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Technical Paper

Conceptualization and Implementation of an AWD Parallel Hybrid Powertrain Concept

2013-04-08
2013-01-1448
The Deep Orange [1] initiative is an integral part of the automotive graduate program at Clemson University International Center for Automotive Research. The initiative was developed to provide the graduate students with hands-on experience of the knowledge attained in the various engineering disciplines and related disciplines (such as marketing and human factors psychology). For the 3rd edition of Deep Orange, the goal was to develop a blank sheet hybrid mainstream sports car concept targeted towards the Generation Y (Gen Y) market segment. The objective of this paper is to elaborate on the overall development process and the technology that was created and integrated. A unique all-wheel-drive (AWD) parallel hybrid concept was derived based on extensive analyses of the Gen Y market. The data revealed that Gen Y, as an environmentally conscious generation, is willing to invest in sustainable powertrain technologies and also has a significant interest in all-wheel-drive.
Technical Paper

Conceptualization and Implementation of a Scalable Powertrain, Modular Energy Storage and an Alternative Cooling System on a Student Concept Vehicle

2018-04-03
2018-01-1185
The Deep Orange program immerses automotive engineering students into the world of an OEM as part of their 2-year graduate education. In support of developing the program’s seventh vehicle concept, the students studied the sponsoring brand essence, conducted market research, and made a heuristic assessment of competitor vehicles. The upfront research lead to the definition of target customers and setting vehicle level targets that were broken down into requirements to develop various vehicle sub-systems. The powertrain team was challenged to develop a scalable propulsion concept enabled by a common vehicle architecture that allowed future customers to select (at the point of purchase) among various levels of electrification best suiting their needs and personal desires. Four different configurations were identified and developed: all-electric, two plug-in hybrid electric configurations, and an internal combustion engine only.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of CarFit® Criteria Compliance and Knowledge of Seat Adjustment

2018-04-03
2018-01-1314
Improper fit in a vehicle will affect a driver’s ability to reach the steering wheel and pedals, view the roadway and instrument gauges, and allow vehicle safety features to protect the driver during a crash. CarFit® is a community outreach program to educate older drivers on proper “fit” within their personal vehicle. A subset of measurements from CarFit® were used to quantify the “fit” of 97 older drivers over 60 and 20 younger drivers, ages 30-39, in their personal vehicles. Binary, logistic regression was used to assess the likelihood of drivers meeting the CarFit® measurement criteria prior to and after CarFit® education. The results showed older drivers were five times more likely than younger drivers to meet the CarFit® criteria for line of sight above the steering wheel, suggesting that younger drivers would also benefit from CarFit® education.
Technical Paper

A Voice and Pointing Gesture Interaction System for On-Route Update of Autonomous Vehicles’ Path

2019-04-02
2019-01-0679
This paper describes the development and simulation of a voice and pointing gesture interaction system for on-route update of autonomous vehicles’ path. The objective of this research is to provide users of autonomous vehicles a human vehicle interaction mode that enables them to make and communicate spontaneous decisions to the autonomous car, modifying its pre-defined autonomous route in real-time. For example, similar to giving directions to a taxi driver, a user will be able to tell the car «Stop there» or «Take that exit». In this way, the user control/spontaneity vs interaction flexibility dilemma that current autonomous vehicle concepts have, could be solved, potentially increasing the user acceptance of this technology. The system was designed following a level structured state machine approach. The simulations were developed using MATLAB and VREP, a robotics simulation platform, which has accurate vehicle and sensor models.
Technical Paper

An Immersive Vehicle-in-the-Loop VR Platform for Evaluating Human-to-Autonomous Vehicle Interactions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0143
The deployment of autonomous vehicles in real-world scenarios requires thorough testing to ensure sufficient safety levels. Driving simulators have proven to be useful testbeds for assisted and autonomous driving functionalities but may fail to capture all the nuances of real-world conditions. In this paper, we present a snapshot of the design and evaluation using a Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control application of virtual reality platform currently in development at our institution. The platform is designed so to: allow for incorporating live real-world driving data into the simulation, enabling Vehicle-in-the-Loop testing of autonomous driving behaviors and providing us with a useful mean to evaluate the human factor in the autonomous vehicle context.
Journal Article

