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Technical Paper

Power Matching and Control Strategy of Plug-in Series Hybrid Electric Car

2010-10-25
2010-01-2195
In this paper, based on the plug-in series hybrid electric vehicle development project, the vehicle technology solutions and the match of power system parameters were analyzed. The vehicle control strategies were identified and optimized according to plug-in hybrid vehicle features. The plug-in series hybrid, rule-based logic threshold switching control strategy, charge depleting (CD) mode and charge-sustaining (CS) mode are chosen according to the key factors, such as the environment, performance requirements, technical requirements and cost. And then the structure and model of vehicle control strategy were established to carry out vehicle energy management and power system control. The parameter selection, electric drive system matching, energy storage system design based on the requirement of vehicle performance, system architecture and control strategy are presented.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Control Strategy for Engine Start-stop in a Plug-in Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2010-10-25
2010-01-2214
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) provide significantly improvement in fuel economy over conventional vehicles as well as reductions in greenhouse gas and petroleum. Numerous recent reports regarding control strategy, power train configuration, driving pattern, all electric range (AER) and their effects on fuel consumption and electric energy consumption of PHEVs are reported. Meanwhile, the control strategy for engine start-stop and mileage between recharging events from the electricity grid also has an important influence on the petroleum displacement potential of PHEVs, but few reports are published. In this paper, a detailed simulation model is set up for a plug-in series hybrid electric vehicle (PSHEV) employing the AVL CRUISE. The model was employed to predict the AER of the baseline PSHEV using rule-based logical threshold switching control strategy.
Technical Paper

Spray Characteristics of Biodiesel and Diesel Fuels under High Injection Pressure with a Common Rail System

2010-10-25
2010-01-2268
Biodiesel has been paid more and more attention as a renewable fuel due to some excellent properties such as renewable, high cetane number, ultralow sulfur content, no aromatic hydrocarbon, high flash point, low CO2 emission when compared with diesel. While others physical properties like high viscosity, high surface tension, big density and bad volatility would spoil the spray characteristics of biodiesel fuel, which will affect the thermal efficiency when running in diesel engine. Accompanied with constant volume vessel and high speed video camera system, a high pressure common rail system, which could provide an injection pressure of 180 MPa, is used to investigate the characteristics of jatropha curcas biodiesel, palm oil biodiesel and diesel fuel. The effects of injection pressures and ambient densities on spray characteristics of these fuels are studied.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Fuel Economy Improvement by High and Low Pressure EGR System on a Downsized Boosted Gasoline Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0682
In this paper comparisons were made between the fuel economy improvement between a High Pressure loop (HP) water-cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system and a Low Pressure loop (LP) water-cooled EGR system. Experiments were implemented on a 1.3-Litre turbocharged PFI gasoline engine in two pars. One was EGR rate as single operating point to compare the different effect of HP- and LP-EGR. The other was mini map from 1500rpm to 3000rpm and BMEP from 2bar to 14bar because of the relative narrow available range of HP-EGR system. In consideration of practical application of EGR system, the coolant used in this experiment was kept almost the same temperature as in real vehicles (88±3°C) instead of underground water temperature, besides a model was built to calculate constant volume ratio (CVR). The results indicated that the effect of HP-EGR was weaker than that of LP-EGR under the same EGR rate, which could be seen from change of combustion parameters.
Technical Paper

Improvement on Energy Efficiency of the Spark Ignition System

2017-03-28
2017-01-0678
Future clean combustion engines tend to increase the cylinder charge to achieve better fuel economy and lower exhaust emissions. The increase of the cylinder charge is often associated with either excessive air admission or exhaust gas recirculation, which leads to unfavorable ignition conditions at the ignition point. Advanced ignition methods and systems have progressed rapidly in recent years in order to suffice the current and future engine development, and a simple increase of energy of the inductive ignition system does not often provide the desired results from a cost-benefit point of view. Proper design of the ignition system circuit is required to achieve certain spark performances.
Technical Paper

