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Technical Paper

A challenge to vapor distribution measurement of multi-component evaporating fuel spray via laser absorption-scattering (LAS) technique

2007-07-23
2007-01-1892
In the present study, a challenge has been made to quantitatively determine the vapor phase concentration distributions in an evaporating multicomponent fuel spray using the LAS imaging technique. The theoretical considerations were particularly given when applying the LAS imaging technique to the multicomponent fuel spray and reconstructing the vapor concentration distributions from the spray images.
Technical Paper

Spray and Mixture Properties of Hole-Type Injector for D. I. Gasoline Engine-Comparison of Experiment and CFD Simulation-

2007-07-23
2007-01-1850
An experimental and numerical study was conducted on the spray and mixture properties of a hole-type injector for direct injection (D. I.) gasoline engines. The Laser Absorption Scattering (LAS) technique was adopted to simultaneously measure the spatial concentration distributions and the mass of the liquid and vapor phases in the fuel spray injected into a high-pressure and high-temperature constant volume vessel. The experimental results were compared to the numerical calculation results using three-dimensional CFD and the multi-objective optimization. In the numerical simulation, the design variable of the spray model was optimized by choosing spray tip penetration, and mass of liquid and vapor phases as objective functions.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Imaging of the Fuel Concentration in a SI Engine with Laser Rayleigh Scattering

1993-10-01
932641
Quantitative imaging of the fuel concentration distribution was made in the combustion chamber of a propane-fueled spark ignition (SI) engine with the employment of laser-sheet-induced Rayleigh scattering technique for realizing the remote, nonintrusive and highly space- and time-resolved measurement. The original engine was modified to introduce YAG laser-induced sheet light into the combustion chamber and the scattered light was captured by a CCD camera fitted with a gated double-micro- channel plate image intensifier. The measurements were done at the crank angle of 270°ATDC in the combustion chamber of the engine motored at 200rpm with an air fuel ratio of 13 for various injection timing, injection direction and intake flow. The results show that with an appropriate matching of fuel injection timing, injection direction and intake flow, a stratified distribution of the fuel concentration can be realized.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Concentration Measurement of Vapor and Liquid in an Evaporating Diesel Spray

1993-03-01
930863
A new technique was proposed for the simultaneous measurement of the concentration of fuel vapor and liquid in an evaporating diesel spray injected into a high temperature and high pressure environment. This technique was based on the principle of the absorption of ultraviolet laser light by fuel vapor and the scattering of visible laser light by fuel droplets in the diesel spray. For this principle, α-methylnaphthalene was used as a test fuel. Measuring the transmissivity of ultraviolet and visible laser lights absorbed and scattered by β-methylnaphthalene spray made it possible to analyze the fuel vapor concentration, droplets density and the mixture temperature in the diesel spray. A computerized tomographic transfer technique was also adopted to analyze three-dimensional fuel concentration distribution in the spray.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of Ambient Air Entrainment into Split Injection D.I. Gasoline Spray by LIF-PIV Technique

2002-10-21
2002-01-2662
Effects of split injection, with a relatively short time interval between the two sprays, on the spray development process, and the air entrainment into the spray, were investigated by using laser induced fluorescence and particle image velocimetry (LIF-PIV) techniques. The velocities of the spray and the ambient air were measured. The cumulative mass of the ambient air entrained into the spray was calculated by using the entrainment velocity normal to the spray boundary. The vortex structure of the spray, formed around the leading edge of the spray, showed a true rotating flow motion at low ambient pressures of 0.1 MPa, whereas at 0.4 MPa, it was not a true rotating flow, but a phenomenon of the small droplets separating from the leading edge of the spray and falling behind, due to air resistance. The development processes of the 2nd spray were considerably different from that of the 1st spray because the 2nd spray was injected into the flow fields formed by the 1st spray.
Journal Article

Characteristics of Evaporating Diesel Spray: A Comparison of Laser Measurements and Empirical/Theoretical Predictions

