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Technical Paper

Foot and Ankle Finite Element Modeling Using Ct-Scan Data

Although not life threatening in most cases, victims of lower extremity injuries frequently end up living with a poor quality of life. The implementations of airbag supplement restraint systems significantly reduce the incidence of head and chest injuries. However, the frequency of leg injuries remains high. Several finite element models of the foot and ankle have been developed to further the understanding of this injury mechanism. None of those models employed accurate geometry among various bony segments. The objective of this study is to develop a foot and ankle finite element model based on CT scan data so that joint geometry can be accurately represented. The model was validated against experimental data for several different configurations including typical car crash situations.
Technical Paper

Brain/Skull Relative Displacement Magnitude Due to Blunt Head Impact: New Experimental Data and Model

Relative motion between the brain and skull may explain many types of brain injury such as intracerebral hematomas due to bridging veins rupture [1] and cerebral contusions. However, no experimental methods have been developed to measure the magnitude of this motion. Consequently, relative motion between the brain and skull predicted by analytical tools has never been validated. In this study, radio opaque markers were placed in the skull and neutral density markers were placed in the brain in two vertical columns in the occipitoparietal and temporoparietal regions. A bi-planar, high-speed x-ray system was used to track the motion of these markers. Due to limitations in current technology to record the x-ray image on high-speed video cameras, only low- speed (﹤ 4m/s) impact data were available.
Technical Paper

Determination of Impact Responses of ES-2re and SID-IIs - Part III: Development of Transfer Functions

An understanding of stiffness characteristics of different body regions, such as thorax, abdomen and pelvis of ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies under controlled laboratory test conditions is essential for development of both compatible performance targets for countermeasures and occupant protection strategies to meet the recently updated FMVSS214, LINCAP and IIHS Dynamic Side Impact Test requirements. The primary purpose of this study is to determine the transfer functions between the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies for different body regions under identical test conditions using flat rigid wall sled tests. The experimental set-up consists of a flat rigid wall with five instrumented load-wall plates aligned with dummy’s shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and femur/knee impacting a stationary dummy seated on a rigid low friction seat at a pre-determined velocity.
Technical Paper

Determination of Impact Responses of ES-2re and SID-IIs – Part II: SID-IIs

The main purpose of this study was to determine the impact responses of the different body regions (shoulder, thorax, abdomen and pelvis/leg) of the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies using rigid wall impacts under different initial test conditions. The experimental set-up consisted of a flat rigid wall with five instrumented load-wall plates aligned with dummy’s shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and knee impacting a stationary dummy seated on a rigid seat at a pre-determined velocity. The relative location and orientation of the load-wall plates was adjusted relative to the body regions of the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies respectively.
Technical Paper

Determination of Impact Responses of ES-2re and SID-IIs - Part I: ES-2re

The main purpose of this study was to determine the impact responses of the different body regions (shoulder, thorax, abdomen and pelvis/leg) of the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies using rigid wall impacts under different initial test conditions. The experimental set-up consisted of a flat rigid wall with five instrumented load-wall plates aligned with dummy’s shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and knee impacting a stationary dummy seated on a rigid seat at a pre-determined velocity. The relative location and orientation of the load-wall plates was adjusted relative to the body regions of the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies respectively.
Technical Paper

Reconstruction of Pediatric Occupant Kinematic Responses Using Finite Element Method in a Real-World Lateral Impact

Computational human body models, especially detailed finite element models are suitable for investigation of human body kinematic responses and injury mechanism. A real-world lateral vehicle-tree impact accident was reconstructed by using finite element method according to the accident description in the CIREN database. At first, a baseline vehicle FE model was modified and validated according to the NCAP lateral impact test. The interaction between the car and the tree in the accident was simulated using LS-Dyna software. Parameters that affect the simulation results, such as the initial pre-crash speed, impact direction, and the initial impact location on the vehicle, were analyzed. The parameters were determined by matching the simulated vehicle body deformations and kinematics to the accident reports.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Modeling of Hybrid III Head-Neck Complex