Combined Technologies for Efficiency Improvement on a 1.0 L Turbocharged GDI Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0233
The CO2 reduction request for automotive industry promotes the efforts on the engine thermal efficiency improvement. The goal of this research is to improve the thermal efficiency on an extremely downsized 3-cylinder 1.0 L turbocharged gasoline direct injection engine. Effects of compression ratio, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), valve timing and viscosity of oil on fuel economy were studied. The results show that increasing compression ratio, from 9.6 to 12, can improve fuel economy at relative low load (below 12 bar BMEP), but has a negative effect at high load due to increased knock intensity. EGR can significantly reduce the pumping loss at low load, optimize combustion phase and reduce exhaust gas temperature. Therefore, the fuel consumption is reduced at all test points. The average brake thermal efficiency (BTE) benefit percentage is 3.47% with 9.6 compression ratio and 5.33 % with 12 compression ratio.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Intake Manifold Water Injection on Characteristics of Combustion and Emissions in a Heavy-Duty Natural Gas Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0562
The performances of heavy-duty natural gas engines have been limited by combustion temperature and NOx emissions for a long time. Recently, water injection technology has been widely considered as a technical solution in reducing fuel consumption and emissions simultaneously in both gasoline and diesel engines. This paper focuses on the impacts of intake manifold water injection on characteristics of combustion and emissions in a natural gas heavy-duty engine through numerical methods. A computational model was setup and validated with experimental data of pressure traces in a CFD software coupled with detailed chemical kinetics. The simulation was mainly carried out in low-speed and full-load conditions, and knock level was also measured and calculated by maximum amplitude of pressure oscillations (MAPO).
Technical Paper

Research into Autoignition Characteristics of Diesel Fuel in a Controllable Active Thermo-Atmosphere

2006-04-03
2006-01-0073
A novel method is applied to analysis the autoignition phenomenon. Experiments on the study of autoignition characteristics of diesel fuel were carried out with a Controllable Active Thermo-Atmosphere Combustor. The results show that the method for autoignition studying of liquid fuel is of feasibility. Autoignition delay time and autoignition height from the nozzle increase with the coflow temperature decreasing and autoignition delay time changes sensitively under lower coflow temperature. Liftoff height of diesel spray flame decreases with the increasing of coflow temperature. Lower temperature causes higher variance of liftoff height. It might be speculated that there are two different mechanisms of flame stabilization that the lower lift-off heights flames are related to a balance between the flow velocity and flame speed while the higher lift-off heights flames are stabilized by the mixture autoignition.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Transient NO Emissions Based on the First Firing Cycle Analysis of Cold-Start

2006-04-03
2006-01-1050
The First Firing Cycle (FFC) is very important at cold-start. Misfiring of the first firing cycle can lead to significant HC emissions and affect the subsequent cycles. This paper presents an investigation of characteristics of transient NO emissions in a small LPG SI engine with electronic gaseous injection system. To determine the optimal excess air coefficient ( λ=[A/F]/[A/F]stoic) of the first firing cycle, the emission of instantaneous NO was proposed as a useful criterion to judge if the combustion is occurred or not. A fast response NO detector- Cambustion fNOx400, based on the chemiluminescence's (CLD) method, has been employed to measure continuous, transient emissions of NO during the first firing cycle in the exhaust port of the engine. At the same time, the transient cylinder pressure, instantaneous crankshaft speed of the engine and engine-out HC emissions were measured and recorded.
Technical Paper

Design and Simulation of Serial Hybrid Electric Moped Powertrain

2008-06-23
2008-01-1567
According to the requirements of two-wheel vehicle's future market and the characteristic of urban road conditions in China, the advantages and disadvantages of three basic configurations for the Hybrid Electric Vehicle are compared, finally, the serial hybrid configuration is chosen to be applied to hybrid Electric Moped solution. The selection principle of main components of this hybrid powertrain system includes ICE, generator, battery and hub motor, and the optimal match for performance parameters of these components are introduced in this paper. Then, a hybrid system model is established based on AVL-CRUISE. The simulations of fuel efficiency and exhaust emissions for both serial hybrid moped and conventional motorcycle is offered.
Technical Paper

