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Technical Paper

Advanced Emission and Fuel Economy Concept Using Combined Injection of Gasoline and Hydrogen in SI-Engines

In order to meet future requirements for emission reduction and fuel economy a variety of concepts are available for gasoline engines. In the recent past new pathways have been found using alternative fuels and fuel combinations to establish cost optimized solutions. The presented concept for a SI-engine consists of combined injection of gasoline and hydrogen. A hydrogen enriched gas mixture is being injected additionally to gasoline into the engine manifold. The gas composition represents the output of an onboard gasoline reformer. The simulations and measurements show substantial benefits to improve the combustion process resulting in reduced cold start and warm up emissions and optimized part load operation. The replacement of gasoline by hydrogen-rich gas during engine start leads to zero hydrocarbons in the exhaust gas.
Technical Paper

Influence of Fuel Composition and Combustion Process on Thermodynamic Parameters of SI Engines

In the field of heavy-duty applications almost all engines apply the compression ignition principle, spark ignition is used only in the niche of CNG engines. The main reason for this is the high efficiency advantage of diesel engines over SI engines. Beside this drawback SI engines have some favorable properties like lower weight, simple exhaust gas aftertreatment in case of stoichiometric operation, high robustness, simple packaging and lower costs. The main objective of this fundamental research was to evaluate the limits of a SI engine for heavy-duty applications. Considering heavy-duty SI engines fuel consumption under full load conditions has a high impact on CO₂ emissions. Therefore, downsizing is not a promising approach to improve fuel consumption and consequently the focus of this work lies on the enhancement of thermal efficiency in the complete engine map, intensively considering knocking issues.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Nozzle-Geometry Variations and Back-Pressure Changes on High Pressure Gas Injections under Application-Relevant Conditions

In the present work numerical simulations were carried out investigating the effect of fuel type, nozzle-geometry variations and back-pressure changes on high-pressure gas injections under application-relevant conditions. Methane, hydrogen and nitrogen with a total pressure of 500 bar served as high-pressure fuels and were injected into air at rest at 200 bar and 100 bar. Different nozzle shapes were simulated and the analysis of the results lead to a recommendation for the most advantageous geometry regarding jet penetration, volumetric growth, mixing enhancement and discharge coefficient. Additionally an artificial inlet boundary conditions was tested for the use with real-gas thermodynamics and was shown to be capable of reducing the simulation time significantly.
Journal Article

Fundamental Aspects of Jet Ignition for Natural Gas Engines

Large-bore natural gas engines may use pre-chamber ignition. Despite extensive research in engine environments, the exact nature of the jet, as it exits the pre-chamber orifice, is not thoroughly understood and this leads to uncertainty in the design of such systems. In this work, a specially-designed rig comprising a quartz pre-chamber fit with an orifice and a turbulent flowing mixture outside the pre-chamber was used to study the pre-chamber flame, the jet, and the subsequent premixed flame initiation mechanism by OH* and CH* chemiluminescence. Ethylene and methane were used. The experimental results are supplemented by LES and 0D modelling, providing insights into the mass flow rate evolution at the orifice and into the nature of the fluid there. Both LES and experiment suggest that for large orifice diameters, the flow that exits the orifice is composed of a column of hot products surrounded by an annulus of unburnt pre-chamber fluid.
Journal Article

Generation of Turbulence in a RCEM towards Engine Relevant Conditions for Premixed Combustion Based on CFD and PIV Investigations

The interaction of turbulent premixed methane combustion with the surrounding flow field can be studied using optically accessible test rigs such as a rapid compression expansion machine (RCEM). The high flexibility offered by such a test rig allows its operation at various thermochemical conditions at ignition. However, limitations inherent to such test rigs due to the absence of an intake stroke do not allow turbulence production as found in IC-engines. Hence, means to introduce turbulence need to be implemented and the relevant turbulence quantities have to be identified in order to enable comparability with engine relevant conditions. A dedicated high-pressure direct injection of air at the beginning of the compression phase is considered as a measure to generate adjustable turbulence intensities at spark timing and during the early flame propagation.
Technical Paper

