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Technical Paper

Foot and Ankle Finite Element Modeling Using Ct-Scan Data

1999-10-10
99SC11
Although not life threatening in most cases, victims of lower extremity injuries frequently end up living with a poor quality of life. The implementations of airbag supplement restraint systems significantly reduce the incidence of head and chest injuries. However, the frequency of leg injuries remains high. Several finite element models of the foot and ankle have been developed to further the understanding of this injury mechanism. None of those models employed accurate geometry among various bony segments. The objective of this study is to develop a foot and ankle finite element model based on CT scan data so that joint geometry can be accurately represented. The model was validated against experimental data for several different configurations including typical car crash situations.
Technical Paper

Brain/Skull Relative Displacement Magnitude Due to Blunt Head Impact: New Experimental Data and Model

1999-10-10
99SC22
Relative motion between the brain and skull may explain many types of brain injury such as intracerebral hematomas due to bridging veins rupture [1] and cerebral contusions. However, no experimental methods have been developed to measure the magnitude of this motion. Consequently, relative motion between the brain and skull predicted by analytical tools has never been validated. In this study, radio opaque markers were placed in the skull and neutral density markers were placed in the brain in two vertical columns in the occipitoparietal and temporoparietal regions. A bi-planar, high-speed x-ray system was used to track the motion of these markers. Due to limitations in current technology to record the x-ray image on high-speed video cameras, only low- speed (﹤ 4m/s) impact data were available.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Occupant Size on Head Displacement in Frontal Collisions

2007-04-16
2007-01-1503
This paper builds on previous research on the development of a head displacement model for restrained occupants in frontal collisions. Physical and mathematical simulations were performed utilizing the 5th percentile female and 50th percentile male Hybrid III dummies to measure the effect of occupant size, seat belt system design and crash severity on resultant head displacement of occupants in frontal collisions. Sled and simulation accelerations ranged from 10 g to 20 g with delta-V's from 6.6 m/s to 10.0 m/s. Results indicate a difference between the 5th percentile female and 50th percentile male dummies. Preliminary assessment of head displacement as a function of occupant kinetic energy demonstrated good correlation.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical Evaluation and Driver Experience with the Head and Neck Support

1994-12-01
942466
Auto and boat racers suffer fatigue and injury from loading of their necks. While racing, a driver's neck often becomes fatigued because it must support the weight of the head and helmet. In crashes, extreme motions of a driver's unrestrained head relative to the restrained torso cause excessive loads in the driver's neck. These neck loads between the head and torso can cause severe or fatal injuries such as spinal dislocations and basilar skull fractures. A new type of head and neck support has been developed that restrains the driver's head relative to their torso to reduce undesirable head motions and neck loads that cause fatigue and injury. This paper describes recent work, using computer crash simulations, crash dummy tests, and driver experiences, to better understand head and neck injury in racing and to evaluate the performance of a new head and neck support.
Technical Paper

Determination of Impact Responses of ES-2re and SID-IIs - Part III: Development of Transfer Functions

2018-04-03
2018-01-1444
An understanding of stiffness characteristics of different body regions, such as thorax, abdomen and pelvis of ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies under controlled laboratory test conditions is essential for development of both compatible performance targets for countermeasures and occupant protection strategies to meet the recently updated FMVSS214, LINCAP and IIHS Dynamic Side Impact Test requirements. The primary purpose of this study is to determine the transfer functions between the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies for different body regions under identical test conditions using flat rigid wall sled tests. The experimental set-up consists of a flat rigid wall with five instrumented load-wall plates aligned with dummy’s shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and femur/knee impacting a stationary dummy seated on a rigid low friction seat at a pre-determined velocity.
Technical Paper

Determination of Impact Responses of ES-2re and SID-IIs – Part II: SID-IIs

2018-04-03
2018-01-1448
The main purpose of this study was to determine the impact responses of the different body regions (shoulder, thorax, abdomen and pelvis/leg) of the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies using rigid wall impacts under different initial test conditions. The experimental set-up consisted of a flat rigid wall with five instrumented load-wall plates aligned with dummy’s shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and knee impacting a stationary dummy seated on a rigid seat at a pre-determined velocity. The relative location and orientation of the load-wall plates was adjusted relative to the body regions of the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies respectively.
Technical Paper

