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Technical Paper

Thoracic Injury Mechanisms and Biomechanical Responses in Lateral Velocity Pulse Impacts

1999-10-10
99SC04
The purpose of this study is to help understand the thoracic response and injury mechanisms in high-energy, limited-stroke, lateral velocity pulse impacts to the human chest wall. To impart such impacts, a linear impactor was developed which had a limited stroke and minimally decreased velocity during impact. The peak impact velocity was 5.6 ± 0.3 m/s. A series of BioSID and cadaver tests were conducted to measure biomechanical response and injury data. The conflicting effects of padding on increased deflection and decreased acceleration were demonstrated in tests with BioSID and cadavers. The results of tests conducted on six cadavers were used to test several proposed injury criteria for side impact. Linear regression was used to correlate each injury criterion to the number of rib fractures. This test methodology captured and supported a contrasting trend of increased chest deflection and decreased TTI when padding was introduced.
Technical Paper

Foot and Ankle Finite Element Modeling Using Ct-Scan Data

1999-10-10
99SC11
Although not life threatening in most cases, victims of lower extremity injuries frequently end up living with a poor quality of life. The implementations of airbag supplement restraint systems significantly reduce the incidence of head and chest injuries. However, the frequency of leg injuries remains high. Several finite element models of the foot and ankle have been developed to further the understanding of this injury mechanism. None of those models employed accurate geometry among various bony segments. The objective of this study is to develop a foot and ankle finite element model based on CT scan data so that joint geometry can be accurately represented. The model was validated against experimental data for several different configurations including typical car crash situations.
Technical Paper

Brain/Skull Relative Displacement Magnitude Due to Blunt Head Impact: New Experimental Data and Model

1999-10-10
99SC22
Relative motion between the brain and skull may explain many types of brain injury such as intracerebral hematomas due to bridging veins rupture [1] and cerebral contusions. However, no experimental methods have been developed to measure the magnitude of this motion. Consequently, relative motion between the brain and skull predicted by analytical tools has never been validated. In this study, radio opaque markers were placed in the skull and neutral density markers were placed in the brain in two vertical columns in the occipitoparietal and temporoparietal regions. A bi-planar, high-speed x-ray system was used to track the motion of these markers. Due to limitations in current technology to record the x-ray image on high-speed video cameras, only low- speed (﹤ 4m/s) impact data were available.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of TTI and ASA in SID Side Impact Sled Tests

1994-11-01
942225
Thirty-seven SID side impact sled tests were performed using a rigid wall and a padded wall with fourteen different padding configurations. The Thoracic Trauma Index (TTI) and Average Spine Acceleration (ASA) were measured in each test. TTI and ASA were evaluated in terms of their ability to predict injury in identical cadaver tests and in terms of their ability to predict the harm or benefit of padding of different crush strengths. SID ASA predicted the injury seen in WSU-CDC cadaver tests better than SID TTI. SID ASA predicted that padding of greater than 20 psi crush strength is harmful (ASA > 40 g's). SID TTI predicted that padding of greater than 20 psi crush strength is beneficial (TTI < 85 g's). SID TTI predicts the benefit of lower impact velocity. However, SID ASA appears more useful in assessing the harm or benefit of door padding or air bags.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Modeling of Gross Motion of Human Cadavers in Side Impact

1994-11-01
942207
Seventeen Heidelberg type cadaveric side impact sled tests, two sled-to-sled tests, and forty-four pendulum tests have been conducted at Wayne State University, to determine human responses and tolerances in lateral collisions. This paper describes the development of a simplified finite element model of a human occupant in a side impact configuration to simulate those cadaveric experiments. The twelve ribs were modeled by shell elements. The visceral contents were modeled as an elastic solid accompanied by an array of discrete dampers. Bone condition factors were obtained after autopsy to provide material properties for the model. The major parameters used for comparison are contact forces at the level of shoulder, thorax, abdomen and pelvis, lateral accelerations of ribs 4 and 8 and of T12, thoracic compression and injury functions V*C, TTI and ASA.
Technical Paper