A three-dimensional finite element model of the Hybrid III dummy head-neck complex was created to simulate the Amended Part 572 Head-Neck Pendulum Compliance Test, of the Code of Federal Regulations. The model consisted of a rigid head and five circular aluminum disks joined together by butyl elastomer rubber. Contact surfaces were defined to allow the anterior neck to separate upon an application of extension moments. Two mounting positions, one for flexion and the other one for extension, were used to simulate the head-neck calibration tests. An explicit finite element code PAM-CRASH was utilized to simulate the model dynamic responses. Simulation results were compared to experimental data obtained from First Technology Safety Systems Inc. Model predictions agreed well in both flexion and extension. This model can be used to study the head-neck biomechanics of the existing dummy as well as in the development of new dummies.
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation of Pediatric Thorax Finite Element Model under Dynamic Loading Condition and Analysis of Injury

Previously, a 10-year-old (YO) pediatric thorax finite element model (FEM) was developed and verified against child chest stiffness data measured from clinical cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). However, the CPR experiments were performed at relatively low speeds, with a maximum loading rate of 250 mm/s. Studies showed that the biomechanical responses of human thorax exhibited rate sensitive characteristics. As such, the studies of dynamic responses of the pediatric thorax FEM are needed. Experimental pediatric cadaver data in frontal pendulum impacts and diagonal belt dynamic loading tests were used for dynamic validation. Thoracic force-deflection curves between test and simulation were compared. Strains predicted by the FEM and the injuries observed in the cadaver tests were also compared for injury assessment and analysis. This study helped to further improve the 10 YO pediatric thorax FEM.
Technical Paper

Development of a Two-Dimensional Driver Side Airbag Deployment Algorithm

A PC based interactive program was developed to simulate the unfolding and deploying process of a driver side airbag in the sagittal plane. The airbag was represented by a series of nodes. The maximum allowable stretch was less or equal to one between any two nodes. We assumed that the airbag unfolding was pivoted about folded points. After the completion of the unfolding process the airbag would begin to deploy. During the deploying process, two parameters were used to determine the nodal priority of the inflation. The first parameter was the distance between the instantaneous and final positions of a node. Nodes with longer distances to travel will have to move faster. We also considered the distance between the current nodal position and the gas inlet location. For a node closer to the gas inlet, we assumed that the deploying speed was faster. A graphical procedure was used to calculate the area of the airbag.
Technical Paper

Mathematical Modeling of the Hybrid III Dummy Chest with Chest Foam

A nonlinear foam was added to a previously created three-dimensional finite element model of the Hybrid III dummy chest which consisted of six steel ribs, rib damping material, the sternum, a spine box and a pendulum. Two standard calibration pendulum impact tests for a Hybrid III dummy chest were used to validate the new model. An explicit finite element analysis code PAM-CRASH was utilized to simulate the dynamic process. At impact velocities of 6.7 m/s and 4.3 m/s, the force and deflection time history as well as the force-deflection plots showed good agreement between model predictions and calibration data. Peak strains also agreed well with experimental data.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Analytical Study of Knee Fracture Mechanisms in a Frontal Knee Impact

The mechanisms of knee fracture were studied experimentally using cadaveric knees and analytically by computer simulation. Ten 90 degree flexed knees were impacted frontally by a 20 kg pendulum with a rigid surface, a 450 psi (3.103 MPa) crush strength and a 100 psi (0.689 MPa) crush strength aluminum honeycomb padding and a 50 psi (0.345 MPa) crush strength paper honeycomb padding at a velocity of about five m/s. During rigid surface impact, a patella fracture and a split condylar fracture were observed. The split condylar fracture was generated by the patella pushing the condyles apart, based on a finite element model using the maximum principal stress as the injury criterion. In the case of the 450 psi aluminum honeycomb padding, the split condylar fracture still occurred, but no patella fractures were observed because the honeycomb provided a more uniform distribution of patella load. No bony fractures in the knee area occurred for impacts with a 50 psi paper honeycomb padding.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Properties of the Cadaveric and Hybrid III Lumbar Spines

