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Technical Paper

A throttle/brake control law for vehicle intelligent cruise control

2000-06-12
2000-05-0369
A throttle/brake control law for the intelligent cruise control (ICC) system has been proposed in this paper. The ICC system consists of a vehicle detection sensor, a controller and throttle/brake actuators. For the control of a throttle/brake system, we introduced a solenoid-valve-controlled electronic vacuum booster (EVB) and a step-motor-controlled throttle actuator. Nonlinear computer model for the electronic vacuum booster has been developed and the simulations were performed using a complete nonlinear vehicle model. The proposed control law in this paper consists of an algorithm that generates the desired acceleration/deceleration profile in an ICC situation, a throttle/brake switching logic and a throttle and brake control algorithm based on vehicle dynamics. The control performance has been investigated through computer simulations and experiments.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Driving Load Estimation for Longitudinal Motion Control

2000-06-12
2000-05-0249
An estimation algorithm for vehicle driving load has been proposed in this paper. Driving load is an important factor in a vehicle's longitudinal motion control. An approach using an observer is introduced to estimate driving load based on inexpensive RPM sensors currently being used in production vehicles. Also, the new torque estimation technique using neural network has been incorporated in this estimation algorithm to achieve better performance over variations in the automotive power transmissions process. The effectiveness of the observer-based method is demonstrated through the use of a nonlinear full vehicle simulation model in various scenarios. The proposed method using an observer has good performance, both over modeling error in powertrain system and under the uncertain environment of a running vehicle.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Stability Control Scheme for Rollover Prevention and Maneuverability/Lateral Stability Improvement

2009-04-20
2009-01-0826
This paper describes vehicle stability control (VSC) scheme to prevent rollover and to improve both maneuverability and lateral stability by integrating individual chassis control modules such as electronic stability control (ESC), active front steering (AFS) and continuous damping control (CDC). The proposed VSC system consists of an upper and lower level controller. The upper level controller determines a control mode such as rollover mitigation, maneuverability and lateral stability, and it also calculate desired values for its objectives. The lower level controller determines longitudinal and lateral tire forces as inputs of each control modules such as the ESC and AFS. From the simulation results, it is shown that the proposed VSC system can prevent vehicle rollover, while at the same time improving both maneuverability and lateral stability
Journal Article

Development of Driving Control System Based on Optimal Distribution for a 6WD/6WS Vehicle

2010-04-12
2010-01-0091
This paper describes a driving controller to improve vehicle lateral stability and maneuverability for a six wheel driving / six wheel steering (6WD/6WS) vehicle. The driving controller consists of upper and lower level controller. The upper level controller based on sliding control theory determines front, middle steering angle, additional net yaw moment and longitudinal net force according to reference velocity and steering of a manual driving, remote control and autonomous controller. The lower level controller takes desired longitudinal net force, yaw moment and tire force information as an input and determines additional front steering angle and distributed longitudinal tire force on each wheel. This controller is based on optimal distribution control and has considered the friction circle related to vertical tire force and friction coefficient acting on the road and tire.
Technical Paper

Integration of Longitudinal and Lateral Human Driver Models for Evaluation of the Vehicle Active Safety Systems

2010-04-12
2010-01-0084
This paper presents an integration of longitudinal and lateral human driver model for evaluation of vehicle active safety systems. The integrated human driver model consists of 3 parts; recognition, decision, action which represents a real driver's driving process. The recognition part and action part of the driver model has a few parameters that can represent real driver's characteristics in the driving situation. For example, preview distance, neuromuscular system, warning index and time to collision. Also, these parameters are extracted based on real driver's manual driving data. The decision part is made up with lateral and longitudinal human driver models. The lateral human driver model is developed to represent steering behavior of human driver using finite preview optimal control method. The longitudinal human driver model represents human driver's throttle and brake control behavior relative to preceding vehicle motion and road shape.
Technical Paper

Design and Implementation of Parking Control Algorithm for Autonomous Valet Parking

