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Technical Paper

Investigating Ankle Injury Mechanisms in Offset Frontal Collisions Utilizing Computer Modeling and Case-Study Data

1999-10-10
99SC14
A significant number of documented ankle injuries incurred in automobile accidents indicate some form of lateral loading is present to either cause or influence injury. A high percentage of these cases occur in the absence of occupant compartment intrusion. To date, no specific ankle injury mechanism has been identified to explain these types of injuries. To investigate this problem, several resources were used including full-scale crash test data, finite element models, and case study field data. Results from car-to-car, offset frontal crash tests indicate a significant lateral acceleration (10-18 g) occurs at the same time as the peak in longitudinal acceleration. The combined loading condition results in a significant lateral force being applied to the foot-ankle region while the leg region is under maximum compression.
Technical Paper

Foot and Ankle Finite Element Modeling Using Ct-Scan Data

1999-10-10
99SC11
Although not life threatening in most cases, victims of lower extremity injuries frequently end up living with a poor quality of life. The implementations of airbag supplement restraint systems significantly reduce the incidence of head and chest injuries. However, the frequency of leg injuries remains high. Several finite element models of the foot and ankle have been developed to further the understanding of this injury mechanism. None of those models employed accurate geometry among various bony segments. The objective of this study is to develop a foot and ankle finite element model based on CT scan data so that joint geometry can be accurately represented. The model was validated against experimental data for several different configurations including typical car crash situations.
Technical Paper

Brain/Skull Relative Displacement Magnitude Due to Blunt Head Impact: New Experimental Data and Model

1999-10-10
99SC22
Relative motion between the brain and skull may explain many types of brain injury such as intracerebral hematomas due to bridging veins rupture [1] and cerebral contusions. However, no experimental methods have been developed to measure the magnitude of this motion. Consequently, relative motion between the brain and skull predicted by analytical tools has never been validated. In this study, radio opaque markers were placed in the skull and neutral density markers were placed in the brain in two vertical columns in the occipitoparietal and temporoparietal regions. A bi-planar, high-speed x-ray system was used to track the motion of these markers. Due to limitations in current technology to record the x-ray image on high-speed video cameras, only low- speed (﹤ 4m/s) impact data were available.
Journal Article

Frontal Crash Protection in Pre-1998 Vehicles versus 1998 and Later Vehicles

2010-04-12
2010-01-0142
This investigation addresses and evaluates: (1) belted drivers in frontal crashes; (2) crashes divided into low, medium, and high severity; (3) air-bag-equipped passenger vehicles separated into either model years 1985 - 1997 (with airbags) or model years 1998 - 2008; (4) rate of Harm as a function of crash severity and vehicle model year; and (5) injury patterns associated with injured body regions and the involved physical components, by vehicle model year. Comparisons are made between the injury patterns related to drivers seated in vehicles manufactured before 1998 and those manufactured 1998 or later. The purpose of this comparative analysis is to establish how driver injury patterns may have changed as a result of the introduction of more recent safety belt technology, advanced airbags, or structural changes.
Technical Paper

Determination of Impact Responses of ES-2re and SID-IIs - Part III: Development of Transfer Functions

2018-04-03
2018-01-1444
An understanding of stiffness characteristics of different body regions, such as thorax, abdomen and pelvis of ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies under controlled laboratory test conditions is essential for development of both compatible performance targets for countermeasures and occupant protection strategies to meet the recently updated FMVSS214, LINCAP and IIHS Dynamic Side Impact Test requirements. The primary purpose of this study is to determine the transfer functions between the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies for different body regions under identical test conditions using flat rigid wall sled tests. The experimental set-up consists of a flat rigid wall with five instrumented load-wall plates aligned with dummy’s shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and femur/knee impacting a stationary dummy seated on a rigid low friction seat at a pre-determined velocity.
Technical Paper

Determination of Impact Responses of ES-2re and SID-IIs – Part II: SID-IIs

2018-04-03
2018-01-1448
The main purpose of this study was to determine the impact responses of the different body regions (shoulder, thorax, abdomen and pelvis/leg) of the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies using rigid wall impacts under different initial test conditions. The experimental set-up consisted of a flat rigid wall with five instrumented load-wall plates aligned with dummy’s shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and knee impacting a stationary dummy seated on a rigid seat at a pre-determined velocity. The relative location and orientation of the load-wall plates was adjusted relative to the body regions of the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies respectively.
Technical Paper

Determination of Impact Responses of ES-2re and SID-IIs - Part I: ES-2re

2018-04-03
2018-01-1449
The main purpose of this study was to determine the impact responses of the different body regions (shoulder, thorax, abdomen and pelvis/leg) of the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies using rigid wall impacts under different initial test conditions. The experimental set-up consisted of a flat rigid wall with five instrumented load-wall plates aligned with dummy’s shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and knee impacting a stationary dummy seated on a rigid seat at a pre-determined velocity. The relative location and orientation of the load-wall plates was adjusted relative to the body regions of the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies respectively.
Technical Paper