Determination of Impact Responses of ES-2re and SID-IIs - Part I: ES-2re

2018-04-03
2018-01-1449
The main purpose of this study was to determine the impact responses of the different body regions (shoulder, thorax, abdomen and pelvis/leg) of the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies using rigid wall impacts under different initial test conditions. The experimental set-up consisted of a flat rigid wall with five instrumented load-wall plates aligned with dummy’s shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and knee impacting a stationary dummy seated on a rigid seat at a pre-determined velocity. The relative location and orientation of the load-wall plates was adjusted relative to the body regions of the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies respectively.
Technical Paper

Reconstruction of Pediatric Occupant Kinematic Responses Using Finite Element Method in a Real-World Lateral Impact

2017-03-28
2017-01-1462
Computational human body models, especially detailed finite element models are suitable for investigation of human body kinematic responses and injury mechanism. A real-world lateral vehicle-tree impact accident was reconstructed by using finite element method according to the accident description in the CIREN database. At first, a baseline vehicle FE model was modified and validated according to the NCAP lateral impact test. The interaction between the car and the tree in the accident was simulated using LS-Dyna software. Parameters that affect the simulation results, such as the initial pre-crash speed, impact direction, and the initial impact location on the vehicle, were analyzed. The parameters were determined by matching the simulated vehicle body deformations and kinematics to the accident reports.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical Investigation of Thoracolumbar Spine Fractures in Indianapolis-type Racing Car Drivers during Frontal Impacts

2006-12-05
2006-01-3633
The purpose of this study is to provide an understanding of driver kinematics, injury mechanisms and spinal loads causing thoracolumbar spinal fractures in Indianapolis-type racing car drivers. Crash reports from 1996 to 2006, showed a total of forty spine fracture incidents with the thoracolumbar region being the most frequently injured (n=15). Seven of the thoracolumbar fracture cases occurred in the frontal direction and were a higher injury severity as compared to rear impact cases. The present study focuses on thoracolumbar spine fractures in Indianapolis-type racing car drivers during frontal impacts and was performed using driver medical records, crash reports, video, still photographic images, chassis accelerations from on-board data recorders and the analysis tool MADYMO to simulate crashes. A 50th percentile, male, Hybrid III dummy model was used to represent the driver.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Modeling of Hybrid III Head-Neck Complex

1992-11-01
922526
A three-dimensional finite element model of the Hybrid III dummy head-neck complex was created to simulate the Amended Part 572 Head-Neck Pendulum Compliance Test, of the Code of Federal Regulations. The model consisted of a rigid head and five circular aluminum disks joined together by butyl elastomer rubber. Contact surfaces were defined to allow the anterior neck to separate upon an application of extension moments. Two mounting positions, one for flexion and the other one for extension, were used to simulate the head-neck calibration tests. An explicit finite element code PAM-CRASH was utilized to simulate the model dynamic responses. Simulation results were compared to experimental data obtained from First Technology Safety Systems Inc. Model predictions agreed well in both flexion and extension. This model can be used to study the head-neck biomechanics of the existing dummy as well as in the development of new dummies.
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation of Pediatric Thorax Finite Element Model under Dynamic Loading Condition and Analysis of Injury

2013-04-08
2013-01-0456
Previously, a 10-year-old (YO) pediatric thorax finite element model (FEM) was developed and verified against child chest stiffness data measured from clinical cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). However, the CPR experiments were performed at relatively low speeds, with a maximum loading rate of 250 mm/s. Studies showed that the biomechanical responses of human thorax exhibited rate sensitive characteristics. As such, the studies of dynamic responses of the pediatric thorax FEM are needed. Experimental pediatric cadaver data in frontal pendulum impacts and diagonal belt dynamic loading tests were used for dynamic validation. Thoracic force-deflection curves between test and simulation were compared. Strains predicted by the FEM and the injuries observed in the cadaver tests were also compared for injury assessment and analysis. This study helped to further improve the 10 YO pediatric thorax FEM.
Technical Paper

