100,000 miles under European driving conditions. Test results with EHC operation showed significant variations in NMHC, CO, and NOX emissions with the three test fuels. NMHC emissions were 2-2.5 times lower for the Phase II fuel versus RF-A, with the certification fuel intermediate in NMHC emissions. Tests with the EHC/high-mileage converter system exhibited higher overall FTP emissions compared to the EHC/low-mileage main converter system, as expected.
Technical Paper

Achieving Near - Zero Emissions on Light - Duty Gasoline Vehicles

2003-01-18
2003-26-0001
The integration of advanced emission control technologies including advanced three-way catalysts and advanced, high cell density, ultra-thin wall substrates with advanced gasoline powertrains and advanced engine controls is necessary to achieve near-zero tailpipe emission requirements like California's SULEV or PZEV light-duty certification categories. The first gasoline vehicles meeting these near-zero regulations have been introduced in California in 2001. Advanced three-way catalysts targeted for these near-zero regulations feature layered architectures, thermally stable oxygen storage components and segregated precious metal impregnation strategies. Engine calibration strategies focused on tight stoichiometric air/fuel control and fast catalyst heat-up immediately after engine start are important enablers to achieve near-zero hydrocarbon and NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

EHC Impact on Extended Hot Soak Periods

1995-10-01
952418
Emission performance of a late model vehicle equipped with an electrically-heated catalytic converter (EHC) system was evaluated after extended vehicle soak periods that ranged from 30 to 180 minutes. As soak periods lengthened, NMHC and CO emissions measured in hot transient driving cycles increased by 125 percent and 345 percent, respectively. These tests were baseline operations which had no resistance heating or secondary air injection to the converter system. Sources of increased NMHC and CO emissions as a function of vehicle soak time were both the converter system cool-down characteristics and engine restart calibration strategy. For soak periods of 30 and 60 minutes, EHC resistance heating without secondary air injection resulted in large improvements in NMHC and CO emission performance (i.e., 74 percent and 54 percent lower NMHC emissions versus no heat, no air operation after a 30- and 60-minute period, respectively).
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects on Emissions from an Advanced Technology Vehicle

1992-10-01
922245
A 1991 Toyota Camry equipped with an electrically-heated catalyst (EHC) system was evaluated in duplicate over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) with three different fuels. Evaluations were conducted with the EHC in place but without any external heating, and with the EHC operated with a post-crank heating strategy. The EHC system was placed immediately upstream of an original production catalyst, which was then moved to a location 40.6 cm from the exhaust manifold. The three test fuels were: 1) the Auto/Oil industry average gasoline, RF-A; 2) a fuel meeting California's Phase II gasoline specifications; and 3) a paraffinic test fuel. Non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emission rates with the EHC active were similiar with all three fuels, with absolute levels less than or equal to California's 50,000 mile Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV) standard. Substantial differences, however were observed in the ozone forming potential of these fuels with the EHC active.
Technical Paper

Pushing the Envelope to Near-Zero Emissions on Light-duty Gasoline Vehicles

2001-03-05
2001-01-3840
The integration of advanced emission control technologies including advanced three-way catalysts and advanced, high cell density, ultra-thin wall substrates with advanced gasoline powertrains and advanced engine controls is necessary to achieve near-zero tailpipe emission requirements like California's SULEV or PZEV light-duty certification categories. The first gasoline vehicles meeting these near-zero regulations have been introduced in California in 2001. Advanced three-way catalysts targeted for these near-zero regulations feature layered architectures, thermally stable oxygen storage components, and segregated precious metal impregnation strategies. Engine calibration strategies focused on tight stoichiometric air/fuel control and fast catalyst heat-up immediately after engine start are important enablers to achieve near-zero hydrocarbon and NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Development of Non-Nickel Additives for Reducing Hydrogen Sulfide Emissions from Three-way Catalysts

1989-09-01
892095
Under certain operating conditions, automotive three-way catalysts can form hydrogen sulfide in concentrations sufficient to produce an offensive odor. Several additives from the ferrite group of compounds (M2+Fe2O4 where M = Ni, Co, Zn, Cu) have been determined to effectively reduce hydrogen sulfide emissions from three-way catalyst washcoats in laboratory tests. No alterations in the chemistry of the catalyst are required, and no detrimental effect on three-way activity is observed.
Technical Paper

