Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Phenomenological Mean Value Soot Model for Common-Rail Diesel Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-1277
A mean value soot model (MVSM) was developed and validated for the realtime prediction of the raw, engine-out soot emissions from common rail diesel engines. Through the consideration of five representative states during the combustion cycle, the developed MVSM determines the engine out soot emissions based on the soot formation and oxidation processes, using only parameters available from a standard engine control unit. 16 model parameters are used to describe the engine, fuel, and combustion characteristics, and must be determined for each engine and fuel combination. The MVSM was parameterized and validated using the measured soot emissions from two different engines operating with a total of three different fuels. After parameterization, the MVSM was capable of qualitatively and quantitatively reproducing the soot emissions for operating points throughout the entire operating map, including for operating regimes not considered during the parameterization.
Journal Article

Predicting In-Cylinder Soot in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine for Variations in SOI and TDC Temperature Using the Conditional Moment Closure Model

2013-09-08
2013-24-0016
Numerical simulations of in-cylinder soot evolution in the optically accessible heavy-duty diesel engine of Sandia National Laboratories have been performed with the multidimensional conditional moment closure (CMC) model using a reduced n-heptane chemical mechanism coupled with a two-equation soot model. Simulation results are compared to the high-fidelity experimental data by means of pressure traces, apparent heat release rate (AHRR) and time-resolved in-cylinder soot mass derived from optical soot luminosity and multiple wavelength pyrometry in conjunction with high speed soot cloud imaging. In addition, spatial distributions of soot relevant quantities are given for several operating conditions.
Journal Article

Determination of Supersonic Inlet Boundaries for Gaseous Engines Based on Detailed RANS and LES Simulations

2013-09-08
2013-24-0004
The combustion of gaseous fuels like methane in internal combustion engines is an interesting alternative to the conventional gasoline and diesel fuels. Reasons are the availability of the resource and the significant advantage in terms of CO2 emissions due to the beneficial C/H ratio. One difficulty of gaseous fuels is the preparation of the gas/air mixtures for all operation points, since the volumetric energy density of the fuel is lower compared to conventional liquid fuels. Low-pressure port-injected systems suffer from substantially reduced volumetric efficiencies. Direct injection systems avoid such losses; in order to deliver enough fuel into the cylinder, high pressures are however needed for the gas injection which forces the fuel to enter the cylinder at supersonic speed followed by a Mach disk. The detailed modeling of these physical effects is very challenging, since the fluid velocities and pressure and velocity gradients at the Mach disc are very high.
Technical Paper

Near-Wall Unsteady Premixed Flame Propagation in S.I. Engines

1995-02-01
951001
A computational study of the near-wall premixed flame propagation in homogeneous charge spark ignited engines is presented on the basis of a spectral concept accounting for flow-chemistry interaction in the flamelet regime. Flame surface enhancement due to wrinkling and modification of the local laminar flame speed due to flame stretch are the main phenomena described by the model. A high pass filter in the turbulent kinetic energy spectrum associated with the distance between the ensemble-averaged flame front location and the solid surface has been also introduced. In addition a probability density function of instantaneous flamelet positions around the above mean flame front location allows to consider statistical effects in a simplified way. Issues of temperature distribution within the boundary layer and associated heat losses, except for the concept of a thermal quenching distance, are thereby not explicitly taken into account.
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation of a Global Reaction Model for a Range of Gasolines and Kerosenes under HCCI Conditions

2011-09-11
2011-24-0024
Compact and computationally efficient reaction models capable of accurately predicting ignition delay and heat release rates are a prerequisite for the development of strategies to control and optimize HCCI engines. In particular for full boiling range fuels exhibiting two-stage ignition a tremendous demand exists in the engine development community. To this end, in a previous investigation, a global reaction mechanism was developed and fitted to data from shock tube experiments for n-heptane and five full boiling range fuels. By means of a genetic algorithm, for each of these fuels, a set of reaction rate parameters (consisting of pre-exponential factors, activation energies and concentration exponents) has been defined, without any change to the model form.
Journal Article

Soot Emission Measurements and Validation of a Mean Value Soot Model for Common-Rail Diesel Engines during Transient Operation

