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Technical Paper

Curved Beam Based Model for Piston-Ring Designs in Internal Combustion Engines: Working Engine Conditions Study

2018-04-03
2018-01-1277
A new multi-scale curved beam based model was developed for piston-ring designs. This tool is able to characterize the behavior of a ring with any cross section design. This paper describes the conformability and ring static twist calculation. The conformability part model the static behavior of the ring in working engine conditions. The model employs the computation scheme that separates the meshing of the structure and local force generation. Additional to the conventional static ring-bore conformability analysis, the conformability model is designed to examine ring-bore and ring-groove interactions in a running engine under varying driving forces and localized lubrication conditions. We made Improvements on the way to handle the effects of the radial temperature gradient compared to the existing models. Examples are given on the effects of ring rotation on the interaction of the ring and a distorted bore as well as the change of local lubrication conditions.
Technical Paper

Curved Beam Based Model for Piston-Ring Designs in Internal Combustion Engines: Closed Shape Within a Flexible Band, Free-Shape and Force in Circular Bore Study

2018-04-03
2018-01-1279
A new multi-scale curved beam based model was developed for piston-ring designs. This paper describes the free-shape, force in circular bore and closed shape within a flexible band (ovality) related parts. Knowing any one of these distributions, this model determines the other two. This tool is useful in the sense that the characterization of the ring is carried out by measuring its closed shape within a flexible band which is more accurate than measuring its free shape or force distribution in circular bore. Thus, having a model that takes the closed shape within a flexible band as an input is more convenient and useful based on the experiments carried out to characterize the ring.
Technical Paper

Reliable Processes of Simulating Liner Roughness and Its Lubrication Properties

2019-04-02
2019-01-0178
Topology of liner finish is critical to the performance of internal combustion engines. Proper liner finish simulation processes lead to efficient engine design and research. Fourier methods have been well studied to numerically generate liner topology. However, three major issues wait to be addressed to make the generation processes feasible and reliable. First, in order to simulate real plateau honed liners, approaches should be developed to calculate accurate liner geometric parameters. These parameters are served as the input of the generation algorithm. Material ratio curve, the common geometry calculation method, should be modified so that accurate root mean square of plateau height distribution could be obtained. Second, the set of geometric parameters used in generating liner finish (ISO 13565-2) is different from the set of parameters used in manufacturing industry (ISO 13565-3). Quantitative relations between these two sets should be studied.
Technical Paper

Introducing a New Piston Skirt Profile to Reduce Engine Friction

2016-04-05
2016-01-1046
The piston’s skirt shape is a key design parameter since it critically influences lateral displacement, tilting movement, oil transport and consequently engine performances. This study proposes an alternative skirt profile that aims to reduce frictional losses between the piston and cylinder liner. Qualitatively, the proposed profile, aims to reduce solid-to-solid contact friction by increasing the total hydrodynamic forces generated on the skirt to balance side forces, and to prevent both sides of the skirt to interact with the liner simultaneously. The new skirt’s profile has been first studied and optimized using a piston secondary motion model and then prototyped and tested on a floating liner test bench, showing a 12% average reduction in total piston FMEP.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of Piston Skirt Roughness and Profiles on Piston Friction Using the Floating Liner Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-1043
The piston skirt is an important contributor of friction in the piston assembly. This paper discusses friction contributions from various aspects of the piston skirt. A brief study of piston skirt patterns is presented, with little gains being made by patterning the piston skirt coating. Next the roughness of the piston skirt coating is analyzed, and results show that reducing piston skirt roughness can have positive effects on friction reduction. Finally, an introductory study into the profile of the piston skirt is presented, with the outcome being that friction reduction is possible by optimizing the skirt profile.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Oil Transport between Piston Skirt and Cylinder Liner in Internal Combustion Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0590
The distribution of lubricating oil plays a critical role in determining the friction between piston skirt and cylinder liner, which is one of the major contributors to the total friction loss in internal combustion engines. In this work, based upon the experimental observation an existing model for the piston secondary motion and skirt lubrication was improved with a physics-based model describing the oil film separation from full film to partial film. Then the model was applied to a modern turbo-charged SI engine. The piston-skirt FMEP predicted by the model decreased with larger installation clearance, which was also observed from the measurements using IMEP method at the rated. It was found that the main period of the cycle exhibiting friction reduction is in the expansion stroke when the skirt only contacts the thrust side for all tested installation clearances.
Technical Paper