This study identified the mechanical properties of ten cadaveric lumbar spines and two Hybrid III lumbar spines. Eight tests were performed on each specimen: tension, compression, anterior shear, posterior shear, left lateral shear, flexion, extension and left lateral bending. Each test was run at a displacement rate of 100 mm/sec. The maximum displacements were selected to approximate the loading range of a 50 km/h Hybrid III dummy sled test and to be non-destructive to the specimens. Load, linear displacement and angular displacement data were collected. Bending moment was calculated from force data. Each mode of loading demonstrated consistent characteristics. The load-displacement curves of the Hybrid III lumbar spine demonstrated an initial region of high stiffness followed by a region of constant stiffness.
Technical Paper

Development of a Finite Element Model of the Human Neck

A three-dimensional finite element model of a human neck has been developed in an effort to study the mechanics of cervical spine while subjected to impacts. The neck geometry was obtained from MRI scans of a 50th percentile male volunteer. This model, consisting of the vertebrae from C1 through T1 including the intervertebral discs and posterior elements, was constructed primarily of 8-node brick elements. The vertebrae were modeled using linear elastic-plastic materials, while the intervertebral discs were modeled using linear viscoelastic materials. Sliding interfaces were defined to simulate the motion of synovial facet joints. Anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments, facet joint capsular ligaments, alar ligaments, transverse ligaments, and anterior and posterior atlanto-occipital membranes were modeled as nonlinear bar elements or as tension-only membrane elements. A previously developed head and brain model was also incorporated.
Technical Paper

Aortic Mechanics in High-Speed Racing Crashes

Auto racing has been in vogue from the time automobiles were first built. With the dawn of modern cars came higher engine capacities; the speeds involved in these races and crashes increased as well. However, the advent of passive restraint systems such as the helmet, HANS (Head and Neck Support device), multi-point harness system, roll cage, side and frontal crush zones, racing seats, fire retardant suits, and soft-wall technology, have greatly improved the survivability of the drivers in high-speed racing crashes. Three left lateral crashes from Begeman and Melvin (2002), Case #LAS12, #IND14 and #99TX were used as inputs to the Wayne State Human Body Model (WSHBM) in a simulated racing buck. Twelve simulations with delta-v, six-point harness and shoulder pad as design variables were analyzed for the average maximum principal strain (AMPS) in the aorta. The average AMPS for the high-speed crashes were 0.1551±0.0172 while the average maximum pressure was 110.50±4.25 kPa.
Technical Paper

Development of an FE Model of the Rat Head Subjected to Air Shock Loading

As early as the 1950's, Gurdjian and colleagues (Gurdjian et al., 1955) observed that brain injuries could occur by direct pressure loading without any global head accelerations. This pressure-induced injury mechanism was "forgotten" for some time and is being rekindled due to the many mild traumatic brain injuries attributed to blast overpressure. The aim of the current study was to develop a finite element (FE) model to predict the biomechanical response of rat brain under a shock tube environment. The rat head model, including more than 530,000 hexahedral elements with a typical element size of 100 to 300 microns was developed based on a previous rat brain model for simulating a blunt controlled cortical impact. An FE model, which represents gas flow in a 0.305-m diameter shock tube, was formulated to provide input (incident) blast overpressures to the rat model. It used an Eulerian approach and the predicted pressures were verified with experimental data.
Technical Paper

Mechanisms of Traumatic Rupture of the Aorta and Associated Peri-isthmic Motion and Deformation