Clean Engine Vehicle A Natural Gas Driven Euro-4/SULEV with 30% Reduced CO2-Emissions

The goal of the Clean Engine Vehicle project (CEV) was the conversion of a gasoline engine to dedicated natural gas operation in order to achieve a significant reduction in CO2 emissions. The targeted reduction was 30% compared with a gasoline vehicle with similar performance. Along with the reduction in emissions, the second major requirement of the project, however, was compliance of the results with Euro-4 and SULEV emission limits. The project entailed modifications to the engine and the pre-existing model-based engine control system, the introduction of an enhanced catalytic converter and downsizing and turbocharging of the engine. As required by the initiators of the project, all components used were commonly available, some of them just being optimized or modified for natural gas operation.
Technical Paper

A Quasi-Dimensional Model for Estimating the Influence of Hydrogen-Rich Gas Addition on Turbulent Flame Speed and Flame Front Propagation in IC-SI Engines

Addition of hydrogen-rich gas to gasoline in internal combustion engines is gaining increasing interest, as it seems suitable to reach near-zero emission combustion, able to easily meet future stringent regulations. Bottled gas was used to simulate the output of an on-board reformer (21%H2, 24%CO, 55%N2). Measurements were carried out on a 4-stroke, 2-cylinder, 0.5-liter engine, with EGR, in order to calculate the heat release rate through a detailed two-zone model. A quasi-dimensional model of the flame was developed: it consists of a geometrical estimate of the flame surface, which is then coupled with the heat release rate. The turbulent flame speed can then be inferred. The model was then applied to blends of gasoline with hydrogen-rich gas, showing the effect on the flame speed and transition from laminar to turbulent combustion.
Technical Paper

Predictive Phenomenological C.I. Combustion Modeling Optimization on the Basis of Bio-Inspired Algorithms

A new approach within the well-known trade-off in combustion process simulations between computational efforts (and thus the capability for engine operating map calculations) on the one hand, and accuracy of predictions on the other, has been developed and applied successfully to diesel combustion, in particular to energy release and pollutant formation. Using phenomenological models in combination with bio-inspired algorithms (for parameter identification), it is now possible to predict thermal, chemical and injection related engine characteristics over an entire operating map including different types of fuel (e.g. diesel, water-in-diesel emulsions and oxygenated diesel).
Journal Article

Determination of Supersonic Inlet Boundaries for Gaseous Engines Based on Detailed RANS and LES Simulations

The combustion of gaseous fuels like methane in internal combustion engines is an interesting alternative to the conventional gasoline and diesel fuels. Reasons are the availability of the resource and the significant advantage in terms of CO2 emissions due to the beneficial C/H ratio. One difficulty of gaseous fuels is the preparation of the gas/air mixtures for all operation points, since the volumetric energy density of the fuel is lower compared to conventional liquid fuels. Low-pressure port-injected systems suffer from substantially reduced volumetric efficiencies. Direct injection systems avoid such losses; in order to deliver enough fuel into the cylinder, high pressures are however needed for the gas injection which forces the fuel to enter the cylinder at supersonic speed followed by a Mach disk. The detailed modeling of these physical effects is very challenging, since the fluid velocities and pressure and velocity gradients at the Mach disc are very high.
Technical Paper

Natural Gas Engines for Cogeneration: Highest Efficiency and Near-Zero-Emissions through Turbocharging, EGR and 3-Way Catalytic Converter

Combustion engines for decentralized power generation or cogeneration in general, are subject to increasingly stringent pollutant emissions regulations. Motivated by the Europe-;wide lowest allowable NOx levels in Switzerland - particularly in the Zurich metropolitan area with 50 mg/Nm3 at 5% O2 - and in close cooperation with industry, the I.C. Engines and Combustion Laboratory (LVV) of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETHZ) has investigated some new operating concepts and engine processes in order to overcome the dilemma between low emissions and high efficiency, which is usually encountered in engine optimization. Our final approach thereby involves the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) combined with stoichiometric mixture (λ = 1) and a 3-way catalytic converter. The engine is supercharged and the intake mixture aftercooled for high power density and thermal efficiency.
Journal Article