Displacement Responses of the Shoulder and Thorax in Lateral Sled Impacts

1993-11-01
933124
Three-dimensional film analysis was used to study the response of the shoulder and thoracic skeleton of cadavers to lateral sled tests conducted at Wayne State University. The response of the shoulder structure was of particular interest, although, it is perhaps the most difficult skeletal structure to track in a side impact. Results of the three-dimensional film analysis are given for rigid impacts at 6.7 and 9.1 meters per second, and for padded impacts averaging 9 meters per second. Results from a two-dimensional film analysis are included for the impacted clavicle which could not be tracked by the three-dimensional film analysis. Displacements at various locations on the shoulder and thoracic skeleton were normalized to estimate the response of a fiftieth percentile male.
Technical Paper

Determination of Impact Responses of ES-2re and SID-IIs - Part III: Development of Transfer Functions

2018-04-03
2018-01-1444
An understanding of stiffness characteristics of different body regions, such as thorax, abdomen and pelvis of ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies under controlled laboratory test conditions is essential for development of both compatible performance targets for countermeasures and occupant protection strategies to meet the recently updated FMVSS214, LINCAP and IIHS Dynamic Side Impact Test requirements. The primary purpose of this study is to determine the transfer functions between the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies for different body regions under identical test conditions using flat rigid wall sled tests. The experimental set-up consists of a flat rigid wall with five instrumented load-wall plates aligned with dummy’s shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and femur/knee impacting a stationary dummy seated on a rigid low friction seat at a pre-determined velocity.
Technical Paper

Determination of Impact Responses of ES-2re and SID-IIs – Part II: SID-IIs

2018-04-03
2018-01-1448
The main purpose of this study was to determine the impact responses of the different body regions (shoulder, thorax, abdomen and pelvis/leg) of the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies using rigid wall impacts under different initial test conditions. The experimental set-up consisted of a flat rigid wall with five instrumented load-wall plates aligned with dummy’s shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and knee impacting a stationary dummy seated on a rigid seat at a pre-determined velocity. The relative location and orientation of the load-wall plates was adjusted relative to the body regions of the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies respectively.
Technical Paper

Determination of Impact Responses of ES-2re and SID-IIs - Part I: ES-2re

2018-04-03
2018-01-1449
The main purpose of this study was to determine the impact responses of the different body regions (shoulder, thorax, abdomen and pelvis/leg) of the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies using rigid wall impacts under different initial test conditions. The experimental set-up consisted of a flat rigid wall with five instrumented load-wall plates aligned with dummy’s shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and knee impacting a stationary dummy seated on a rigid seat at a pre-determined velocity. The relative location and orientation of the load-wall plates was adjusted relative to the body regions of the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies respectively.
Technical Paper

Reconstruction of Pediatric Occupant Kinematic Responses Using Finite Element Method in a Real-World Lateral Impact

2017-03-28
2017-01-1462
Computational human body models, especially detailed finite element models are suitable for investigation of human body kinematic responses and injury mechanism. A real-world lateral vehicle-tree impact accident was reconstructed by using finite element method according to the accident description in the CIREN database. At first, a baseline vehicle FE model was modified and validated according to the NCAP lateral impact test. The interaction between the car and the tree in the accident was simulated using LS-Dyna software. Parameters that affect the simulation results, such as the initial pre-crash speed, impact direction, and the initial impact location on the vehicle, were analyzed. The parameters were determined by matching the simulated vehicle body deformations and kinematics to the accident reports.
Technical Paper

Lower Abdominal Tolerance and Response

1986-10-27
861878
Twelve unembalmed human cadavers were tested for lower abdominal injury tolerance and mechanical response. The impacts were in an anterior-to-posterior direction and the level of impact was primarily in the lower abdomen at the L3 level of the lumbar spine. The impactor mass was either 32 kg or 64 kg. The impactor face was a 25 mm diameter aluminum bar, with the long axis of the bar parallel to the width of the cadaver body. In this paper, mechanical response is presented in terms of force-time and penetration-time histories, and force vs. abdominal penetration cross-plots. Injury tolerance is described in terms of post-impact necropsy findings and AIS ratings. Based on our studies, the lower abdomen of the unembalmed human cadaver is much less stiff than is suggested by previous research, and the stiffness is velocity and mass dependent, as is suggested by the correlation coefficients presented in this paper. Force-time history and force-penetration response corridors are presented.
Technical Paper