Reconstruction of Pediatric Occupant Kinematic Responses Using Finite Element Method in a Real-World Lateral Impact

2017-03-28
2017-01-1462
Computational human body models, especially detailed finite element models are suitable for investigation of human body kinematic responses and injury mechanism. A real-world lateral vehicle-tree impact accident was reconstructed by using finite element method according to the accident description in the CIREN database. At first, a baseline vehicle FE model was modified and validated according to the NCAP lateral impact test. The interaction between the car and the tree in the accident was simulated using LS-Dyna software. Parameters that affect the simulation results, such as the initial pre-crash speed, impact direction, and the initial impact location on the vehicle, were analyzed. The parameters were determined by matching the simulated vehicle body deformations and kinematics to the accident reports.
Technical Paper

Reconstruction of Frontal Accidents Using the CVS-3D Model

1984-04-01
840869
The Crash Victim Simulator Three Dimensional Model (CVS-3D) allows the simulation of the kinematics and responses of a motor vehicle occupant or pedestrian during a crash. This paper summarizes the data requirements for the CVS-3D Model, the sources of data, and the research underway to provide additional data for modeling the occupant and the vehicle. An example of the use of the model in reconstructing an offset frontal accident is included. The results computed by the model are quite reasonable when compared with the injuries received by the occupant. The insights into the events which occurred during the crash are excellent.
Technical Paper

Improvements in the Simulation of Unrestrained Passengers in Frontal Crashes Using Vehicle Test Data

1986-02-24
860654
The absence of data on the load deflection and energy absorption characteristics of vehicle interiors has been a factor which limits the accuracy of crash victim simulations. A recent test program conducted for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has developed data on the interactions of dashboards and knee panels with chests and knees. This paper summarizes the test results for several vehicles and shows how these results are used in simulating vehicle crash tests. Comparisons between crash tests and computer reconstruction using the 3-Dimensional Crash Victim Simulator (CVS-3D) for a late model car are included. The simulation shows good agreement with test and illustrates the application of available static and dynamic test data to improve occupant simulations.
Technical Paper

Light Truck Safety Research in NHTSA

1987-07-01
871099
This paper describes and references published NHTSA safety research relative to problem definition and countermeasures evaluation for light trucks and vans. The research cited includes accident data analysis, vehicle component developments, air bag and passive belt research, and testing procedure developments in both crashworthiness and crash avoidance areas. Research programs underway which have application to light trucks and vans are indicated.
Technical Paper

A Research Program in Crash-Induced Fire Safety

2004-03-08
2004-01-0475
The research reported in this paper is a follow-on to a five year research program conducted by General Motors in accordance with an administrative Settlement Agreement reached with the US Department of Transportation. In a subsequent Judicial Settlement, GM agreed fund more than $4.1 million in fire related research over the period 2001-2004. The purpose of this paper is to provide a public update report on the projects that have been funded under this latter research program, along with results to date. An analysis of FARS and State accident data has been completed. Results indicate that fire rates have been significantly reduced over the past 20 years. Fire rates for passenger cars and LTVs have approached similar levels. Fire rates by crash mode indicate that rear impact fires have been significantly reduced; however, fires in rollover crashes have seen considerably less reduction. The highest percentages of fires are subsequent to frontal impacts.
Technical Paper

Crash Simulations to Understand Injury Mechanisms in Maneuver Induced Rollover Crashes

2004-03-08
2004-01-0330
Real world crashes in NASS/CDS 1997 to 2000 were examined individually in order to find patterns in single vehicle rollover crashes. Typical maneuver induced rollovers of SUV's were reconstructed using the HVE model. From HVE and roll event reconstructions, the values of longitudinal, lateral, and vertical displacement, and roll, pitch, and yaw angle, for the pre-roll and rollover event were calculated. These values were used as inputs to a MADYMO model for simulated vehicle motion to predict occupant kinematics. Both near-side and far-side rollovers were simulated. The MADYMO model provided estimates of head velocity for the various rollover scenarios for a belted driver. In both near-side and far-side rollovers of the type reconstructed, the lateral component of head velocity was the greatest. Maximum head velocities of 5.3 m/s were predicted. The simulations were for two complete rollovers. The highest head velocity occurred during the first three quarter turns.
Technical Paper

Opportunities for Reducing Casualties in Far-side Crashes

2006-04-03
2006-01-0450
This paper uses the National Automotive Sampling System/Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS) to estimate the population of front seat occupants exposed to far-side crashes and those with MAIS 3+ and fatal injuries. Countermeasures applicable to far-side planar crashes may also have benefits in some far-side rollovers. The near-side and far-side rollover populations with MAIS 3+ injuries and fatalities are also calculated and reported. Both restrained and unrestrained occupants are considered. Populations are subdivided according to ejection status – not ejected, full ejection, partial ejection and unknown ejection. Estimates are provided for the annual number of MAIS 3+ injuries and fatalities that occur each year in each category for the following belt use scenarios: (1) belt use as reported in NASS and (2) 100% belt use. In scenario 1, the exposure and casualties for the unbelted population are also shown. About 34% of the MAIS 3+F injuries in side crashes are in far-side crashes.
Technical Paper