Transient simulation of NOx reduction over a Fe-Zeolite catalyst in an NH3-SCR system and study of the performance under different operating conditions

The NO reduction in an ammonia SCR converter has been simulated by a 1D+1D model for a single representative channel to parametrically study the characteristics of the system under typical operating conditions. An appropriate model has been selected interpreting the chemical behavior of the system and the parameters are calibrated based on a comprehensive set of experiments with an Fe-Zeolite washcoated monolith for different feed concentrations, temperatures and flow rates. Physical and chemical properties are determined as well as kinetics and rate parameters and the model has been verified by experimental data at different operating conditions. Three different mechanisms for the surface kinetics to model NO reduction have been assessed and the results have been compared in the cases of steady DeNO performance and transient response of the system. Ammonia inhibition is considered in the model since it has a major effect specifically under transient operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Characterization and Phenomenological Modeling of Mixture Formation and Combustion in a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

A phenomenological model for heat release rate predictions taking into account the characteristic processes inside a direct injection gasoline engine is presented. Fuel evaporation and preparation as well as the specifics of premixed and mixing controlled combustion phase are regarded. Only a few model constants need to be set which have been fit empirically for the application in a one-cylinder research engine. This jet guided direct injection gasoline engine employs a modern common-rail injection system and runs predominantly in stratified mode. The model allows the prediction of the influence of numerous parameter variations, e.g. injection-ignition phasing, load, engine speed, swirl, etc. on the combustion process. Furthermore efficient simulations can be carried out without using expensive three-dimensional CFD (computational fluid dynamics) calculations.
Technical Paper

Simulations of In-Cylinder Processes in a Diesel Engine Operated with Post-Injections Using an Extended CMC Model

In this study, numerical simulations of in-cylinder processes associated to fuel post-injection in a diesel engine operated at Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) have been performed. An extended Conditional Moment Closure (CMC) model capable of accounting for an arbitrary number of subsequent injections has been employed: instead of a three-feed system, the problem has been described as a sequential two-feed system, using the total mixture fraction as the conditioning scalar. A reduced n-heptane chemical mechanism coupled with a two-equation soot model is employed. Numerical results have been validated with measurements from the optically accessible heavy-duty diesel engine installed at Sandia National Laboratories by comparing apparent heat release rate (AHRR) and in-cylinder soot mass evolutions for three different start of main injection, and a wide range of post injection dwell times.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Gas Jet Behavior for a Hollow Cone Piezoelectric Injector

Direct injection of natural gas in engines is considered a promising approach toward reducing engine out emissions and fuel consumption. As a consequence, new gas injection strategies have to be developed for easing direct injection of natural gas and its mixing processes with the surrounding air. In this study, the behavior of a hollow cone gas jet generated by a piezoelectric injector was experimentally investigated by means of tracer-based planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF). Pressurized acetone-doped nitrogen was injected in a constant pressure and temperature measurement chamber with optical access. The jet was imaged at different timings after start of injection and its time evolution was analyzed as a function of injection pressure and needle lift.
Technical Paper

Spray Model Based Phenomenological Combustion Description and Experimental Validation for a Dual Fuel Engine

The operation of dual fuel engines, operated with natural gas as main fuel, offers the potential of substantial savings in CO2. Nevertheless, the operating map area where low pollutant emissions are produced is very narrow. Especially at low load, the raw exhaust gas contains high concentrations of unburned methane and, with high pilot fuel portions due to ignition limitations, also soot. The analysis of the combustion in those conditions in particular is not trivial, since multiple combustion modes are present concurrently. The present work focuses on the evaluation of the individual combustion modes of a dual fuel engine, operated with natural gas as main and diesel as pilot fuel, using a combustion model. The combustion has been split in two partwise concurrent combustion phases: the auto-ignition phase and the premixed flame propagation phase.
Journal Article