Development of a High Speed Laser Induced Fluorescence (HSLIF) System in a Single Cylinder Engine for Oil Transport Studies

2016-04-05
2016-01-0642
Understanding oil transport mechanisms is critical to developing better tools for oil consumption and piston skirt lubrication [1]. Our existing Two-Dimensional Laser Induced Fluorescence (2DLIF) system with an acquisition rate of 1 frame every one or two cycles was proven to be effective to display oil accumulation patterns and their evolution over many cycles in the piston ring pack system [2,3,4]. Yet, the existing system is unable to resolve instantaneous oil flow patterns in the piston-liner interface. In this work, a high-speed LIF system was developed. After a number of iterations the finalized high speed LIF system includes a 23 W, 100 kHz, 532 nm laser and a high speed camera capable of 100,000 FPS at 384 × 264 pixel resolution. After each component was selected, optimization of the quality of images taken from the system began.
Technical Paper

A Deterministic Model for Lubricant Transport within Complex Geometry under Sliding Contact and its Application in the Interaction between the Oil Control Ring and Rough Liner in Internal Combustion Engines

2008-06-23
2008-01-1615
A general deterministic hydrodynamic lubrication model [1] was modified to study the interaction between a Twin Land Oil Control Ring (TLOCR) and a liner with cross-hatch liner finish. Efforts were made to customize the general model to simulate the particular sliding condition of TLOCR/liner interaction with proper boundary conditions. The results show that model is consistent, robust, and efficient. The lubricant mass conservation was justified and discussed. Then analysis was conducted on the lubricant transport between the deep grooves/valleys and plateau part of the surface to illustrate the importance of deep grooves in oil supply to the plateau part and hydrodynamic pressure generation. Furthermore, since the TLOCR land running surface is completely flat and parallel to the nominal liner axis, the liner finish micro geometry is fully responsible for the hydrodynamic pressure rise, which was found to be sufficient to support significant portion of the total ring radial load.
Technical Paper

The Influences of Cylinder Liner Honing Patterns and Oil Control Ring Design Parameters on the Interaction between the Twinland Oil Control Ring and the Cylinder Liner in Internal Combustion Engines

2008-06-23
2008-01-1614
This paper discusses the influences of several cylinder liner honing surface geometrical features on the interaction between the piston twin land oil control ring (TLOCR) and the cylinder liner by using the deterministic hydrodynamic model [1] and the twin land oil control ring model [2]. Additionally, the key design parameters of the TLOCR, including ring tension and land axial width are studied. The results show significant effects of three liner honing surface features beyond height distribution, including plateau wavelength, groove density and honing angle in hydrodynamic pressure generation. The study in oil control ring design parameters reveals that both ring tension and land axial width have important influences on friction and oil consumption, and their competing effects are discussed subsequently.
Technical Paper

A Novel Approach to Model the Lubrication and Friction between the Twin-Land Oil Control Ring and Liner with Consideration of Micro Structure of the Liner Surface Finish in Internal Combustion Engines

2008-06-23
2008-01-1613
This paper presents a model for the lubrication and friction between a twin land oil control ring and the liner within an engine cycle. This model is based on the deterministic method, which considers micro geometry of the liner finish and its effects on both hydrodynamic lubrication and asperity contact. In this particular application, the liner surface micro features are solely responsible for hydrodynamic pressure generation due to the flat face profile of a typical twin land oil control ring, contrasting to the traditional average model where ring surface macro geometry is most important in generating hydrodynamic pressure.
Technical Paper

A Simplified Piston Secondary Motion Model Considering the Dynamic and Static Deformation of Piston Skirt and Cylinder Bore in Internal Combustion Engines

