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Technical Paper

The Establishment of Laboratory Test Method for Gelation of Engine Oil Containing Magnesium Detergents

It has been reported that engine oils containing magnesium detergents gel under special conditions. The authors have previously reported on the mechanism by which magnesium detergents form needle crystals, which is the main cause of the gelation[1]. For this article, the authors conducted tests in actual vehicles using several types of engine oils containing magnesium detergents, including oils for which gelation problems have been reported in the market. The gelation was reproduced, and the test oils were ranked by their propensity to gel. In addition, a laboratory test method was used in which water and CO2 were mixed into engine oil under controlled conditions, then left stored in a bottle for twenty days, after which the kinematic viscosity and the quantity of insolubles of the mixture were measured. The study demonstrated the correlation between the laboratory test method and the actual vehicle tests.
Technical Paper

Retention of Friction Reducing Performance of MoDTC-Containing Fuel Efficient Gasoline Engine Oils During Use

The deterioration of the friction reducing properties of engine oils containing molybdenum dithiocarbamates (MoDTCs) in service was studied. A quantitative analysis of MoDTCs and zinc dithiophosphates (ZDTPs) remaining in aged oils revealed that ZDTPs were consumed faster than MoDTCs. The consumption rate of ZDTPs was slow in the presence of MoDTCs and peroxide-decomposing antioxidants. The frictional properties of aged oils were evaluated with a reciprocating friction tester (SRV tester). The friction coefficient measured with the SRV tester was correlated to the properties of the aged oils, such as the TAN increase, TBN, and concentration of remaining ZDTPs.
Technical Paper

Influence of Engine Oil Viscosity on Piston Ring and Cam Face Wear

The influence of engine oil viscosity on the wear of piston rings and cam faces has been investigated by fired engine tests using a radioisotope (RI) tracer technique. High-temperature and high-shear-rate (HTHS; 150°C, 1O6 s-1) viscosities of the experimental oils prepared are 2.2, 2.4, 2.6 and 3.1 mPa•s. At an oil temperature of 90°C the wear of piston rings and cam faces did not increase, even if the HTHS viscosity was lowered down to 2.2 mPa•s. However, both piston rings and cam faces exhibited an increase in wear below 2.4 mPa•s at 130°C. It was also recognized that valve train wear did not significantly increase with reducing viscosity in the motored engine tests at a temperature of 50°C. From these test results, it was suggested that the oil with the HTHS viscosity of 2.6 mPa•s sufficiently demonstrates the antiwear performance equivalent to that with around 3.0 mPa•s for application to piston rings and cam faces.
Technical Paper

Engine Oil Additive Effects on Deactivation of Monolithic Three-Way Catalysts and Oxygen Sensors

It is widely known that pellet-typed catalysts are deactivated by phosphorus (ZnDTP) that comes from engine oils. In this paper, the poisoning of monolithic three-way catalysts and oxygen sensors by engine oils is studied. First, catalysts and oxygen sensors were poisoned on the engine bench by test oils in which the quantity of phosphorus and ash was varied. Next, performance of the catalysts and sensors alone was examined and the vehicle exhaust emission at FTP mode was measured on a chassis dynamometer. The results indicate that phosphorus in engine oils poisons the monolithic catalyst and the oxygen sensor resulting in deterioration of the vehicle NOx exhaust emission. However, Ca sulfonate and Mg sulfonate detergents act by restraining phosphorus poisoning of the catalyst and the oxygen sensor. Through analysis of the catalyst and sensor surfaces, it is concluded that phosphorus poisons the catalyst and sensor forming a dense coating.
Technical Paper

Formulation Technology for Low Phosphorus Gasoline Engine Oils

The effect of phosphorus concentration in gasoline engine oils on the valve train wear was experimentally investigated by using the JASO M328-91 3A valve train wear (3A-VTW) test method. The phosphorus concentration is determined proportionally to the amount of zinc dithiophosphate (ZDDP), which is formulated as both antiwear agent and antioxidant. Lower concentrations of ZDDP generally bring about larger wear in the valve train. However, it was found from the experiments that valve train wear remained low despite a decrease of phosphorus concentration when secondary ZDDPs with short alkyl chain together with appropriate ashless dispersants were selected. Since adsorptivity of secondary ZDDPs with short alkyl chain lengths onto rubbing metal surfaces is higher than that of primary types, the secondary types give excellent antiwear characteristics.
Technical Paper

Influence of New Engine Oil Additives on the Properties of Fluoroelastomers

Fluoroelastmers are well known for their resistance to heat and fluids, and have become major material for crankcase oil seals. On the other hand, new additive formulations are developed for engine lubricants used for fuel economic gasoline engines. In this paper, the effects of those additives on properties of fluoroelastmers are investigated. The results of the immersion tests of both test plaques and oil seal products indicate that dithiocarbamates, friction modifier, have hardening effects on fluoroelastmers. The fluoroelastmer deterioration mechanism is determined by analysis of elastmer samples after immersion in oil.
Technical Paper

Investigation on Oxidation Stability of Engine Oils Using Laboratory Scale Simulator

The purposes of this paper are to develop a new laboratory oxidation stability testing method and to clarify factors relative to the viscosity increase of engine oil. Polymerized products, obtained from the oil after a JASO M333-93 engine test, were found to consist mainly of carboxyl, nitrate and nitro compounds and to increase the oil viscosity. A good similarity between the JASO M333-93 test and the laboratory simulation test was found for the polymerized products. The products were obtained not by heating oil only in air but by heating oil while supplying a synthetic blowby gas consisting of fuel pyrolysis products, NO, SO2 and air. The laboratory test has also revealed that the viscosity increase depends on oil quality, organic Fe content and hydrocarbon composition in the fuel. Moreover, it has been found that blowby gas and organic Fe accelerate ZnDTP consumption and that aromatics concentration in the fuel correlates with the viscosity increase of oil.
Technical Paper

Engine Testing Comparison of the Relative Oxidation Stability Performance of Two Engine Oils

The relative oxidation stability of two fully formulated engine oils was compared in three testing methods by following the increase in kinematic viscosity of the oil. The purpose of the study was to determine the cause of the completely opposite ranking of the oxidation stability of the two oils that was observed in the ASTM Sequence IIIE engine test and the JASO M333 93 engine test and to determine the degree of correlation the two engine tests had with the field. The study consisted of laboratory oxidation testing, engine testing and taxi field testing to cover the range of conditions from controlled oxidation to actual driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Lubricant Technology to Enhance the Durability of Low Friction Performance of Gasoline Engine Oils

This paper describes lubricant technology to enhance the durability of the low friction performance of gasoline engine oils which were formulated with molybdenum dithiodicarbamates (MoDTCs) as friction modifiers. This paper also describes an evaluation method which consists of three tests: (1) Our in-house rig test to simulate oil deterioration in an engine stand; (2) Quantitative analysis of MoDTC and ZnDTP in oils and; (3) A friction test (SRV). It was found that the low friction performance of fuel economy engine oils deteriorated primarily due to the consumption of MoDTC and ZnDTP. Calcium salicylates had better durability of low friction performance than calcium sulfonates. Furthermore, sulfurized compounds enhanced the durability. Based on these findings, an experimental oil was formulated.