Summary of Recent Research in Crash-Induced Vehicle Fire Safety

2006-04-03
2006-01-0551
The research reported in this paper is a follow-on to a five year research program conducted by General Motors in accordance with an administrative Settlement Agreement reached with the US Department of Transportation. This paper is the fourth in a series of technical papers intended to disseminate the results of the ongoing research [Digges 2003, 2004, 2005]. This paper summarizes progress in several of the projects dealing with underhood fires and testing of a hydrogen fuel tank. Calorimeter tests of underhood materials found a wide range of flammability for the structural plastics as well as the underhood sound insulation. Calorimeter tests of underhood fluids (lubricants and hydraulic fluid) showed that their flash points were less than 188°C and the minimum temperature of a hot surface to cause ignition was less than 325°C. Tests of four different vehicles to determine the exhaust manifold operating temperatures found a range between 241°C and 550°C.
Technical Paper

Results of Studies to Improve the Ground Flotation of Aircraft

1967-02-01
670560
In recent years the AFFDL has actively attempted to develop improved techniques and criteria for providing aircraft with a capability for landing on substandard fields. A number of R&D programs have been conducted to this end. These programs have involved the participation of not only the AFFDL Landing Gear Test Facility, but also the Vicksburg Waterways Experiment Station, and various aircraft and landing gear contractors. The scope of approaches investigated includes expandable tires, extra wide tires, low pressure tires, track gear, air cushion gear, and basic flotation criteria. This paper summarizes the significant results of these programs. The paper briefly summarizes the presently available criteria for ground flotation on bare soil and indicates approaches for improving aircraft ground flotation characteristics. Also included are the results of AFFDL tests of conventional tires tested at high deflection, and of unconventional (expandable) tires which collapse for stowage.
Technical Paper

Opportunities for Frontal Crash Protection at Speeds Greater than 35 MPH

1991-02-01
910807
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has sponsored extensive research to improve the frontal protection of motor vehicles. Most of the research was conducted during the 1970's when belt usage rates were less than 10%. At that time, the research objectives did not anticipate the combination of air bags and three point manual belts as the restraint of choice for the 1990's. Consequently, little research was undertaken to extend the performance of this combination. However, the research conducted at that time offers opportunities for significant additional improvements in frontal protection. The purpose of this paper is to summarize some of the relevant research which was sponsored by NHTSA under the direction of the authors. Results will be highlighted which are particularly applicable to current vehicle configurations. Opportunities for further improvement, and required research are discussed.
Technical Paper

Applying the Intent of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards to Vehicles Modified for the Use of Disabled Persons

1992-02-01
920563
Since 1966 the federal government, through the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, has promulgated regulations governing the crash safety of motor vehicles, with particular attention to passenger cars. However, during the next four years, most of the regulations will also apply to light trucks and vans. There are now 53 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS). These standards primarily regulate the safety of new vehicles. For many disabled persons, especially those confined to wheelchairs, vehicles must be extensively modified to allow them to drive, or to ride as passengers. The objective of this paper is to examine the safety level intended to be afforded to able bodied persons by the crashworthiness FMVSS and to make observations on the special requirements of modified vehicles to afford the same level of safety to disabled persons. We will emphasize the safety needs of those who use vans since vans are the vehicles most extensively modified.
Technical Paper

Injury Mechanism of the Head and Face of Children in Side Impacts

2009-04-20
2009-01-1434
This study assessed the primary involved physical components attributed to the head and face injuries of child occupants seated directly adjacent to the stuck side of a vehicle in a side impact collision. The findings presented in this study were based upon analysis of the National Automotive Sampling System/Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS) for the years 1993–2007. Injury analysis was conducted for those nearside child occupants aged between 1–12 years-old. The involved children were classified as toddler-type, booster-type, or belted-type occupants. These classifications were based upon the recommended restraint system for the occupant. Injury mechanisms were assessed for the child occupants in each of the three groups. A detailed study of NASS/CDS cases was conducted to provide a greater understanding of the associated injury mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Severe Head and Neck Injuries in NASS Rear Impacts

2008-04-14
2008-01-0190
In this paper the characteristics of rear impact crashes are examined. General information about rear impact collisions is derived from recent data from the National Automotive Sampling System, General Estimates System (NASS/GES) and Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) as reported in the annual National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Traffic Safety Facts. Additional details about the frequency, severity, type, and cause of injuries to front seat outboard occupants is analyzed using the National Automotive Sampling System, Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS) data from 1997 to 2005. Serious head and neck injuries are focused on for further analysis. Specific cases from the CDS database that meet this classification are examined. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 301-R test data is used to analyze occupant, seat, and vehicle kinematics in single impact rear collisions and to look at the occupant rebound velocity.
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