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Technical Paper

Influence of Compression Ratio on Performance and Variations in Each Cylinder of Multi-Cylinder Natural Gas Engine with PCCI Combustion

In this study, the influence of compression ratio on engine performance and variations of auto-ignition timing in each cylinder were evaluated in a 4-cycle multi-cylinder natural gas engine with PCCI combustion system. In experiment, the compression ratio was systematically changed from 19 to 25. From the result, it was clarified that an increase in compression ratio makes not only the improvement of engine output and fuel economy but also the reduction of NOx emission, even though the mechanical loss is increased. Simultaneously, the variation of auto-ignition timing in each cylinder can also be reduced.
Technical Paper

Formation Process of SOF in the Combustion Chamber of IDI Diesel Engines

Exhaust Particulate emitted from diesel engines is a serious problem form the point of view of the environment and energy saving. Exhaust particulate is consist of dry soot and SOF (soluble organic fraction). To clarify the formation process of SOF in the combustion chamber of diesel engines, first lower temperature column condensed method was investigated. The gas from combustion chamber was collected to the sampling column using this method, and the cracked as well as the condensation polymerized components were analyzed with gas chromatography. The sampling condition of the low temperature column condensation method are length of condensation column 600mm, cooling temperature 198K, and dilution ratio 5. The diesel fuel injected into the combustion chamber, first cracks into lower boiling point hydrocarbons, this is followed by dehydrogenation and formation of benzene ring compounds through condensation polymerization. This is followed by the formation of PAH.
Technical Paper

An Investigation on the Simultaneous Reduction of Particulate and NOx by Controlling Both the Turbulence and the Mixture Formation in DI Diesel Engines

This paper presents experimental results of the reduction of both particulate and NOx emitted from direct injection diesel engines by a two stage combustion process. The primary combustion is made very rich to reduce NOx and then the particulate is oxidized by strong turbulence generated during the secondary combustion. The rich mixture is formed by low pressure fuel injection and a small cavity combustion chamber configuration. The strong turbulence is generated by a jet of burned gas from an auxiliary chamber installed at the cylinder head. The results showed that NOx was reduced significantly while maintaining fuel consumption and particulate emissions. An investigation was also carried out on the particulate reduction process in the combustion chamber with the turbulence by gas sampling and in-cylinder observation with an optical fiber scope and a high speed camera.
Technical Paper

Analysis of NO Formation Characteristics and Control Concepts in Diesel Engines from NO Reaction-Kinetic Considerations

This paper uses NO Reaction Kinetic to determine NO formation characteristics in diesel engines. The NO formation was calculated by Extended Zel'dovich Reaction Kinetics in a diffusion process. The results show that the NO formation rate is independent of the mixing of the combustion gas, and that internal EGR (combustion gas mixing in a cylinder) has no effect on NO reduction. The paper also shows the potential of two stage combustion, and its effect strongly depends on the time-scale of mixing. Additionally the paper investigates the mechanism of increased NOx emissions in high pressure fuel injection.
Technical Paper

Elimination of Combustion Difficulties in a Glow Plug-Assisted Diesel Engine Operated with Pure Ethanol and Water-Ethanol Mixtures

Forced ignition with glow plugs has great potential for the utilization of alcohol fuels in diesel engines. However, the installation of glow plugs may cause misfiring or knocking in parts of the operating range. This paper presents an analysis of the factors influencing the ignition characteristics of ethanol in a glow plug-assisted diesel engine; these factors may be classified into two categories: the factors related to the temperature history of the drop lets before contact with the glow plug, and those related to the probability of contact. By optimizing these factors, the combustion difficulties were successfully eliminated over the whole operating range, and engine performance comparable with conventional diesel operation was achieved.
Technical Paper

Effects of Combustion and Injection Systems on Unburnt HC and Particulate Emissions from a DI Diesel Engine

This paper is a systematic investigation of the effects of combustion and injection systems on hydrocarbon(HC) and particulate emissions from a DI diesel engine. Piston cavity diameter, swirl ratio, number of injection nozzle openings, and injection direction are varied as the experimental parameters, and the constituents in the soluble organic fraction (SOF) of the particulate were analyzed. The results show that the emission characteristics of deep dish chambers greatly differ from those of shallow dish chambers varying with the number of nozzle openings, the injection direction, and swirl intensity. The HC analysis shows mainly low carbon number gaseous HC constituents, and there is a tendency towards increasing polynucleation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon(PAH) in SOF with increasing soot formation.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Diesel Soot Suppression with Soluble Fuel Additives