Facial Impact Tolerance and Response

1986-10-27
861896
Facial impact experiments were conducted on eleven unembalmed human cadavers. A 32 kg or 64 kg impactor with a 25 mm diameter, rigid, cylindrical contact surface was oriented in the left-right direction relative to the face and contacted the nose at the elevation of the infraorbital margins. The impactor was propelled toward the race along an anterior-to-posterior path, with contact velocities ranging from 10 to 26 km/h. Accelerometers mounted on the impactor and the occiput provided data for analyzing the dynamics of the impacts. While the threshold for nasal bone fractures was not determined, it appears that a peak force of about 3 kN (filtered 180 Hz) is a representative threshold for more severe fracture patterns. A preliminary dynamic force vs penetration response specification for the above mode of loading is offered.
Technical Paper

Lumbar Support Prominence and Vertical Position Measurement Methods in an Occupied Seat

2006-04-03
2006-01-1300
In the automotive seating industry measurements of lumbar support prominence and height are performed to assess their effects on occupant comfort. This project investigated measurement methods for lumbar support prominence and height in an occupied seat. Fifteen participants provided subjective responses of their perceived lumbar support prominence and height utilizing specifically developed visual analog scales. Also, pressure measurements were taken while the participants were seated. The recently developed H-point manikin II was utilized as a standardized sitter. Specifically, the lumbar support prominence (LSP) measure was used for the prominence measures. Pressure mat readings with the seated manikin was used for lumbar support height determination and prominence correlations. With both manikin and participants in the seat, the lumbar support was digitized through the rear of the seat.
Technical Paper

SID Response Data in a Side Impact Sled Test Series

1992-02-01
920350
Heidelberg-type side impact sled tests were conducted using SID side impact dummies. These tests were run under similar conditions to a series of cadaveric sled tests funded by the Centers for Disease Control in the same lab. Tests included 6.7 and 9 m/s (15 and 20 mph) unpadded and 9 m/s padded tests. The following padding was used at the thorax: ARSAN, ARCEL, ARPAK, ARPRO, DYTHERM, 103 and 159 kPa (15 and 23 psi) crush strength paper honeycomb, and an expanded polystyrene. In all padded tests the dummy Thoracic Trauma Index, TTI(d) was below the value of 85 set by federal rulemaking (49 CFR, Part 571 et al., 1990). In contrast, cadavers in 9 m/s sled tests did not tolerate ARSAN 601 (MAIS 5) and 23 psi (159 kPa) paper honeycomb (MAIS 5), and 20 psi (138 kPa) Verticel™ honeycomb (MAIS 4), but tolerated 15 psi (103 kPa) paper honeycomb (average thoracic MAIS 2.3 in six tests).
Technical Paper

Performance and Mechanical Properties of Various Padding Materials Used in Cadaveric Side Impact Sled Tests

1992-02-01
920354
Various types of padding have been used in side impact sled tests with cadavers. This paper presents a summary of performance of the padding used in NHTSA and WSU/CDC sled tests, and a summary of material properties of padding used in cadaveric sled tests. The purpose of this paper is to provide information on padding performance in cadavers, rather than optimum padding performance in dummies.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Modeling of Hybrid III Head-Neck Complex

1992-11-01
922526
A three-dimensional finite element model of the Hybrid III dummy head-neck complex was created to simulate the Amended Part 572 Head-Neck Pendulum Compliance Test, of the Code of Federal Regulations. The model consisted of a rigid head and five circular aluminum disks joined together by butyl elastomer rubber. Contact surfaces were defined to allow the anterior neck to separate upon an application of extension moments. Two mounting positions, one for flexion and the other one for extension, were used to simulate the head-neck calibration tests. An explicit finite element code PAM-CRASH was utilized to simulate the model dynamic responses. Simulation results were compared to experimental data obtained from First Technology Safety Systems Inc. Model predictions agreed well in both flexion and extension. This model can be used to study the head-neck biomechanics of the existing dummy as well as in the development of new dummies.
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation of Pediatric Thorax Finite Element Model under Dynamic Loading Condition and Analysis of Injury