EHC Design Options and Performance

1996-02-01
960341
Engine-aged EHC integrated cascades with equivalent overall volumes and several different design features were evaluated for FTP emission performance on a late-model V6 test vehicle. Design options evaluated included low and high cell densities (160 cpsi vs. 400 cpsi, a non-straight flow channel geometry (160 cpsi), and several low-power, zoned heating strategies (all with 160 cpsi). Cold-start hydrocarbon emission performance for the aged low cell density, high cell density, and non-straight channel designs (all with full face heating strategies) were found to be equivalent in the under-floor location used on the test vehicle in this program.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Emission Performance with an Electrically Heated Converter System

1991-10-01
912385
A 1990 Olds Cutlass Calais with GM's Quad-4 engine was outfitted with a Camet® EHC system and tested for FTP emission performance after 4000 road miles. EHC operation on this vehicle reduced NMHC and CO F17P emissions by 77% and 67%, respectively, versus the vehicle's stock catalyst configuration. Absolute NHMC and CO FTP emissions were below California's ULEV 50,000 mile standards with EHC operation. EHC heating strategy tests showed that a post-engine start heating schedule was nearly as effective as a pre-start heating schedule in reducing cold start hydrocarbon and CO emissions. Tests comparing vehicle and emission performance with different engine control parameters indicated no change in EHC effectiveness with respect to cold start emissions for the two calibrations evaluated here.
Technical Paper

Metal Converter Technology Using Precoated Metal Foil

1996-10-01
962080
A novel process for coating and assembling metal converters utilizing precoated foil as building blocks has been developed which yields a converter capable of withstanding typical industry specified hot vibration protocols. The precoating process used here results in uniform catalyst coating distributions with coating adhesion to the foil on a par with the coatings' adhesion to ceramic substrates. FTP and MVEG vehicle emission performance of this unique precoated metal converter design versus a more conventional dip-coated metal monolith (parts with the same volume, cell density, and tri-metal catalyst coating), exhibited improved catalyst emission breakthrough efficiencies with respect to HC, CO, and NOx after two different engine-aging protocols. These advantages were observed on three different test vehicles across most phases of these driving cycles.
Technical Paper

Performance of a NOx Adsorber Catalyst/Diesel Particle Filter System for a Heavy-Duty Engine During a 2000-Hour Endurance Test

2005-04-11
2005-01-1760
In this study, a 15-L heavy-duty diesel engine and an emission control system consisting of diesel oxidation catalysts, NOx adsorber catalysts, and diesel particle filters were evaluated over the course of a 2000 hour aging study. The work is a follow-on to a previously documented development effort to establish system regeneration and sulfur management strategies. The study is one of five projects being conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Petroleum Based Fuels - Diesel Emission Control (APBF-DEC) activity. The primary objective of the study was to determine if the significant NOx and PM reduction efficiency (>90%) demonstrated in the development work could be maintained over time with a 15-ppm sulfur diesel fuel. The study showed that high NOx reduction efficiency can be restored after 2000 hours of operation and 23 desulfation cycles.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects on Emissions from an Advanced Technology Vehicle, Part II

1994-03-01
940783
A 1991 Toyota Camry equipped with an electrically-heated catalyst/light-off converter system was evaluated for emissions in duplicate over the light-duty Federal Test Procedure (FTP) with three different fuels. Evaluations were conducted with the electrically heated catalyst (EHC) in place, both without any external heating and with the EHC operated using a post-crank heating strategy The EHC system was placed immediately upstream of an original production catalyst which was located 40.6 cm from the exhaust manifold. The three test fuels were: 1) a fuel meeting California's Phase II gasoline specifications; 2) a low-sulfur (48 ppm) version of the Auto/Oil industry average gasoline; and 3) the Auto/Oil industry average gasoline, RF-A. On average, NMOG emissions and the ozone forming potential of the exhaust hydrocarbons exhibited the following trend for tests run in unheated and EHC-active modes: Phase II < low-sulfur RF-A < RF-A.
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