Experiments on a large number of soluble fuel additives were systematically conducted for diesel soot reduction. It was found that Ca and Ba were the most effective soot suppressors. The main determinants of soot reduction were: the metal mol-content of the fuel, the excess air factor, and the gas turbulence in the combustion chamber. The soot reduction ratio was expressed by an exponential function of the metal mol-content in the fuel, depending on the metal but independent of the metal compound. A rise in excess air factor or gas turbulence increased the value of a coefficient in the function, resulting in larger reductions in soot with the fuel additives. High-speed soot sampling from the cylinder showed that with the metal additive, the soot concentration in the combustion chamber was substantially reduced during the whole period of combustion. It is thought that the additive acts as a catalyst not only to improve soot oxidation but also to suppress soot formation.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of DPF for Diesel Engine Fueled with Biodiesel Fuel - Second Report: Exhaust Gas Emission Characteristics at Self-Regeneration of DPF

In our first study[1], we reported that the self-regeneration of DPF is enabled by the function of residual potassium methoxide (CH3OK) as catalyst, contained in biodiesel fuel that is collected in the DPF at lower engine loads[1]. In the present report, exhaust emission characteristics after using DPF were investigated by continuous measurement of exhaust gas. The results show that the self-regeneration of DPF occurs when engine loads change from lower to higher, and at the same time, methanol concentration in exhaust gas reaches to a higher peak. This peak is higher than when self-regeneration does not take place. The higher concentration of methanol is reduced by repeating the self-regeneration. The SOF content in PM is reduced by DPF at both high and low engine load, which is a characteristic that was not seen with gas oil.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel Properties on Diesel Engine Exhaust Particulate Formation

Exhaust particulate in diesel engines are affected by fuel properties, especially the aromatic hydrocarbon content and distillation properties, but the reasons for this are not clear. The process of particulate formation has been reported to start with a thermal cracking of the fuel to lower boiling point hydrocarbons followed by condensation polymerization and production of benzene ring compounds; the formation of particulate takes place via polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The fuel properties affect diesel engine particulate because the thermal cracking and condensation polymerization of various fuels are different.
Technical Paper

W/O Emulsion Realizes Low Smoke and Efficient Operation of DI Engines without High Pressure injection

To improve engine performance parameters such as smoke, NOx, and BSFC in a DI diesel engine, water-in-gas oil emulsified fuel was used without high pressure or high injection rate. It was confirmed that when compared with high pressure and high injection rate operation with gas oil, emulsified fuel gives significant reductions in NOx concentration, improved fuel economy, and reduced smoke density at ordinary injection pressure and retarded timings.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of a Dual-Fuel Diesel Engine with Biodiesel and Low-Calorie Gas Fuels

The experimental study has been carried out on a diesel engine dual-fueled by wood-pyrolysis gas and biodiesel fuel. Wood-pyrolysis gas was simulated by a low-calorie mixed gas (LCG), which consists of hydrogen, methane and inert gas. Effects of LCG/biodiesel ratio, biodiesel injection-timing, and gas-fuel composition were examined. Obtained results show that under a constant-torque condition, an increase in gas fuel consumption causes a decrease in a brake thermal efficiency due to a decrease in combustion efficiency and specific heat ratio. Also, NOx emission in exhaust gas is decreased by increase in gas fuel consumption under the low load condition, while it shows no change under the relatively high load condition. In addition, an early injection of biodiesel is effective to reduce carbon monoxide emission due to increase in combustion pressure and temperature.
Technical Paper

A Quantitative Analysis of Schlieren Photography for an Internal Combustion Engine Diagnostics

This report describes the possibility of quantitative analysis of Schlieren photographs as an internal combustion engine diagnostic. Using a recently developed photographic analysis system, it was attempted to analyze Schlieren photographs. Results showed simple integration calculations produced significant distortion in the analyzed results. To eliminate the distortion, some correction techniques were developed in this research. Accuracy of the analyzed results were evaluated roughly with uncertainty analysis. The results showed that this analysis technique can be one of the approximate diagnostics for the measurement of fuel vapor and density distribution in internal combustion engine research. SCHLIEREN photography is one of the most popular visualization techniques in the research of internal combustion engines. Although the photographs have density information in themselves, they are used mainly for the purpose of qualitative visualization.
Technical Paper

Catalytic Reduction of NOx in Actual Diesel Engine Exhaust

Copper ion-exchanged ZSM-5 zeolite catalyst, which reduces nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the presence of oxygen and hydrocarbons, was applied to actual diesel engine exhaust. Copper ion-exchanged ZSM-5 zeolite effectively reduced NOx by 25% in normal engine operation, and by 80% when hydrocarbons in the exhaust were increased. Water in the exhaust gas decreased the NOx reduction efficiency, but oxygen and sulfur appeared to have only a small effect. Maximum NOx reduction was observed at 400°C irrespective of hydrocarbon species, and did not decrease with space velocity up to values of 20,000 1/h. THE PURPOSE of this paper is to evaluate the possibilities and problems in catalytic reduction of NOx in actual diesel engine exhaust. Here, a copper ion-exchanged ZSM-5 zeolite (Cu-Z) catalyst was applied to diesel engine exhaust to examine the dependency of the NOx reduction efficiency on temperature and space velocity. The effects of oxygen, water and hydrocarbons were also examined.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Smoke and NOx by Strong Turbulence Generated During the Combustion Process in D.I. Diesel Engines

