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Technical Paper

Development of a Model Scale Heat Exchanger for Wind Tunnel Models of Road Vehicles

During the development of the aerodynamic properties of fore coming road vehicles down scaled models are often used in the initial phase. However, if scale models are to be utilised even further in the aerodynamic development they have to include geometrical representatives of most of the components found in the real vehicle. As the cooling package is one of the biggest single generators of aerodynamic drag the heat exchangers are essential to include in a wind tunnel model. However, due mainly to limitations in manufacturing techniques it is complicated to make a down scaled heat exchanger and instead functional dummy heat exchangers have to be developed for scaled wind tunnel models. In this work a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code has been used to show that it is important that the simplified heat exchanger model has to be of comparable size to that of the full scale unit.
Technical Paper

Continued Study of the Error and Consistency of Fan CFD MRF Models

The most common fan model to use in commercial CFD software today is the Multiple Reference Frame (MRF) model. This is at least valid for automotive under hood applications. Within the industry, for this typical application, this model is commonly known to under predict performance. This under prediction has been documented by the authors' of this paper in SAE paper 2009-01-0178 and VTMS paper 2009-01-3067. Furthermore has this been documented by S.Moreau from Valeo in “Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Rotor-Stator Interaction in Automotive Engine Cooling Fan Systems”, ETC, 7th European Conference on Turbomachinery, 2007. In preceding papers a specific methodology of use has been documented and it has been shown that the MRF model under predicts performance for the airflow in a cooling system commonly with 14% in volumetric flow rate. This is for a system dominated by inertial effects.
Technical Paper

Influence of Different Truck and Trailer Combinations on the Aerodynamic Drag

The aim with this investigation was to study the aerodynamic properties of truck-trailer combinations of varying lengths. The aerodynamic properties of the combinations were evaluated in order to study similarities and differences in the flow field between different configurations. By the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) six different types of truck-trailer combinations used for long hauling have been evaluated. The combinations have a total length varying between 10.10 m and 25.25 m and consist of either a tractor or rigid truck in combination with one or two cargo units. All of the combinations are commonly found on roads in Sweden and several other countries in Europe. The results from the simulations show that the aerodynamic properties differ significantly for the truck-trailer combinations. It was found that the longer vehicle combinations are much more sensitive to yaw conditions than the shorter combinations.
Technical Paper

Cooling Performance Investigation of a Rear Mounted Cooling Package for Heavy Vehicles

The aim of the study was to investigate the cooling performance of two cooling package positions for distribution vehicles by using Computational Fluid Dynamics. The first cooling package was positioned in the front of the vehicle, behind the grill and the second position was at the rear of the vehicle. Each case was evaluated by its cooling performance for a critical driving situation and its aerodynamic drag at 90 km/h, where the largest challenge of an alternative position is the cooling air availability. The geometry used was a semi-generic commercial vehicle, based on a medium size distribution truck with a heat rejection value set to a fixed typical level at maximum power for a 13 litre Euro 6 diesel engine. The heat exchangers included in the study were the air conditioning condenser, the charge air cooler and the radiator. It was found that the main problem with the rear mounted cooling installation was the combination of the fan and the geometry after the fan.
Technical Paper

A Correction Method for Stationary Fan CFD MRF Models

A common fan model to use in automotive under hood simulations is the Multiple Reference Frame (MRF) model and within the industry, for this specific application, this model is well known to under predict performance. In this paper we have examined the possibilities of correcting this deficiency with a simple “speed correction”. This is done by testing and simulating a production fan in the Volvo Fan Test Rig for two operating speeds, 1200 rpm and 2400 rpm. Pressure rise, fan power and static efficiency are presented as functions of volumetric flow rate. The simulations verify that using the MRF model the common behavior of under predicting pressure rise and performance of the fan occur. In addition, this work shows that; although the MRF is not predicting fan performance correctly it constitutes a reliable fan modeling strategy.
Journal Article

Force Based Measurement Method for Cooling Flow Quantification

Quantification of heat exchanger performance in its operative environment is in many engineering applications an essential task, and the air flow rate through the heat exchanger core is an important optimizing parameter. This paper explores an alternative method for quantifying the air flow rate through compact heat exchangers positioned in the underhood of a passenger car. Unlike conventional methods, typically relying on measurements of direct flow characteristics at discrete probe locations, the proposed method is based on the use of load-cells for direct measurement of the total force acting on the heat exchanger. The air flow rate is then calculated from the force measurement. A direct comparison with a conventional pressure based method is presented as both methods are applied on a passenger car’s radiator tested in a full scale wind tunnel using six different grill configurations. The measured air flow rates are presented and discussed over a wide range of test velocities.
Journal Article