2016-04-05
2016-01-0146
This paper represents a parking lot occupancy detection and parking control algorithm for the autonomous valet parking system. The parking lot occupancy detection algorithm determine the occupancy of the parking space, using LiDAR sensors mounted at each side of front bumper. Euclidean minimum spanning tree (EMST) method is used to cluster that information. After that, a global parking map, which includes all parking lots and access road, is constructed offline to figure out which cluster is located in a parking space. By doing this, searching for available parking lots has been finished. The proposed parking control algorithm consists of a reference path generation, a path tracking controller, and a parking process controller. At first, route points of the reference path are determined under the consideration of the minimum turning radius and minimum safety margin with near parking.
Technical Paper

Model Predictive Control based Automated Driving Lane Change Control Algorithm for Merge Situation on Highway Intersection

2017-03-28
2017-01-1441
This paper describes design and evaluation of a driving mode decision and lane change control algorithm of automated vehicle in merge situations on highway intersection. For the development of a highly automated driving control algorithm in merge situation, driving mode change from lane keeping to lane change is necessary to merge appropriately. In a merge situation, the driving objective is slightly different to general driving situation. Unlike general situation, the lane change should be completed in a limited travel distance in a merge situation. Merge mode decision is determined based on surrounding vehicles states and remained distance of merge lane. In merge mode decision algorithm, merge availability and desired merge position are decided to change lane safely and quickly. Merge availability and desired merge position are based on the safety distance that considers relative velocity and relative position of subject and surrounding vehicles.
Technical Paper

Validation of Automotive Body ECU Using Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation

2016-04-05
2016-01-0030
As an effective approach for the design, implementation and test of control systems, hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test has been used in many research areas. This paper describes a real-time HIL simulation test for an automotive electronic control system. The HIL system proposed in this paper consists of three parts: real-time target hardware, electronic control unit (ECU) of the automotive electronic control systems and a signal-conditioning unit which regulates the voltage levels between real-time target and ECU. The HIL simulation evaluates mechanical and electronic behaviors in real time using off-line simulation models by interfacing real-target with electrical control units via interface box. The model has been developed by MATLAB/Simulink. The model is composed of mechanical part which predicts dynamic behaviors and electronic part to calculate the motor speeds, current and electronic loads under the various conditions.
Journal Article

Design and Evaluation of Emergency Driving Support Using Motor Driven Power Steering and Differential Braking on a Virtual Test Track

2013-04-08
2013-01-0726
This paper presents the design and evaluation of an emergency driving support (EDS) algorithm. The control objective is to assist driver's collision avoidance maneuver to overcome a hazardous situation. To support driver, electrically controllable chassis components such as motor driven power steering (MDPS) and differential braking and surrounding sensor systems such as radar and camera are used. The EDS algorithm is designed for 3 parts: monitoring, decision, and control. The proposed EDS algorithm recognizes a collision danger using minimum lateral acceleration to avoid collision and time-to-collision (TTC) and driver's intention using sensor systems. The control mode is determined using the indices from monitoring process and the collision avoidance trajectory is derived with trapezoidal acceleration profile (TAP).
Technical Paper

Correlation of Subjective and Objective Measures of On-Center Handling

2014-04-01
2014-01-0128
This paper presents a methodology of correlation between subjective and objective measures of vehicle on-center handling performance. The subjective measure is a professional test driver's rating of vehicle handling, while the objective measure assesses the handling performance via vehicle dynamic responses. Vehicle test data obtained from field testing has been analyzed to investigate links between the objective and subjective measures. Fifty-six physical parameters have been derived from on-centering hysteresis curves. Statistical tools are employed to obtain good correlation between driver rating and physical parameters. Using an interaction formula, a statistical model which relates the driver rating and principal physical parameters has been obtained. The proposed methodology will be used to show the physical parameters influence on subjective assessment and even to predict the subjective assessment of a vehicle handling performance.
Technical Paper

Development of a Motor Torque Distribution Strategy of Six-wheel-Driven Electric Vehicles for Optimized Energy Consumption