2008-06-23
2008-01-1612
A dry piston secondary dynamics model has been developed. This model includes the detailed piston and cylinder bore hot shape geometries, and piston deformations due to combustion pressure, axial inertia and interaction with the cylinder bore, but neglects the effects of the hydrodynamic lubrication at the piston - cylinder bore interface in order to achieve faster calculation times. The piston - cylinder bore friction is calculated using a user supplied friction coefficient. This model provides a very useful, fast tool for power cylinder system analysis, provided its limitations are understood.
Technical Paper

Oil Transport in the Piston Ring Pack (Part I): Identification and Characterization of the Main Oil Transport Routes and Mechanisms

2003-05-19
2003-01-1952
Engine oil consumption is one of the primary interests for the automotive industry in controlling emissions and reducing service cost. Due to a lack of understanding of the mechanisms of oil transport along the piston, reducing oil consumption from the ring pack of internal combustion engines has been extremely challenging for engine manufacturers and suppliers. Consequently, a thorough experimental characterization of oil transport processes is critical to 1) reduce lead-time and cost of new piston ring pack development, 2) provide the physically based oil transport models needed to develop analytical tools for oil consumption prediction. In this work, a two-dimensional multiple-dye Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) visualization system was successfully implemented in a diesel and a spark-ignition engine.
Technical Paper

Oil Transport in the Piston Ring Pack (Part II): Zone Analysis and Macro Oil Transport Model

2003-05-19
2003-01-1953
Engine oil consumption is one of the primary interests for the automotive industry in controlling emissions and reducing service cost. Due to a lack of understanding of the mechanisms and flow patterns of oil transport along the piston, reducing oil consumption from the ring pack of internal combustion engines has been extremely challenging for engine manufacturers and suppliers. In work prior to this study (see Part I [1]), individual oil transport processes such as oil flows on the piston lands in both axial and circumferential directions, oil flows through the ring grooves and gaps and oil flows between the piston and the liner have been identified and characterized. One of the major difficulties remaining for oil transport analysis was the lack of description of how the oil transport mechanisms previously investigated affect, through the multitude of flow paths, the oil balance in the various sub-regions and the net oil flow toward the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

An Experimental and Theoretical Study of the Contribution of Oil Evaporation to Oil Consumption

2002-10-21
2002-01-2684
Engine oil consumption is an important source of hydrocarbon and particulate emissions in automotive engines. Oil evaporating from the piston-ring-liner system is believed to contribute significantly to total oil consumption, especially during severe operating conditions. This paper presents an extensive experimental and theoretical study on the contribution of oil evaporation to total oil consumption at different steady state speed and load conditions. A sulfur tracer method was used to measure the dependence of oil consumption on coolant outlet temperature, oil volatility, and operating speed and load in a production spark ignition engine. Liquid oil distribution on the piston was studied using a one-point Laser-Induced-Fluorescence (LIF) technique. In addition, important in-cylinder variables for oil evaporation, such as liner temperature and cylinder pressure, were measured. A multi-species cylinder liner oil evaporation model was developed to interpret the oil consumption data.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Oil Consumption Behavior during Ramp Transients in a Production Spark Ignition Engine

2001-09-24
2001-01-3544
Engine oil consumption is recognized to be a significant source of pollutant emissions. Unburned or partially burned oil in the exhaust gases contributes directly to hydrocarbon and particulate emissions. In addition, chemical compounds present in oil additives poison catalytic converters and reduce their conversion efficiency. Oil consumption can increase significantly during critical non-steady operating conditions. This study analyzes the oil consumption behavior during ramp transients in load by combining oil consumption measurements, in-cylinder measurements, and computer-based modeling. A sulfur based oil consumption method was used to measure real-time oil consumption during ramp transients in load at constant speed in a production spark ignition engine. Additionally in-cylinder liquid oil behavior along the piston was studied using a one-point Laser-Induced-Fluorescence (LIF) technique.
Journal Article

Development and Application of Ring-Pack Model Integrating Global and Local Processes. Part 1: Gas Pressure and Dynamic Behavior of Piston Ring Pack