2009-04-20
2009-01-0854
The objective of the paper is to characterize the diesel spray under the ambient conditions relevant for direct injection (D.I.) diesel engines. The particular emphasis is on the comparisons between laser measurements and predictions by empirical correlations and theoretical analyses. The ultraviolet-visible laser absorption-scattering (LAS) imaging technique is employed to quantitively determine the spray/mixture properties of the diesel spray injected by a hole-type injector, in terms of spray tip penetration and spatial concentration distributions of liquid and vapor phase. The structure of evaporating spray is obtained and analyzed. Based on the penetration correlations in the literature, a non-dimensional analysis of the spray tip penetration data is carried out. The results indicate that a self-similar state of the evaporating fuel spray is achieved.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Mixture Formation Processes in DI Gasoline Engine Sprays with Split Injection Strategy via Laser Absorption and Scattering (LAS) Technique

2003-10-27
2003-01-3161
In order to investigate the effect of split injections on mixture formation processes in Direct Injection (DI) gasoline engine sprays, an experimental study was conducted applying the laser absorption and scattering (LAS) technique to the sprays using double pulse injections with various dwells and mass ratios. The effects of various dwells and mass ratios between the pulsed injections on the spatial concentration distributions in the spray, the penetration of vapor and liquid phases, and the mean equivalence ratios of the vapor phase and overall spray, were clarified. It was found that the phenomenon of high concentration liquid spray piling up at the leading edge of the spray is avoided by the double injections with enough dwell or appropriate mass ratio. The maximum penetration length of the spray significantly decreases, especially for the liquid phase with high concentration.
Technical Paper

Insight on Early Spray Formation Process of a High-Pressure Swirl Injector for DISI Engines

2003-05-19
2003-01-1809
An early formation process of the spray, which was injected by a high-pressure swirl-type injector that is widely used in direct injection spark ignition (DISI) gasoline engines, was investigated through image analyzing techniques. The sprays were illuminated both by an Nd:YAG laser light sheet for getting the spray tomograms and by a tungsten lamp for getting the scattered back light shadow images of the sprays. The sprays were imaged by using a high-resolution CCD camera and a high-speed digital imaging system. The early development aspects of the spray were investigated in detail through the measurement of the tip penetration, cone angle and width of the early spray. At the start of injection, the liquid column emerges first, and it forms the “pre-swirl spray” without the swirl component. Following the liquid column, the liquid sheet emerges, however its radial velocity component is weak to form the complete hollow-cone spray. This spray changes into the “weak-swirl spray”.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Mixture Formation Processes in D.I. Gasoline Sprays by the Laser Absorption Scattering (LAS) Technique - Effect of Injection Conditions

2003-05-19
2003-01-1811
Mixture formation processes play a vital role on the performance of a D.I. Gasoline engine. Quantitative measurement of liquid and vapor phase concentration distribution in a D.I. gasoline spray is very important in understanding the mixture formation processes. In this paper, an unique laser absorption scattering (LAS) technique was employed to investigate the mixture formation processes of a fuel spray injected by a D.I. gasoline injector into a high pressure and temperature constant volume vessel. P-xylene, which is quite suitable for the application of the LAS technique, was selected as the test fuel. The temporal variations of the concentration distribution of both the liquid and vapor phases in the spray were quantitatively clarified. Then the effects of injection pressure and quantity on the concentration distributions of both the liquid and vapor phases in the spray were analyzed.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of Droplets and Ambient Air Interaction in a D.I. Gasoline Spray Using LIF-PIV Technique

2002-03-04
2002-01-0743
Measurements of the droplet and ambient air velocities in and around a D.I. gasoline spray were made by combining the laser induced fluorescence (LIF) and the particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. Before the fuel spray was injected into a constant volume vessel, rhodamine B-water solution was injected into the ambient air by a swirl-type injector for dispersing the fine fluorescent liquid particles as tracers for the ambient air motion. The fuel spray was injected into the fluorescent tracer clouds by a D.I. gasoline injector and was illuminated by an Nd:YAG laser light sheet (wave length: 532 nm). The light scattered by the droplets in the fuel spray was the same as the Nd:YAG laser wavelength, whereas the light emitted by the fluorescent tracer clouds was at a longer wavelength.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Measurement of Liquid and Vapor Phase Concentration Distributions in a D.I. Gasoline Spray by the Laser Absorption Scattering (LAS) Technique