2013-04-08
2013-01-1746
This paper describes a driving motor torque distribution strategy of six-wheel-driven electric vehicles for optimized energy consumption. In this research, this strategy minimizes motoring power consumption and maximizes regenerative braking power under given required power condition. The torque distribution controller consists of total required motor torque calculation part, upper and optimal torque calculation part, lower level controller. The upper level controller determines total required torque of vehicle. And the torque is determined by acceleration pedal input of driver and vehicle velocity. The lower level controller calculates energy consumption in given condition and distributes motor torque to driving motor minimizing energy consumption. In distributing optimal motor torque, it is important to get accurate characteristics of driving motor and performance constraint.
Technical Paper

Torque Distribution Algorithm of Six-Wheeled Skid-Steered Vehicles for On-Road and Off-Road Maneuverability

2013-04-08
2013-01-0628
This paper is concerned with the torque distribution problem including slip limitation and actuator fault tolerance to improve vehicle lateral stability and maneuverability of six-wheeled skid-steered vehicles. The torque distribution algorithm to distribute wheel torque to each wheel of a skid-steered vehicle consists of an upper level control layer, a lower level control layer and an estimation layer. The upper level control layer is designed to obtain longitudinal net force and desired yaw moment, while the lower level control layer determines distributed driving and braking torques to six wheels. The algorithm takes vehicle speed, slip ratio and tire load information from the estimation layer, as well as actuator fault information from each in-wheel motor controller unit.
Technical Paper

Closed-Loop Evaluation of Vehicle Stability Control (VSC) Systems using a Combined Vehicle and Human Driving Model

2004-03-08
2004-01-0763
This paper presents a closed-loop evaluation of the Vehicle Stability Control (VSC) systems using a vehicle simulator. Human driver-VSC interactions have been investigated under realistic operating conditions in the laboratory. Braking control inputs for vehicle stability enhancement have been directly derived from the sliding control law based on vehicle planar motion equations with differential braking. A driving simulator which consists of a three-dimensional vehicle dynamic model, interface between human driver and vehicle simulator, three-dimensional animation program and a visual display has been validated using actual vehicle driving test data. Real-time human-in-the loop simulation results in realistic driving situations have shown that the proposed controller reduces driving effort and enhances vehicle stability.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of a CW/CA System for Automobiles

1999-03-01
1999-01-1238
CW/CA (Collision Warning /Collision Avoidance) Systems have been an active research and development area as interests and demands for the advanced vehicle increase. A CW/CA ‘Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation (HiLS)’ system has been designed and used to test a CW/CA algorithm, radar sensors, and warning displays under realistic operating conditions in the laboratory. A CW/CA algorithm has two parts. One is a distance decision algorithm that determines the critical warning and braking distance and the other is a brake control algorithm for collision avoidance. The CW/CA HiLS system consists of a controller in which a DSP chip is installed, a preceding vehicle simulator, a radar sensor and a warning display. The controller calculates velocities of the preceding and following vehicles, relative distance and relative velocity of the vehicles using vehicle simulation models. The relative distance and velocity are applied to the vehicle simulator that is controlled by a DC motor.
Journal Article

Adaptive Cruise Control with Collision Avoidance in Multi-Vehicle Traffic Situations

2009-04-20
2009-01-0439
This paper presents a longitudinal control algorithm for an adaptive cruise control (ACC) with collision avoidance (CA) in multiple vehicle traffic situations. The proposed algorithm consists of a multi-target tracking filter, a primary target selection algorithm and an integrated ACC/CA system. The multi-target tracking filter is used to smooth the sensor signal, and makes it possible to apply to a control system. The primary target selection algorithm decides an in-lane target and provides the information to an integrated ACC/CA system in order to drive a subject vehicle smoothly and improve safety in complex traffic situations. Finally, the integrated ACC/CA system computes the desired acceleration. The performance and safety benefits of the multi-vehicle ACC/CA system is investigated via simulations using real data on driving. Simulation results show that the response of multi-vehicle ACC/CA system is more smooth and safer at a change of traffic situations.
Journal Article