The Social Economical Benefit Estimation by HEVs Application-Shanghai Case Study

2008-06-23
2008-01-1565
In this paper, a case study of Shanghai HEVs application and its effects on the social and environmental benefits are presented based on the multi views on the different aspects, such as, not only for the fuel consumption saving, but also emissions reduction and health effect, agriculture loss and cleaning cost. The results show that the potential benefits for the society from HEVs application are markedly with the increase of the ratio of HEV in the population of vehicle. Based on this, the policy to promote the HEV purchased by consumers is very important at the beginning of HEV into market.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Combustion and Emissions in a DI Engine Fueled with Biodiesel Blends from Soybean Oil

2008-06-23
2008-01-1832
Combustion and emission characteristics of diesel and biodiesel blends (soybean methyl ester) were studied in a single-cylinder Direct Injection (DI) engine at different loads and a constant speed. The results show that NOx emission and fuel consumption are increased with increasing biodiesel percentage. Reduction of smoke opacity is significant at higher loads with a higher biodiesel ratio. Compared with the baseline diesel fuel, B20 (20% biodiesel) has a slight increase of NOx emission and similar fuel consumption. Smoke emission of B20 is close to that of diesel fuel. Results of combustion analysis indicate that start of combustion (SOC) for biodiesel blends is earlier than that for diesel. Higher biodiesel percentage results in earlier SOC. Earlier SOC for biodiesel blends is due to advanced injection timing from higher density and bulk modulus and lower ignition delay from higher cetane number.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Output Performances and Emissions of Diesel Engine Employed Common Rail Fueled with Biodiesel Blends from Wasted Cooking Oil

2008-06-23
2008-01-1833
In this paper, the characteristics of performance and emissions of diesel and biodiesel blends are studied in a four-cylinder DI engine employing common rail injection system. The results show that engine output power is further reduced and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) increased with the increase of the blend concentration. B100 provides average reduction by 8.6% in power and increase by 11% in BSFC. With respect to the emissions, although NOx emissions were increased with increasing the blend concentration, the increase depends on the load. Filter smoke number is reduced with increasing the blend concentration. At the same time, NO, NO2 and other specific emissions are also investigated. In addition, difference of performance and emission between standard parameters of ECU and modified parameters of ECU is investigated for B10 and B20 based on same output power. The results show that NOx emission and FSN are still lower than baseline diesel.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Particulates and Exhaust Gases Emissions of DI Diesel Engine Employing Common Rail Fuel System Fueled with Bio-diesel Blends

2008-06-23
2008-01-1834
In this paper, characteristics of gas emission and particle size distribution are investigated in a common rail diesel engine fueled with biodiesel blends. Gas emission and particle size distribution are measured by AVL FTIR - SESAM and SMPS respectively. The results show that although biodiesel blends would result in higher NOx emissions, characteristics of NOx emissions were also dependent on the engine load for waste cooking oil methyl ester. Higher blend concentration results in higher NO2 emission after two diesel oxidation catalyst s (DOC). A higher blend concentration leads to lower CO and SO2 emissions. No significant difference of Alkene emission is found among biodiesel blends. The particle size distributions of diesel exhaust aerosol consist of a nucleation mode (NM) with a peak below 50N• m and an accumulation mode with a peak above 50N • m. B100 will result in lower particulates with the absence of NM.
Technical Paper

A Study of LPG Lean Burn for a Small SI Engine

2002-10-21
2002-01-2844
This paper presents a study of LPG lean burn in a motorcycle SI engine. The lean burn limits are compared by several ways. The relations of lean burn limit with the parameters, such as engine speed, compression ratio and advanced spark ignition etc. are tested. The experimental results show that larger throttle opening, lower engine speed, earlier spark ignition timing, larger electrode gap and higher compression ratio will extend the lean burn limit of LPG. The emission of a LPG engine, especially on NOx emission, can be significantly reduced by means of the lean burn technology.
Technical Paper