2002-05-06
2002-01-1644
To get quantitative measurements of liquid and vapor phase concentration distributions in a gasoline spray, a laser-based absorption and scattering (LAS) technique was developed. The LAS technique adopts ultraviolet and visible lasers as light sources and a test fuel, which absorbs the ultraviolet light but does not absorb the visible light, instead of gasoline. The LAS principle is based on the incident light extinction in the ultraviolet band due to both vapor absorption and droplets scattering, whereas in the visible band, the incident light extinction is due only to the droplet scattering. The absorption spectra and molar absorption coefficients of the candidate test fuels including p-xylene, benzene and toluene, all of which have physical properties similar to gasoline, were investigated, and p-xylene was finally selected as a test fuel. Measurement accuracy of the LAS technique was discussed.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Diesel Spray Flame under Flat Wall Impinging Condition --LAS, OH* Chemiluminescence and Two Color Pyrometry Results

2014-10-13
2014-01-2636
The effect of spray/wall interaction on diesel spray flame characteristics was investigated by applying LAS (Laser Absorption-Scattering) technique, OH* chemiluminescence and two color pyrometry in a constant volume vessel. To insure the precision of this investigation, following necessary verification experiments were carried out: (1) OH* chemiluminescence and two color pyrometry were synchronously employed to analyze the influence of soot incandescence on OH* chemiluminescence signal intensity; and (2) frontal view and side view OH* images of a linearly arranged three holes injector were concentrated on to investigate the effect of soot on optical intensity attenuation under line-of-sight image recording condition. And then the effect of impinging distance (30,40,50,60 mm and free) on diesel spray and combustion behaviors were studied. The results reveal that the impinging distance plays a significant role in mixture formation.
Technical Paper

Group-Hole Nozzle Effects on Mixture Formation and In-cylinder Combustion Processes in Direct-Injection Diesel Engines

2007-10-29
2007-01-4050
The group-hole (GH) nozzle concept that uses two closely spaced micro-orifices to substitute the conventional single orifice has the potential to facilitate better fuel atomization and evaporation, consequently attenuate the soot emission formed in direct-injection (D.I.) diesel engines. Studies of quantitative mixture properties of the transient fuel spray injected by the group-hole nozzles were conducted in a constant volume chamber via the laser absorption-scattering (LAS) technique, in comparison with conventional single-hole nozzles. Specific areas investigated involved: the non-evaporating and the evaporating ambient conditions, the free spray and the spray impinging on a flat wall conditions. The particular emphasis was on the effect of one of key parameters, the interval between orifices, of the group-hole (SH) nozzle structure.
Technical Paper

2-D Measurements of the Liquid Phase Temperature in Fuel Sprays

1995-02-01
950461
Cross-sectional distributions of the liquid phase temperatures in fuel sprays were measured using a laser-induced fluorescence technique. The liquid fuel (n-hexadecane or squalane) was doped with pyrene(C16H10). The fluorescence intensity ratios of the pyrene monomer and excimer emissions has temperature dependence, and were used to determine the liquid phase temperatures in the fuel sprays. The measurements were performed on two kinds of sprays. One was performed on pre-heated fuel sprays injected into surrounding gas at atmospheric conditions. The other was performed on fuel sprays exposed to hot gas flow. The spray was excited by laser radiation at 266nm, and the resulting fluorescence was imaged by an intensified CCD camera. The cross-sectional distribution of the liquid phase temperature was estimated from the fluorescence image by the temperature dependence of the intensity ratio.
Technical Paper

PLIF Measurements of the Cyclic Variation of Mixture Concentration in a SI Engine

1994-03-01
940988
Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique was employed to perform the quantitative measurements of the cyclic variation of mixture concentration in the combustion chamber of a spark ignition (SI) engine. Nitrogen dioxide was used as the fluorescence tracer to simulate the fuel vapor. A Nd:YAG laser operated at its second harmonic wavelength was employed as the light source. The original engine was modified to introduce laser sheet light into the combustion chamber and the induced fluorescence was captured by a CCD camera fitted with a gated image intensifier. The measurements were done at the engine crank angles of 180° ∼ 300° ATDC with the engine speeds of 200 ∼ 400 rpm and the injection timings of -70 °, 50° and 100° ATDC. A theoretical analysis was made to describe the cyclically varying characteristics of the mixture concentration.
Technical Paper