Skid Steering Based Maneuvering of Robotic Vehicle with Articulated Suspension

2009-04-20
2009-01-0437
This paper describes a driving control algorithm based on skid steering for a Robotic Vehicle with Articulated Suspension (RVAS). The driving control algorithm consists of four parts; speed controller for tracking of the desired speeds, yaw rate controller which computes a yaw moment input to track desired yaw rates, longitudinal tire force distribution which determines an optimal desired longitudinal tire force and wheel torque controller which determines a wheel torque command at each wheel to keep slip ratio at each wheel below a limit value as well as track the desired tire force. Longitudinal and vertical tire force estimators are designed for optimal tire force distribution and wheel slip control. The dynamic model of RVAS for simulation study is validated using vehicle test data.
Technical Paper

A Vehicle-Simulator-based Evaluation of Combined State Estimator and Vehicle Stability Control Algorithm

2005-04-11
2005-01-0383
The performance of an integrated Vehicle Stability Control (VSC) system depends on not only control logic itself, but also the performance of state estimator and control threshold. In conventional VSCs, a control threshold is designed by vehicle characteristics and is centered on average drivers. A VSC algorithm with variable control threshold has been investigated in this study. The control threshold can be determined by phase plane analysis of side slip angle and angular velocity. Vehicle side slip angle estimator has been evaluated using test data. Estimated side slip angle has been used in the determination of the control threshold. The performance of the proposed VSC algorithm has been investigated by human-in-the-loop simulation using a vehicle simulator. The simulation results show that the control threshold has to be determined with respect to the driver steering characteristics.
Journal Article

Integrated Chassis Control for Enhancement of High Speed Cornering Performance

2015-04-14
2015-01-1568
This paper describes an Integrated Chassis Control (ICC) strategy for improving high speed cornering performance by integration of Electronics Stability Control (ESC), Four Wheel Drive (4WD), and Active Roll Control System (ARS). In this study, an analysis of various chassis modules was conducted to prove the control strategies at the limits of handling. The analysis is focused to maximize the longitudinal velocity for minimum lap time and ensure the vehicle lateral stability in cornering. The proposed Integrated Chassis Control algorithm consists of a supervisor, vehicle motion control algorithms, and a coordinator. The supervisor monitors the vehicle status and determines desired vehicle motions such as a desired yaw rate, longitudinal acceleration and desired roll motion. The target longitudinal acceleration is determined based on the driver's intention and vehicle current state to ensure the vehicle lateral stability in high speed maneuvering.
Technical Paper

Development of a Driving Control Algorithm and Performance Verification Using Real-Time Simulator for a 6WD/6WS Vehicle

2011-04-12
2011-01-0262
This paper describes development and performance verification of a driving control algorithm for a 6 wheel driving and 6 wheel steering (6WD/6WS) vehicle using a real-time simulator. This control algorithm is developed to improve vehicle stability and maneuverability under high speed driving conditions. The driving controller consists of stability decision, upper, lower level and wheel slip controller. The stability decision algorithm determines desired longitudinal acceleration and reference yaw rate in order to maintain lateral and roll stability using G-vectoring method. Upper level controller is designed to obtain reference longitudinal net force, yaw moment and front/middle steering angles. The longitudinal net force is calculated to satisfy the reference longitudinal acceleration by the PID control theory. The reference yaw moment is determined to satisfy the reference yaw rate using sliding control theory. Lower level controller determines distributed tractive/braking torques.
Technical Paper

Development of a Coordinated Strategy of Steering Torque Overlay and Differential Braking for Unintended Lane Departure Avoidance

2012-04-16
2012-01-0281
This paper describes a lane departure avoidance system to help the driver avoid the lane departure during drowsiness or inattention. The lane departure avoidance system proposed in this paper consists of unintended lane departure decision part, upper level controller part and lower level controller part. The index used in unintended lane departure decision part is proposed to monitor a driver's intention with steering behaviors. The desired dynamics is calculated in upper level controller part. When the desired dynamics is calculated, it is considered to guarantee a driver's safety and smooth ride feel simultaneously as possible. The lower level controller distributes the desired control input to actuators, motor driven power steering (MDPS) module and vehicle stability control (VSC) module. The proposed lane departure avoidance system has been evaluated via human driver model-in the loop simulation.
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