2009-06-15
2009-01-1904
Measurements of the soot emissions and engine operating parameters from a diesel engine during transient operation were used to investigate the influence of transient operation on the soot emissions, as well as to validate a realtime mean value soot model (MVSM, [1]) for transient operation. To maximize the temporal resolution of the soot emission and engine parameter measurements (in particular EGR), fast instruments were used and their dynamic responses characterized and corrected. During tip-in transients, an increase in the soot emissions was observed due to a short term oxygen deficit compared to steady-state operation. No significant difference was seen between steady-state and transient operation for acceleration transients. When the MVSM was provided with inputs of sufficient temporal resolution, it was capable of reproducing the qualitative and, in part, quantitative soot emission trends.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of Multi-In-Cylinder Pyrometer Measurements and Exhaust Soot Emissions Under Steady and Transient Operation of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0177
Future engine emission legislation regulates soot from Diesel engines strictly and requires improvements in engine calibration, fast response sensor equipment and exhaust gas aftertreatment systems. The in-cylinder phenomena of soot formation and oxidation can be analysed using a pyrometer with optical access to the combustion chamber. The pyrometer collects the radiation of soot particles during diffusion combustion, and allows the calculation of soot temperature and a proportional value for the in-cylinder soot density (KL). A four-cylinder heavy-duty Diesel engine was equipped in all cylinders with prototype pyrometers and state of the art pressure transducers. The cylinder specific data was recorded crank angle-resolved for a set of steady-state and transient operating conditions, as well as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) addition and over a wide range of soot emissions.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Turbulence and Fuel-Air Mixing within a Scavenged Pre-Chamber Using RANS and LES

2019-04-02
2019-01-0198
It is well-known that the spatial distribution of turbulence intensity and fuel concentration at spark-time play a pivotal role on the flame development within the pre-chamber in gas engines equipped with a scavenged pre-chamber. The combustion within the pre-chamber is in turn a determining factor in terms of combustion behaviour in the main chamber, and accordingly it influences the engine efficiency as well as pollutant emissions such as NOx and unburned hydrocarbons. This paper presents a numerical analysis of fuel concentration and turbulence distribution at spark time for an automotive-sized scavenged pre-chamber mounted at the head of a rapid compression-expansion machine (RCEM). Two different pre-chamber orifice orientations are considered: straight and tilted nozzles. The latter introduce a swirling flow within the pre-chamber. Simulations have been carried out using with two different turbulence models: Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and Large-Eddy Simulation (LES).
Journal Article

Fundamental Aspects of Jet Ignition for Natural Gas Engines

2017-09-04
2017-24-0097
Large-bore natural gas engines may use pre-chamber ignition. Despite extensive research in engine environments, the exact nature of the jet, as it exits the pre-chamber orifice, is not thoroughly understood and this leads to uncertainty in the design of such systems. In this work, a specially-designed rig comprising a quartz pre-chamber fit with an orifice and a turbulent flowing mixture outside the pre-chamber was used to study the pre-chamber flame, the jet, and the subsequent premixed flame initiation mechanism by OH* and CH* chemiluminescence. Ethylene and methane were used. The experimental results are supplemented by LES and 0D modelling, providing insights into the mass flow rate evolution at the orifice and into the nature of the fluid there. Both LES and experiment suggest that for large orifice diameters, the flow that exits the orifice is composed of a column of hot products surrounded by an annulus of unburnt pre-chamber fluid.
Journal Article

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Engine Operational Conditions’ Influences on a Small Un-Scavenged Pre-Chamber’s Behavior

2017-09-04
2017-24-0094
Despite significant benefits in terms of the ignition enhancement, the strength and timing of the turbulent flame jets subsequently issuing into the main chamber strongly depend on the pre-chamber combustion process and, thus, are sensitive to the specific engine operating conditions it experienced. This poses considerable difficulties in optimizing engine operating conditions as well as controlling engine performance. This paper investigates the influence of engine operating conditions on the pre-chamber combustion event using both experimental and numerical methods. A miniaturized piezo-electric pressure transducer was designed to be placed inside the engine cylinder head to record the pre-chamber inner volume pressure, in addition to conventional pressure indication inside the main chamber.
Journal Article

The Effect of Cycle-to-Cycle Variations on the NOx-SFC Tradeoff in Diesel Engines under Long Ignition Delay Conditions