Sled Test Evaluation of Racecar Head/Neck Restraints

2002-12-02
2002-01-3304
Recent action by some racecar sanctioning bodies making head/neck restraint use mandatory for competitors has resulted in a number of methods attempting to provide head/neck restraint. This paper evaluates the performance of a number of commercially available head/neck restraint systems using a stock car seating configuration and a realistic stock car crash pulse. The tests were conducted at an impact angle of 30 degrees to the right, with a midsize male Hybrid III anthropomorphic test device (ATD) modified for racecar crash testing. A six-point latch and link racing harness restrained the ATD. The goal of the tests was to examine the performance of the head/neck restraint without the influence of the seat or steering wheel. Three head/neck restraint systems were tested using a sled pulse with a 35 mph (56 km/h) velocity change and 50G peak deceleration. Three tests with three samples of each system were performed to assess repeatability.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a Real-World Crash Using Finite Element Modeling to Examine Traumatic Rupture of the Aorta

2005-04-11
2005-01-1293
One of the leading causes of death in automotive crashes is traumatic rupture of the aorta (TRA) or blunt aortic injury (BAI). The risk of fatality is high if an aortic injury is not detected and treated promptly. The objective of this study is to investigate TRA mechanisms using finite element (FE) simulations of reconstructed real-world accidents involving aortic injury. For this application, a case was obtained from the William Lehman Injury Research Center (WLIRC), which is a Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) center. In this selected crash, the case vehicle was struck on the left side with a Principal Direction of Force (PDoF) of 290 degrees. The side structure of the case vehicle crushed a maximum of 0.33 m. The total delta-V was estimated to be 6.2 m/s. The occupant, a 62-year old mid-sized male, was fatally injured. The occupant sustained multiple rib fractures, laceration of the right ventricle, and TRA, among other injuries.
Technical Paper

Sled Test Evaluation of Racecar Head/Neck Restraints Revisited

2004-11-30
2004-01-3516
At the 2002 MSEC, we presented a paper on the sled test evaluation of racecar head/neck restraint performance (Melvin, et al. 2002). Some individuals objected to the 3 msec clip filtering procedures used to eliminate artifactual spikes in the neck tension data for the HANS® device. As a result, we are presenting the same test data with the spikes left in the neck force data to reassure those individuals that these spikes did not significantly affect the results and conclusions of our original paper. In addition we will add new insights into understanding head/neck restraint performance gained during two more years of testing such systems. This paper re-evaluates the performance of three commercially available head/neck restraint systems using a stock car seating configuration and a realistic stock car crash pulse. The tests were conducted at an impact angle of 30 degrees to the right, with a midsize male Hybrid III anthropomorphic test device (ATD) modified for racecar crash testing.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Variable Load Energy Absorbers on the Biodynamic Response of Cadavers

1975-02-01
751168
Several types of energy absorbers were tested on a sled simulating a crash deceleration using instrumented, seated erect dummies and cadavers. The energy absorbers were mechanical load limiting devices which attenuated the impact by yielding or tearing of metal. Their principal effects were to reduce the peak deceleration sustained by the occupant with the expected reduction in restraint forces. Constant load level energy absorbers were found to be unattractive because they can easily “bottom out” causing forces and body strains which could be much higher than those without absorbers. Head accelerations were significantly reduced by the energy absorbers as well as some body strain. However, spinal strains in the cadaver were not significantly reduced. They appear to be not only a function of the peak deceleration level but also of the duration of the pulse.
Technical Paper

Development of an FE Model of the Rat Head Subjected to Air Shock Loading

2010-11-03
2010-22-0011
As early as the 1950's, Gurdjian and colleagues (Gurdjian et al., 1955) observed that brain injuries could occur by direct pressure loading without any global head accelerations. This pressure-induced injury mechanism was "forgotten" for some time and is being rekindled due to the many mild traumatic brain injuries attributed to blast overpressure. The aim of the current study was to develop a finite element (FE) model to predict the biomechanical response of rat brain under a shock tube environment. The rat head model, including more than 530,000 hexahedral elements with a typical element size of 100 to 300 microns was developed based on a previous rat brain model for simulating a blunt controlled cortical impact. An FE model, which represents gas flow in a 0.305-m diameter shock tube, was formulated to provide input (incident) blast overpressures to the rat model. It used an Eulerian approach and the predicted pressures were verified with experimental data.
Technical Paper