This paper presents results of experiments to reduce smoke emitted from direct Injection diesel engines by strong turbulence generated during the combustion process. The turbulence was created by jets of burned gas from an auxiliary chamber installed in the cylinder head. Strong turbulence, which was induced late in the combustion period, enhanced the mixing of air with unburned fuel and soot, resulting in a remarkable reduction of smoke and particulate; NOx did not show any increase with this system, and thermal efficiency was improved at high loads. The paper also shows that the combination of EGR and water injection with this system effectively reduces the both smoke and NOx.
Technical Paper

A Study of a Compression Ignition Methanol Engine with Converted Dimethyl Ether as an Ignition Improver

Dimethyl ether (DME) can be converted easily from methanol in a catalytic reactor, and it has very good compression ignition characteristics. This paper presents experimental results on a compression ignition methanol engine with DME as an ignition improver. The results show that engine operation is sufficiently smooth with high efficiency without spark or glow plugs. In the experiments, two methods for DME introduction were investigated: an aspiration and a torch ignition method. The aspiration method introduces DME into the intake manifold, and is structurally simple but suffers from poor emission characteristics at partial loads, and a large amount of DME is required for ignition. With the torch ignition method, DME is introduced into a torch ignition chamber during the intake stroke, and significant reductions in both the necessary DME quantity and emissions were obtained. Engine operation was also attempted with DME-dissolved methanol fuel without ignition aids.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel Properties on Particulate Formation (The Effect of Molecular Structure and Carbon Number)

Exhaust particulate in diesel engines is affected by fuel properties, but the reason for this is not clear. Interest in using low-grade fuels in diesel engines has made it necessary to understand the particulate formation mechanism and factors to decrease it. Particulate formation has been reported to start with thermal cracking of the fuel to lower boiling point hydrocarbons followed by condensation polymerization and production of benzene ring compounds; the formation of particulate takes place via polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. This report investigates the amount and configuration of particulate with a fluid reaction tube and in a nitrogen atmosphere, and analyzes polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) of fuels with different molecular structure and carbon number.
Technical Paper

Mechanism of NOx Reduction by Ethanol on a Silver-Base Catalyst

Since there is a trade-off relationship between NOx and particulates in exhaust gas emitted from a diesel engine, simultaneous reduction of the amounts of NOx and particulates in a combustion chamber is difficult. However, the amount of particulates produced in the combustion process could be reduced in a state of almost complete combustion, and the amount of NOx produced during the combustion process could be reduced by the use of a catalyst and reducing agent in the exhaust process. It has been demonstrated that the use of ethanol as a reducing agent on a silver-base catalyst in the presence of oxygen is an effective means for reducing NOx, although the mechanism of the reduction has not been elucidated. Therefore, in the present study, an NOx-reduction apparatus was conducted, and model experiments on NOx reduction were carried out in an atmosphere simulating exhaust gas emitted from a diesel engine and at the same catalyst temperature as that in a combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Oxygenated Fuel Additive on the Reduction of Diesel Exhaust Particulates

The blending of dimethyl carbonate (DMC), which contains 53% of oxygen, in diesel fuel is very effective to suppress the formation of exhaust particulates, however, the mechanism of the suppression has not been made clear. In this study, the comparison on the performance of gas oil and DMC mixture was achieved. The effect of the oxygen in DMC molecule has to suppress the formation of particulates was monitored by way of using thermal cracking analyzer under various conditions.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Performance and Emissions of a Compression Ignition Methanol Engine with Dimethyl Ether

Dimethyl ether (DME) has very good compression ignition characteristics, and can be converted from methanol using a γ - alumina catalyst. A previous report investigated a compression ignition methanol engine with DME as an ignition improver. The results showed that the engine operation was sufficiently smooth without either spark or glow plugs. Two methods were studied, one was an aspiration method, and the other was a torch ignition chamber method (TIC method). The aspiration method allows a simple engine structure, but suffers from poor engine emissions and requires large amounts of DME. With the TIC method where the DME was introduced into a torch ignition chamber (TIC) during the intake stroke, the diffusion of the DME into the main combustion chamber was limited, and significant reductions in both the necessary quantity of DME and emissions were obtained [1][2].
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of the Role of Initial Combustion on Reduction of NO and Soot from DI Diesel Engines

Multidimensional simulation has been carried out to be clear the role of initial combustion in D.I. diesel engines on reduction of NO and soot emissions by reduction of initial injection rate or pilot injection. The multidimensional engine simulation code, FREC-3D(CI), which was developed by IKEGAMI group in Kyoto Univ. at 1988, was modified and was used in this study. The combustion submodel in this code was updated including ignition submodel that was formulated by a one-step global chemical mechanism to simulate measured ignition delay and initial combustion, sufficiently. In-cylinder NO and soot formation models were introduced by present authors. NO and soot were predicted by Zeldovich mechanism and Morel's soot formation and oxidation formulations, respectively.