Aerodynamic Investigation of Gap Treatment- and Chassis Skirts Strategies for a Novel Long-Haul Vehicle Combination

Constantly lowering emissions legislation and the fact that fuel prices have increased tremendously over recent years, have forced vehicle manufacturers to develop more and more energy-efficient vehicles. The aerodynamic drag is responsible for a substantial part of the total driving resistance for a vehicle, especially at higher velocities; thus it is important to reduce this factor as much as possible for vehicles commonly operating in these conditions. In an attempt to improve transport efficiency, longer vehicle combinations are becoming more common. By replacing some of the shorter vehicle combinations with longer combinations, the same amount of cargo can be transported with fewer vehicles; hence there is large potential for fuel savings. The knowledge of the aerodynamic properties of such vehicles is somewhat limited, and therefore interesting to study.
Journal Article

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Wheel Housing Aerodynamics on Heavy Trucks

Wheel and underbody aerodynamics have become important topics in the search to reduce the aerodynamic drag of the heavy trucks. This study aims to investigate, experimentally as well as numerically, the local flow field around the wheels and in the wheel housing on a heavy truck; and how different approaches to modelling the wheel rotation in CFD influences the results. Emphasis is on effects due to ground simulation, and both moving ground and wheel rotation were requirements for this study. A 1:4-scale model of part of a heavy truck geometry has been developed. During the model design numerical simulations were used to optimise the shape, in order to replicate the flow field near the wheel of a complete truck. This was done by changing the flow angles of the incoming and exiting flows, and by keeping the mass flow rates in to, and out of, the wheel housing at the same ratios as in a reference full size vehicle.
Technical Paper

Cooling Airflow System Modeling in CFD Using Assumption of Stationary Flow

Today CFD is an important tool for engineers in the automotive industry who model and simulate fluid flow. For the complex field of Underhood Thermal Management, CFD has become a very important tool to engineer the cooling airflow process in the engine bay of vehicles. To model the cooling airflow process accurately in CFD, it is of utmost importance to model all components in the cooling airflow path accurately. These components are the heat exchangers, fan and engine bay blockage effect. This paper presents CFD simulations together with correlating measurements of a cooling airflow system placed in a test rig. The system contains a heavy duty truck louvered fin radiator core, fan shroud, fan ring and fan. Behind the cooling module and fan, a 1D engine silhouette is placed to mimic the blockage done by a truck engine. Furthermore, a simple hood is mounted over the module to mimic the guiding of air done by the hood shape in an engine bay.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Effects of Roof Deflector and Cab Side Extenders for Truck-Trailer Combinations

Today there are a large variety of drag-reducing devices for heavy trucks that are commonly used, for example, roof deflectors, cab side extenders and chassis fairings. These devices are often proven to be efficient, reducing the total aerodynamic resistance for the vehicle. However, the drag-reducing devices are usually identical for a specific pulling vehicle, independent of the layout of the vehicle combination. In this study, three vehicle combinations were analyzed. The total length of the vehicles varied between 10.10 m and 25.25 m. The combinations consisted of a rigid truck in combination with one or two cargo units. The size of the gap between the cargo units differed between the vehicle combinations. There were also three configurations of each vehicle combination with different combinations of roof deflector and cab side extenders, yielding a total number of nine configurations.
Technical Paper

Continuing Cooling Performance Investigation of a Rear Mounted Cooling Package for Heavy Vehicles

This investigation is a continuing analysis of the cooling performance and aerodynamic properties of a rear-mounted cooling module on a semi-generic commercial vehicle, which was carried out by Larsson, Löfdahl and Wiklund. In the previous study two designs of the cooling package installation were positioned behind the rear wheelhouse and the results were compared to a front-mounted cooling module. The investigation was mainly focused on a critical cooling situation occurring at lower vehicle speeds for a local distribution vehicle. The conclusion from the study was that the cooling performance for one of the rear-mounted installation was favorable compared to the front-mounted cooling package. This was mainly due to the low vehicle speed, the high fan speed and to fewer obstacles around the cooling module resulting in a lower system restriction within the installation.
Technical Paper

Study of Software Integration for Transient Simulation of Future Cooling System for Heavy Truck Application