Mechanisms of Traumatic Rupture of the Aorta and Associated Peri-isthmic Motion and Deformation

2008-11-03
2008-22-0010
This study investigated the mechanisms of traumatic rupture of the aorta (TRA). Eight unembalmed human cadavers were tested using various dynamic blunt loading modes. Impacts were conducted using a 32-kg impactor with a 152-mm face, and high-speed seatbelt pretensioners. High-speed biplane x-ray was used to visualize aortic motion within the mediastinum, and to measure deformation of the aorta. An axillary thoracotomy approach was used to access the peri-isthmic region to place radiopaque markers on the aorta. The cadavers were inverted for testing. Clinically relevant TRA was observed in seven of the tests. Peak average longitudinal Lagrange strain was 0.644, with the average peak for all tests being 0.208 ± 0.216. Peak intraluminal pressure of 165 kPa was recorded. Longitudinal stretch of the aorta was found to be a principal component of injury causation. Stretch of the aorta was generated by thoracic deformation, which is required for injury to occur.
Technical Paper

Effect of Vehicle Front End Profiles Leading to Pedestrian Secondary Head Impact to Ground

2013-11-11
2013-22-0005
Most studies of pedestrian injuries focus on reducing traumatic injuries due to the primary impact between the vehicle and the pedestrian. However, based on the Pedestrian Crash Data Study (PCDS), some researchers concluded that one of the leading causes of head injury for pedestrian crashes can be attributed to the secondary impact, defined as the impact of the pedestrian with the ground after the primary impact of the pedestrian with the vehicle. The purpose of this study is to understand if different vehicle front-end profiles can affect the risk of pedestrian secondary head impact with the ground and thus help in reducing the risk of head injury during secondary head impact with ground. Pedestrian responses were studied using several front-end profiles based off a mid-size vehicle and a SUV that have been validated previously along with several MADYMO pedestrian models.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical Response of the Bovine Pia-Arachnoid Complex to Tensile Loading at Varying Strain Rates

2006-11-06
2006-22-0025
The pia-arachnoid complex (PAC) covering the brain plays an important role in the mechanical response of the brain due to impact or inertial loading. However, the mechanical properties of the pia-arachnoid complex and its influence on the overall response of the brain have not been well characterized. Consequently, finite element (FE) brain models have tended to oversimplify the response of the pia-arachnoid complex, possibly resulting in a loss of accuracy in the model predictions. The aim of this study was to determine, experimentally, the material properties of the pia-arachnoid complex under quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions. Specimens of the pia-arachnoid complex were obtained from the parietal and temporal regions of freshly slaughtered bovine subjects with the specimen orientation recorded. Single-stroke, uniaxial quasi-static and dynamic tensile experiments were performed at strain-rates of 0.05, 0.5, 5 and 100 s-1 (n = 10 for each strain rate group).
Technical Paper

Application of a Finite Element Model of the Brain to Study Traumatic Brain Injury Mechanisms in the Rat

2006-11-06
2006-22-0022
Complete validation of any finite element (FE) model of the human brain is very difficult due to the lack of adequate experimental data. However, more animal brain injury data, especially rat data, obtained under well-defined mechanical loading conditions, are available to advance the understanding of the mechanisms of traumatic brain injury. Unfortunately, internal response of the brain in these experimental studies could not be measured. The aim of this study was to develop a detailed FE model of the rat brain for the prediction of intracranial responses due to different impact scenarios. Model results were used to elucidate possible brain injury mechanisms. An FE model, consisting of more than 250,000 hexahedral elements with a typical element size of 100 to 300 microns, was developed to represent the brain of a rat. The model was first validated locally against peak brain deformation data obtained from nine unique dynamic cortical deformation (vacuum) tests.
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