2017-09-04
2017-24-0100
Cycle-to-cycle variations in internal combustion engines are known to lead to limitations in engine load and efficiency, as well as increases in emissions. Recent research has led to the identification of the source of cyclic variations of pressure, soot and NO emissions in direct injection common rail diesel engines, when employing a single block injection and operating under long ignition delay conditions. The variations in peak pressure arise from changes in the diffusion combustion rate, caused by randomly occurring in-cylinder pressure fluctuations. These fluctuations result from the excitation of the first radial mode of vibration of the cylinder gases which arises from the rapid premixed combustion after the long ignition delay period. Cycles with high-intensity fluctuations present faster diffusion combustion, resulting in higher cycle peak pressure, as well as higher measured exhaust NO concentrations.
Journal Article

Generation of Turbulence in a RCEM towards Engine Relevant Conditions for Premixed Combustion Based on CFD and PIV Investigations

2017-09-04
2017-24-0043
The interaction of turbulent premixed methane combustion with the surrounding flow field can be studied using optically accessible test rigs such as a rapid compression expansion machine (RCEM). The high flexibility offered by such a test rig allows its operation at various thermochemical conditions at ignition. However, limitations inherent to such test rigs due to the absence of an intake stroke do not allow turbulence production as found in IC-engines. Hence, means to introduce turbulence need to be implemented and the relevant turbulence quantities have to be identified in order to enable comparability with engine relevant conditions. A dedicated high-pressure direct injection of air at the beginning of the compression phase is considered as a measure to generate adjustable turbulence intensities at spark timing and during the early flame propagation.
Technical Paper

Clean Engine Vehicle A Natural Gas Driven Euro-4/SULEV with 30% Reduced CO2-Emissions

2004-03-08
2004-01-0645
The goal of the Clean Engine Vehicle project (CEV) was the conversion of a gasoline engine to dedicated natural gas operation in order to achieve a significant reduction in CO2 emissions. The targeted reduction was 30% compared with a gasoline vehicle with similar performance. Along with the reduction in emissions, the second major requirement of the project, however, was compliance of the results with Euro-4 and SULEV emission limits. The project entailed modifications to the engine and the pre-existing model-based engine control system, the introduction of an enhanced catalytic converter and downsizing and turbocharging of the engine. As required by the initiators of the project, all components used were commonly available, some of them just being optimized or modified for natural gas operation.
Technical Paper

Natural Gas Engines for Cogeneration: Highest Efficiency and Near-Zero-Emissions through Turbocharging, EGR and 3-Way Catalytic Converter

2000-10-16
2000-01-2825
Combustion engines for decentralized power generation or cogeneration in general, are subject to increasingly stringent pollutant emissions regulations. Motivated by the Europe-;wide lowest allowable NOx levels in Switzerland - particularly in the Zurich metropolitan area with 50 mg/Nm3 at 5% O2 - and in close cooperation with industry, the I.C. Engines and Combustion Laboratory (LVV) of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETHZ) has investigated some new operating concepts and engine processes in order to overcome the dilemma between low emissions and high efficiency, which is usually encountered in engine optimization. Our final approach thereby involves the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) combined with stoichiometric mixture (λ = 1) and a 3-way catalytic converter. The engine is supercharged and the intake mixture aftercooled for high power density and thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Oxygenated Fuels for Particulate Emissions Reduction in Heavy-Duty DI-Diesel Engines with Common-Rail Fuel Injection

2000-10-16
2000-01-2885
Oxygenated fuel additives are currently an important research topic for particulate emissions reduction in diesel engines with direct injection (DI) to meet future emission regulations. In this work more than twenty oxygenated hydrocarbons from the literature were considered as diesel fuel additives. Butylal (an acetal compound, chemical formula C9H20O2) offers significant advantages over most other oxygenates in that its physical properties are very close to those of common diesel fuel. Wear scar measurements were conducted to evaluate the lubricity characteristics of diglyme (C6H14O3), ethyldiglyme (C8H18O3), butylal and different diesel-butylal mixtures. The results reveal the low lubricity of all oxygenated compounds. Thus, for the engine tests, a lubricity improver has been added to the diesel-butylal mixtures.
Technical Paper

A Quasi-Dimensional Model for Estimating the Influence of Hydrogen-Rich Gas Addition on Turbulent Flame Speed and Flame Front Propagation in IC-SI Engines