Effect of Additives on Diesel Spray Flames in a Controllable Active Thermo-Atmosphere

2008-04-14
2008-01-0931
The active components, such as OH and their concentrations in the coflow, have a strong effect on the combustion process of diesel fuel spray flames in the Controllable Active Thermo-Atmosphere (CATA), which then will affect the soot incandescence of the spray flames. CO2 and H2O2, the additives which have contrary effect on the concentration of the active components, were mixed separately into the thermo-atmosphere before the jet spray were issued into the coflow, which changed the boundary condition around the central jet and influenced the combustion characteristics and soot incandescence. The combustion characteristics such as ignition delay and flame liftoff height of the central spray flames are measured and the linkage between these two parameters is investigated at different coflow temperatures.
Technical Paper

A Study on Combustion and Emission Characteristics of GDI Engine for HEV at Quick Start

2014-10-13
2014-01-2709
Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines have attracted interest as automotive power-plants because of their potential advantages in down-sizing, fuel efficiency and in emissions reduction. However, GDI engines suffer from elevated unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions during start up process, which are sometimes worsened by misfires and partial burns. Moreover, as the engine is cranked to idle speed quickly in HEVs (Hybrid Electric Vehicle), the transients of quick starts are more dramatically than that in traditional vehicle, which challenge the optimization of combustion and emissions. In this study, test bench had been set up to investigate the GDI engine performances for ISG (Integrated Starter and Generator) HEVs during start up process. Based on the test system, cycle-controlled of the fuel injection mass, fuel injection timing and ignition timing can be obtained, as well as the cycle-resolved measurement of the HC concentrations and NO emissions.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Control of SI/HCCI Combustion Mode Switch Based on Ion Current Feedback

2014-10-13
2014-01-2704
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) technology is admitted to be one of the most effective measures to improve the fuel economy for the spark ignition (SI) engines. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has advantages of low fuel consumption and ultra low NOx emissions. But the difficulty in the autoignition control and the narrow operation region inhibit the practical application of this technology. A hybrid combustion mode which combines SI mode and HCCI mode in separated working regions was regarded as a promising technology for HCCI engines. In addition, monitoring and providing feedback to the in-cylinder combustion characteristics is generally considered to be an effective method to improve and to optimize the combustion process. A lot of combustion information is included in the ion current generated by the in-cylinder combustion, and hence the ion current detection technique is considered to be a potential combustion feedback method.
Technical Paper

Effect of Two-Stage Valve Lift for Fuel Economy and Performance on a PFI Gasoline Engine

2014-10-13
2014-01-2874
Reducing the pumping loss, and thus, the fuel consumption of gasoline engine at part load, a two-stage intake valve lift system was implanted into a PFI engine. A corresponding engine model was set up with GT-power as well, which can simulate the effect of two-stage intake valve lift and different EGR rates on fuel economy performance and on combustion condition of a gasoline engine. Based on simulation results, the valve lift control strategy and EGR control strategy was studied in this paper. Results showed that at low engine speed, when SMALL LIFT was used, the tumble flow and the combustion process in cylinder was improved and burn time duration became shorter, resulting in higher indicated efficiency and lower fuel consumption than by LARGE LIFT. With the introduction of the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), lower fuel consumption was acquired.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Hole-to-Hole Spray Variation Based on Nozzle Internal Structure

2013-04-08
2013-01-1611
Spray behavior is regarded as one of main factors which influence engine performance, fuel consumption and emissions for diesel engine. In practice, spray characteristics from each orifice from a multi-hole nozzle are normally arranged symmetrically, while the hole-to-hole spray variation is unavoidable. This variation will cause spatial uneven distribution of spray and combustion degrade, which will be no longer inconsiderable in face of the more and more stringent emission rules. In this paper, two methods including spray macro-characteristics experiment and separated fuel mass measurement are employed to test the hole-to-hole spray variation of two six-hole symmetric VCO injectors of different brands, and experiments are operated under different conditions including different injection pressures, back pressures and injection durations.
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