2017-03-28
2017-01-1043
A new ring pack model has been developed based on the curved beam finite element method. This paper describes the first part of this model: simulating gas pressure in different regions above piston skirt and ring dynamic behavior of two compression rings and a twin-land oil control ring. The model allows separate grid divisions to resolve ring structure dynamics, local force/pressure generation, and gas pressure distribution. Doing so enables the model to capture both global and local processes at their proper length scales. The effects of bore distortion, piston secondary motion, and groove distortion are considered. Gas flows, gas pressure distribution in the ring pack, and ring structural dynamics are coupled with ring-groove and ring-liner interactions, and an implicit scheme is employed to ensure numerical stability. The model is applied to a passenger car engine to demonstrate its ability to predict global and local effects on ring dynamics and oil transport.
Journal Article

Development and Application of Ring-Pack Model Integrating Global and Local Processes. Part 2: Ring-Liner Lubrication

2017-03-28
2017-01-1047
A new ring pack model has been developed based on the curved beam finite element method. This paper describes the second part of this model: simulating oil transport around the ring pack system (two compression rings and one twin-land oil control ring (TLOCR)) through the ring-liner interfaces by solving the oil film thickness on the liner. The ring dynamics model in Part 1 calculates the inter-ring gas pressure and the ring dynamic twist which are used in the ring-liner lubrication model as boundary conditions. Therefore, only in-plane conformability is calculated to obtain the oil film thickness on the liner. Both global process, namely, the structural response of the rings to bore distortion and piston tilt, and local processes, namely, bridging and oil-lube interaction, are considered. The model was applied to a passenger car engine.
Technical Paper

The Contribution of Different Oil Consumption Sources to Total Oil Consumption in a Spark Ignition Engine

2004-10-25
2004-01-2909
As a part of the effort to comply with increasingly stringent emission standards, engine manufacturers strive to minimize engine oil consumption. This requires the advancement of the understanding of the characteristics, sources, and driving mechanisms of oil consumption. This paper presents a combined theoretical and experimental approach to separate and quantify different oil consumption sources in a production spark ignition engine at different speed and load conditions. A sulfur tracer method was used to measure the dependence of oil consumption on engine operating speed and load. Liquid oil distribution on the piston was studied using a Laser-Induced-Fluorescence (LIF) technique. In addition, important in-cylinder parameters for oil transport and oil consumption, such as liner temperatures and land pressures, were measured.
Technical Paper

A Piston Ring-Pack Film Thickness and Friction Model for Multigrade Oils and Rough Surfaces

1996-10-01
962032
A complete one-dimensional mixed lubrication model has been developed to predict oil film thickness and friction of the piston ring-pack. An average flow model and a roughness contact model are used to consider the effects of surface roughness on both hydrodynamic and boundary lubrication. Effects of shear-thinning and liner temperature on lubricant viscosity are included. An inlet condition is applied by considering the unsteady wetting location at the leading edge of the ring. A ‘film non-separation’ exit condition is proposed to replace Reynolds exit condition when the oil squeezing becomes dominant. Three lubrication modes are considered in the model, namely, pure hydrodynamic, mixed, and pure boundary lubrication. All of these considerations are crucial for studying the oil transport, asperity contact, and friction especially in the top dead center (TDC) region where the oil control ring cannot reach.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Model of Piston Secondary Motion and Piston Slap in Partially Flooded Elastohydrodynamic Skirt Lubrication

1994-03-01
940696
This paper presents a numerical model of the rotational and lateral dynamics of the piston (secondary motion) and piston slap in mixed lubrication. Piston dynamic behavior, frictional and impact forces are predicted as functions of crank angle. The model considers piston skirt surface waviness, roughness, skirt profile, thermal and mechanical deformations. The model considers partially-flooded skirt and calculates the pressure distributions and friction in the piston skirt region for both hydrodynamic and boundary lubrication. Model predictions are compared with measurements of piston position using gap sensors in a single-cylinder engine and the comparison between theory and measurement shows remarkable agreement.
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