Three Dimensional Visualization for Calculated Distributions of Diesel Spray and Flame in the Combustion Chamber of a D.I. Diesel Engine

1997-10-01
972867
Three-Dimensional visualization technique based on volume rendering method has been developed in order to translate a calculated result of diesel combustion simulation into an realistically spray and flame image. This paper presents an overview of diesel combustion model which has been developed at Hiroshima University, a description of the three-dimensional visualization technique, and some examples of spray and flame image generated by this visualization technique.
Technical Paper

An Insight Into Effect of Split Injection on Mixture Formation and Combustion of DI Gasoline Engines

2004-06-08
2004-01-1949
In the previous study of the authors, it was found that some benefits for the mixture preparation of DI gasoline engines can be offered by splitting the fuel injection, such as the phenomenon of high density liquid phase fuel piling up at the leading edge of the spray can be circumvented. In a further analysis, the vapor quantity in the “stable operating” range (equivalence ratio of vapor ϕv in a range of 0.7≤ϕv≤1.3) was significantly increased by the split injection compared to the single injection. In this work, the mechanism of the effect of the split injection on the mixture formation process was studied by combining the laser-sheet imaging, LIF-PIV and the LAS (Laser Absorption Scattering) technique. As a result, it is found that the spray-induced ambient air motion can help the formation of the more combustible mixture of the split injection whereas it played a minus role of diluting the spray by the single injection.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Measurement of Droplets and Vapor Concentration Distributions in Diesel Sprays by Processing UV and Visible Images

2001-03-05
2001-01-1294
In order to measure the droplets and vapor concentration inside a fuel spray, a dual-wavelength laser absorption-scattering technique was developed using the second harmonic (532nm) and the fourth harmonic (266nm) of a Nd:YAG laser and using dimethylnaphthalene as the test fuel. The investigation results show that dimethylnaphthalene, which has physical properties similar to diesel fuel, is almost transparent to visible light near 532nm and is a strong absorber of ultraviolet light near 266nm. Based on this result, the vapor concentration in a fuel spray can be determined by the two separate measurements: a transmission measurement at a non-absorbing wavelength to detect the droplets optical thickness and a transmission measurement at an absorbing wavelength to detect the joint vapor and droplets optical thickness. The droplets density can be determined by extinction imaging through the transmission at the non-absorbing wavelength.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Mixture Formation in Split-Injection Diesel Sprays via Laser Absorption-Scattering (LAS) Technique

2001-09-24
2001-01-3498
Experimental results of a diesel engine have shown that using split-injection can reduce the NOx and particulate emissions. For understanding the mechanism of emissions reduction, mixture formation in split-injection diesel sprays was characterized in the present paper. A dual-wavelength laser absorption-scattering (LAS) technique was developed by use of the second harmonic (532nm) and the fourth harmonic (266nm) of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser as the incident light and dimethylnaphthalene (DMN) as the test fuel. By applying this technique, imaging was made of DMN sprays injected into a high-temperature and high-pressure constant volume vessel by a single-hole nozzle incorporated in a common rail injection system for D.I. diesel engine. The line-of-sight optical thickness of both fuel vapor and droplets in the sprays was yielded from the sprays images.
Technical Paper

3-D PIV Analysis of Structural Behavior of D.I. Gasoline Spray

2001-09-24
2001-01-3669
Three-dimensional behaviors of direct injection (D.I.) gasoline sprays were investigated using 2-D and 3-D particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. The fuel was injected with a swirl type injector for D.I. gasoline engines into a constant volume chamber in which ambient pressure was varied from 0.1 to 0.4 MPa at room temperature. The spray was illuminated by a laser light sheet generated by a double-pulsed Nd:YAG laser (wave length: 532 nm) and the succeeding two tomograms of the spray were taken by a high-resolution CCD camera. The 2-D and 3-D velocity distributions of the droplet cloud in the spray were calculated from these tomograms by using the PIV technique. The effects of the swirl groove flows in the injector and the ambient pressure on the structural behavior of the droplet cloud in the spray were also examined.
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