2013-04-08
2013-01-0456
Previously, a 10-year-old (YO) pediatric thorax finite element model (FEM) was developed and verified against child chest stiffness data measured from clinical cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). However, the CPR experiments were performed at relatively low speeds, with a maximum loading rate of 250 mm/s. Studies showed that the biomechanical responses of human thorax exhibited rate sensitive characteristics. As such, the studies of dynamic responses of the pediatric thorax FEM are needed. Experimental pediatric cadaver data in frontal pendulum impacts and diagonal belt dynamic loading tests were used for dynamic validation. Thoracic force-deflection curves between test and simulation were compared. Strains predicted by the FEM and the injuries observed in the cadaver tests were also compared for injury assessment and analysis. This study helped to further improve the 10 YO pediatric thorax FEM.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a Real-World Crash Using Finite Element Modeling to Examine Traumatic Rupture of the Aorta

2005-04-11
2005-01-1293
One of the leading causes of death in automotive crashes is traumatic rupture of the aorta (TRA) or blunt aortic injury (BAI). The risk of fatality is high if an aortic injury is not detected and treated promptly. The objective of this study is to investigate TRA mechanisms using finite element (FE) simulations of reconstructed real-world accidents involving aortic injury. For this application, a case was obtained from the William Lehman Injury Research Center (WLIRC), which is a Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) center. In this selected crash, the case vehicle was struck on the left side with a Principal Direction of Force (PDoF) of 290 degrees. The side structure of the case vehicle crushed a maximum of 0.33 m. The total delta-V was estimated to be 6.2 m/s. The occupant, a 62-year old mid-sized male, was fatally injured. The occupant sustained multiple rib fractures, laceration of the right ventricle, and TRA, among other injuries.
Technical Paper

Development of an FE Model of the Rat Head Subjected to Air Shock Loading

2010-11-03
2010-22-0011
As early as the 1950's, Gurdjian and colleagues (Gurdjian et al., 1955) observed that brain injuries could occur by direct pressure loading without any global head accelerations. This pressure-induced injury mechanism was "forgotten" for some time and is being rekindled due to the many mild traumatic brain injuries attributed to blast overpressure. The aim of the current study was to develop a finite element (FE) model to predict the biomechanical response of rat brain under a shock tube environment. The rat head model, including more than 530,000 hexahedral elements with a typical element size of 100 to 300 microns was developed based on a previous rat brain model for simulating a blunt controlled cortical impact. An FE model, which represents gas flow in a 0.305-m diameter shock tube, was formulated to provide input (incident) blast overpressures to the rat model. It used an Eulerian approach and the predicted pressures were verified with experimental data.
Technical Paper

Mechanisms of Traumatic Rupture of the Aorta and Associated Peri-isthmic Motion and Deformation

2008-11-03
2008-22-0010
This study investigated the mechanisms of traumatic rupture of the aorta (TRA). Eight unembalmed human cadavers were tested using various dynamic blunt loading modes. Impacts were conducted using a 32-kg impactor with a 152-mm face, and high-speed seatbelt pretensioners. High-speed biplane x-ray was used to visualize aortic motion within the mediastinum, and to measure deformation of the aorta. An axillary thoracotomy approach was used to access the peri-isthmic region to place radiopaque markers on the aorta. The cadavers were inverted for testing. Clinically relevant TRA was observed in seven of the tests. Peak average longitudinal Lagrange strain was 0.644, with the average peak for all tests being 0.208 ± 0.216. Peak intraluminal pressure of 165 kPa was recorded. Longitudinal stretch of the aorta was found to be a principal component of injury causation. Stretch of the aorta was generated by thoracic deformation, which is required for injury to occur.
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