2005-04-11
2005-01-0232
Addition of hydrogen-rich gas to gasoline in internal combustion engines is gaining increasing interest, as it seems suitable to reach near-zero emission combustion, able to easily meet future stringent regulations. Bottled gas was used to simulate the output of an on-board reformer (21%H2, 24%CO, 55%N2). Measurements were carried out on a 4-stroke, 2-cylinder, 0.5-liter engine, with EGR, in order to calculate the heat release rate through a detailed two-zone model. A quasi-dimensional model of the flame was developed: it consists of a geometrical estimate of the flame surface, which is then coupled with the heat release rate. The turbulent flame speed can then be inferred. The model was then applied to blends of gasoline with hydrogen-rich gas, showing the effect on the flame speed and transition from laminar to turbulent combustion.
Technical Paper

THE Post Injection: Coalescence of 3D CFD-CMC Simulation, 2D Visualizations in a Constant Volume Chamber and Application in a Modern Passenger Car Diesel Engine

2015-09-06
2015-24-2515
Past research has shown that post injections have the potential to reduce Diesel engine exhaust PM concentration without any significant influence in NOx emissions. However, an accurate, widely applicable rule of how to parameterize a post injection such that it provides a maximum reduction of PM emissions does not exist. Moreover, the underlying mechanisms are not thoroughly understood. In past research, the underlying mechanisms have been investigated in engine experiments, in constant volume chambers and also using detailed 3D CFD-CMC simulations. It has been observed that soot reduction due to a post injection is mainly due to two reasons: increased turbulence from the post injection during soot oxidation and lower soot formation due to lower amount of fuel in the main combustion at similar load conditions. Those studies do not show a significant temperature rise caused by the post injection.
Technical Paper

Influence of Hydrogen-Rich-Gas Addition on Combustion, Pollutant Formation and Efficiency of an IC-SI Engine

2004-03-08
2004-01-0972
The addition of hydrogen-rich gas to gasoline in an Internal Combustion Engine seems to be particularly suitable to arrive at a near-zero emission Otto engine, which would be able to easily meet the most stringent regulations. In order to simulate the output of an on-board reformer that partially oxidizes gasoline, providing the hydrogen-rich gas, a bottled gas has been used. Detailed results of our measurements are here shown, such as fuel consumption, engine efficiency, exhaust emissions, analysis of the heat release rates and combustion duration, for both pure gasoline and blends with reformer gas. Additionally simulations have been performed to better understand the engine behaviour and NOx formation.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Factors Influencing Particulate Matter Emissions of a Compression-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine

1999-10-25
1999-01-3492
The relative amounts of heat released by premixed and by diffusion controlled combustion is varied in a compression-ignition engine run on the test bench through variation of four operating parameters. Exhaust gas is led to a differential mobility particle sizer and to filters that are loaded for gravimetric analysis. Particle size distributions are acquired in the 16÷630 nm range of electrical mobility diameters. Opacity readings of the exhaust gas are taken, cylinder pressure is indicated, a value for the combustion noise is computed; gaseous emissions are recorded and heat release rates based on cylinder pressure analysis are evaluated. Two full factorial experiments at 2 bar bmep 2000 rpm are run as 24 combinations of four factors: Injection pressure 400 and 1200 bar, with and without pilot injection, 1/3 and 1/4 mass-fraction exhaust gas recirculation, late, middle and early start of injection.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Diesel Particulate Emissions in Heavy-Duty DI-Diesel Engines with Common Rail Fuel Injection Influence of Injection Parameters and Fuel Composition

2001-09-24
2001-01-3573
The findings presented in this paper result from a collaboration between two Federal Laboratories in Switzerland. In this research project the characteristics of the particulates from internal combustion engines were investigated in detail. Measurements were carried out on a single-cylinder research engine focusing on exhaust particulate matter emissions. The single-cylinder diesel engine is supercharged and features a common-rail direct injection system. This work analyzes the influence of fuel properties and injection parameters on the particulate number size distribution. For the fuel composition, five different fuels including low sulfur diesel, zero-sulfur and zero-aromatics diesel, two blending portions of oxygenated diesel additive and rapeseedmethylester were used. For the injection parameters the injection pressure, the start of injection and the fuel amount in the pilot- and in the post-injection phases were varied.
X