The work investigates the integration between tools for analysis and simulation of cooling systems at Volvo Group Trucks Technology. At the same time it is a consequent step in evaluating GT-SUITE for the purposes of analysis and simulation of such systems. The focus is on 1D simulation tools, which are generally preferred in the context of transient simulations of engine and power train installation systems. The Cooling Analysis and Simulations group at Volvo Group Trucks Technology use a variety of 1D simulation tools for analysis of cooling performance. Volvo Power Train, on the other hand, use among others GT-SUITE for engine simulations. It is expected to improve the quality of the simulation, (i.e the accuracy of the results) and improve system integration by using one tool for both areas of simulation. This work delivers two transient models of FH 13L cooling system integrated with a predictive model of the engine and a detailed model of the main coolant circuit.
Technical Paper

A 1D Method for Transient Simulations of Cooling Systems with Non-Uniform Temperature and Flow Boundaries Extracted from a 3D CFD Solution

The current work investigates a method in 1D modeling of cooling systems including discretized cooling package with non-uniform boundary conditions. In a stacked cooling package the heat transfer through each heat exchanger depends on the mass flows and temperature fields. These are a result of complex three-dimensional phenomena, which take place in the under-hood and are highly non-uniform. A typical approach in 1D simulations is to assume these to be uniform, which reduces the authenticity of the simulation and calls for additional calibrations, normally done with input from test measurements. The presented work employs 3D CFD simulations of complete vehicle in STAR-CCM+ to perform a comprehensive study of mass-flow and thermal distribution over the inlet of the cooling package of a Volvo FM commercial vehicle in several steady-state operating points.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of Heat Transfer Rate and Pressure Drop through Angled Compact Heat Exchangers Relative to the Incoming Airflow

This paper presents pressure drops and heat transfer rates for compact heat exchangers, where the heat exchangers are angled 90°, 60°, 30° and 10° relative to the incoming airflow. The investigation is based on three heat exchangers with thicknesses of 19mm and 52mm. Each heat exchanger was mounted in a duct, where it was tested for thermal and isothermal conditions. The inlet temperature of the coolant was defined to two temperatures; ambient temperature and 90°C. For the ambient cases the coolant had the same temperature as the surrounding air, these tests were performed for five airflow rates. When the coolant had a temperature of 90°C a combination of five coolant flow rates and five airflow rates were tested. The test set-up was defined as having a constant cross-section area for 90°, 60° and 30° angles, resulting in a larger core area and a lower airspeed through the core, for a more inclined heat exchanger.
Journal Article

Comparative Studies between CFD and Wind Tunnel Measurements of Cooling Performance and External Aerodynamics for a Heavy Truck

Nowadays, much focus for vehicle manufacturers is directed towards improving the energy efficiency of their products. The aerodynamic drag constitutes one major part of the total driving resistance for a vehicle travelling at higher speeds. In fact, above approximately 80km/h the aerodynamic drag is the dominating resistance acting on a truck. Hence the importance of reducing this resistance is apparent. Cooling drag is one part of the total aerodynamic drag, which arises from air flowing through the heat exchangers, and the irregular under-hood area. When using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in the development process it is of great importance to ensure that the methods used are accurately capturing the physics of the flow. This paper deals with comparative studies between CFD and wind-tunnel tests. In this paper, two comparative studies are presented.
Journal Article

CFD Simulations of one Period of a Louvered Fin where the Airflow is Inclined Relative to the Heat Exchanger

This article presents Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations fo one period of a louvered fin, for a crossflow compact finned heat exchanger, where the incoming airflow was inclined relative to its core. Four inclinations were investigated: 90°, which was when the air flowed perpendicular to the heat exchanger, 60°, 30° and 10° angles relative to the vertical plane. The study included three heat exchanger designs, where two of them had symmetrical louvered fins and a thickness of 19mm and 52mm. The third had a thickness of 19mm and had the louvers angled in one direction. All heat exchangers have been simulated when the airflow entered both from above and below relative to the horizontal plane. Simulations have also been carried out when the airflow entered from the side, illustrating the heat exchanger to be angled relative to the vertical axis. Two air speeds have been investigated for each configuration, where the results were compared to experimental data.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Natural Convection in a Simplified Engine Bay

Presented are results from numerical investigations of buoyancy driven flow in a simplified representation of an engine bay. A main motivation for this study is the necessity for a valid correlation of results from numerical methods and procedures with physical measurements in order to evaluate the accuracy and feasibility of the available numerical tools for prediction of natural convection. This analysis is based on previously performed PIV and temperature measurements in a controlled physical setup, which reproduced thermal soak conditions in the engine compartment as they occur for a vehicle parked in a quiescent ambient after sustaining high thermal loads. Thermal soak is an important phenomenon in the engine bay primarily driven by natural convection and radiation after there had been a high power demand on the engine. With the cooling fan turned off and in quiescent environment, buoyancy driven convection and radiation are the dominating modes of heat transfer.