This study investigated the mechanisms of traumatic rupture of the aorta (TRA). Eight unembalmed human cadavers were tested using various dynamic blunt loading modes. Impacts were conducted using a 32-kg impactor with a 152-mm face, and high-speed seatbelt pretensioners. High-speed biplane x-ray was used to visualize aortic motion within the mediastinum, and to measure deformation of the aorta. An axillary thoracotomy approach was used to access the peri-isthmic region to place radiopaque markers on the aorta. The cadavers were inverted for testing. Clinically relevant TRA was observed in seven of the tests. Peak average longitudinal Lagrange strain was 0.644, with the average peak for all tests being 0.208 ± 0.216. Peak intraluminal pressure of 165 kPa was recorded. Longitudinal stretch of the aorta was found to be a principal component of injury causation. Stretch of the aorta was generated by thoracic deformation, which is required for injury to occur.
Technical Paper

Effect of Vehicle Front End Profiles Leading to Pedestrian Secondary Head Impact to Ground

Most studies of pedestrian injuries focus on reducing traumatic injuries due to the primary impact between the vehicle and the pedestrian. However, based on the Pedestrian Crash Data Study (PCDS), some researchers concluded that one of the leading causes of head injury for pedestrian crashes can be attributed to the secondary impact, defined as the impact of the pedestrian with the ground after the primary impact of the pedestrian with the vehicle. The purpose of this study is to understand if different vehicle front-end profiles can affect the risk of pedestrian secondary head impact with the ground and thus help in reducing the risk of head injury during secondary head impact with ground. Pedestrian responses were studied using several front-end profiles based off a mid-size vehicle and a SUV that have been validated previously along with several MADYMO pedestrian models.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Response of the Human Cadaver Head to Impact

High-speed biplane x-ray and neutral density targets were used to examine brain displacement and deformation during impact. Relative motion, maximum principal strain, maximum shear strain, and intracranial pressure were measured in thirty-five impacts using eight human cadaver head and neck specimens. The effect of a helmet was evaluated. During impact, local brain tissue tends to keep its position and shape with respect to the inertial frame, resulting in relative motion between the brain and skull and deformation of the brain. The local brain motions tend to follow looping patterns. Similar patterns are observed for impact in different planes, with some degree of posterior-anterior and right-left symmetry. Peak coup pressure and pressure rate increase with increasing linear acceleration, but coup pressure pulse duration decreases. Peak average maximum principal strain and maximum shear are on the order of 0.09 for CFC 60 Hz data for these tests.
Technical Paper

High Rate Mechanical Properties of the Hybrid Iii and Cadaveric Lumbar Spines in Flexion and Extension

In a previous study by Demetropoules et al., (1998), it was shown that both cadaveric and Hybrid III lumbar spines exhibit loading rate dependency when loaded in a quasi-static mode up to a velocity of 100 mm/s. In these tests, the Hybrid III lumbar spines were generally found to have higher stiffnesses than the human lumbar spines, except in compression. This is probably due to the fact that muscle loading was not simulated when testing the human spines. Additionally, the speed previously used to test the spines was less than that typically seen in automotive crash environment. The purpose of this study was to use a high-rate testing machine to establish the flexion and extension stiffnesses of the human lumbar spine with simulated extensor muscle tone. Two Hybrid III lumbar spines were used to develop the test methodology and to obtain the response of the Hybrid III lumbar spines.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Upper Body and Cervical Spine Kinematics of Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) during Low-Speed, Rear-End Impacts

A total of eight low-speed, rear-end impact tests using two Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) in a seated posture are reported. These tests were conducted using a HYGE-style mini-sled. Two test conditions were employed: 8 kph without a headrestraint or 16 kph with a headrestraint. Upper-body kinematics were captured for each test using a combination of transducers and high-speed video. A 3-2-2-2-accelerometer package was used to measure the generalized 3D kinematics of both the head and pelvis. An angular rate sensor and two single-axis linear accelerometers were used to measure angular speed, angular acceleration, and linear acceleration of T1 in the sagittal plane. Two high-speed video cameras were used to track targets rigidly attached to the head, T1, and pelvis. The cervical spine kinematics were captured with a high-speed, biplane x-ray system by tracking radiopaque markers implanted into each cervical vertebra.