Extension of the Phenomenological 3-Arrhenius Auto-Ignition Model for Six Surrogate Automotive Fuels

An existing three-stage ignition delay model which has seen successful application to Primary Reference Fuels (PRFs) has been extended to six surrogate fuels which constitute potential candidates for future Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines. The fuels include petroleum-derived and oxygenated components and can be divided into low, intermediate and high cetane number groups. A new methodology to obtain the model parameters is presented which relies jointly on simulation and experimental data: in a first step, constant volume adiabatic reactor simulations using chemical kinetic mechanisms are performed to generate ignition delays for a very wide range of conditions, namely variations in equivalence ratio, Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), pressure and temperature.
Journal Article

Analysis of Averaging Methods for Large Eddy Simulations of Diesel Sprays

Large Eddy Simulations (LES) provide instantaneous values indispensable to conduct statistical studies of relevant fluctuating quantities for diesel sprays. However, numerous realizations are generally necessary for LES to derive statistically averaged quantities necessary for validation of the numerical framework by means of measurements and for conducting sensitivity studies, leading to extremely high computational efforts. In this context, the aim of this work is to explore and validate alternatives to the simulation of 20-50 single realizations at considerably lower computational costs, by taking advantage of the axisymmetric geometry and the Quasi-Steady-State (QSS) condition of the near nozzle flow at a certain time after start-of-injection (SOI).
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Ignition and Combustion Characteristics of a Diesel Pilot Spray in a Lean Premixed Methane/Air Charge using a Rapid Compression Expansion Machine

The behavior of spray auto-ignition and combustion of a diesel spray in a lean premixed methane/air charge was investigated. A rapid compression expansion machine with a free-floating piston was employed to reach engine-relevant conditions at start of injection of the micro diesel pilot. The methane content in the lean ambient gas mixture was varied by injecting different amounts of methane directly into the combustion chamber, the ambient equivalence ratio for the methane content ranged from 0.0 (pure air) to 0.65. Two different nozzle tips with three and six orifices were employed. The amount of pilot fuel injected ranged between 0.8 and 1.8 percent of the total energy in the combustion chamber. Filtered OH chemiluminescence images of the combustion were taken with a UV-intensified high-speed camera through the optical access in the piston.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Ignition and Early Flame Development with Respect to Large Diesel Engine Simulation

A recently developed auto-ignition model based on a single transport equation in combination with a reduced kinetic scheme has been validated and tested in combination with a cascade jet and droplet breakup model. The validation has been performed by comparing ignition locations and delays for various thermodynamic conditions with experimental data from a high-pressure combustion cell. Also for medium-size diesel engine applications, predictions of ignition delay are in good agreement with experimental observations. In addition, a new approach to the modeling of the early flame development in diesel engine combustion is introduced. The reaction rate in the transition phase from the premixed to the mixing-controlled combustion mode is determined by means of a sub-grid scale model, which describes the evolution of a turbulent diffusion flame. The model has been tested during the early combustion phase of a medium-size, medium-speed DI diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Influence of Injector Diameter (0.2-1.2 mm range) on Diesel Spray Combustion: Measurements and CFD Simulations

In this study, the influence of injector diameter on the combustion of diesel sprays in an optically accessible combustion chamber of marine engine dimensions and conditions has been investigated experimentally as well as numerically. Five different orifice diameters ranging between 0.2 and 1.2 mm have been considered at two different ambient temperatures: a “cold” case with 800 K and a “warm” case with 900 K, resulting in a total of ten different test conditions. In the experiment, the reactive spray flames were characterized by means of high-speed OH* chemiluminescence imaging. The measurements revealed a weak impact of the injector diameter on ignition delay (ID) time and flame lift-off length (LOL) whereas the influence of ambient temperature was found to be more pronounced, consistent with former studies in the literature for smaller orifice diameters.