Conceptual Development of a Multi-Material Composite Structure for an Urban Utility/Activity Vehicle

2016-04-05
2016-01-1334
The Deep Orange framework is an integral part of the graduate automotive engineering education at Clemson University International Center for Automotive Research (CU-ICAR). The initiative was developed to immerse students into the world of an OEM. For the 6th generation of Deep Orange, the goal was to develop an urban utility/activity vehicle for the year 2020. The objective of this paper is to describe the development of a multimaterial lightweight Body-in-White (BiW) structure to support an all-electric powertrain combined with an interior package that maximizes volume to enable a variety of interior configurations and activities for Generation Z users. AutoPacific data were first examined to define personas on the basis of their demographics and psychographics.
Technical Paper

VoGe: A Voice and Gesture System for Interacting with Autonomous Cars

2017-03-28
2017-01-0068
In the next 20 years fully autonomous vehicles are expected to be in the market. The advance on their development is creating paradigm shifts on different automotive related research areas. Vehicle interiors design and human vehicle interaction are evolving to enable interaction flexibility inside the cars. However, most of today’s vehicle manufacturers’ autonomous car concepts maintain the steering wheel as a control element. While this approach allows the driver to take over the vehicle route if needed, it causes a constraint in the previously mentioned interaction flexibility. Other approaches, such as the one proposed by Google, enable interaction flexibility by removing the steering wheel and accelerator and brake pedals. However, this prevents the users to take control over the vehicle route if needed, not allowing them to make on-route spontaneous decisions, such as stopping at a specific point of interest.
Technical Paper

Conceptualization and Implementation of a Dual-Purpose Battery Electric Powertrain Concept for an Urban Utility/Activity Vehicle

2016-04-05
2016-01-1182
The Deep Orange framework is an integral part of the graduate automotive engineering education at Clemson University International Center for Automotive Research (CU-ICAR). The initiative was developed to immerse students into the world of an OEM. For the sixth generation of Deep Orange, the goal was to develop an urban utility/activity vehicle for the year 2020. The objective of this paper is to describe the development and implementation of a dual-purpose powertrain system enabling vehicle propulsion as well as stationary activities of the Deep Orange 6 vehicle concept. AutoPacific data were first examined to define personas on the basis of their demographics and psychographics. The resulting market research, benchmarking, and brand essence studies were then converted to consumer needs and wants, to establish vehicle target and subsystem requirement, which formed the foundation of the Unique Selling Points (USPs) of the concept.
Technical Paper

An Improved Seating Accommodation Model for Older and Younger Drivers

2016-04-05
2016-01-1444
The research objective was to measure and understand the preferred seat position of older drivers and younger drivers within their personal vehicles to influence recommended practices and meet the increased safety needs of all drivers. Improper selection of driver’s seat position may impact safety during a crash event and affect one’s capacity to see the roadway and reach the vehicle’s controls, such as steering wheel, accelerator, brake, clutch, and gear selector lever. Because of the stature changes associated with ageing and the fact that stature is normally distributed for both males and females, it was hypothesized that the SAE J4004 linear regression would be improved with the inclusion of gender and age terms that would provide a more accurate model to predict the seat track position of older drivers. Participants included 97 older drivers over the age of 60 and 20 younger drivers between the ages of 30 to 39.
Technical Paper

Battery Electric Bus Simulator - A Tool for Energy Consumption Analysis

2014-09-30
2014-01-2435
This paper presents the design, implementation and validation of a forward simulator for a battery electric bus, developed in MATLAB/Simulink. This simulator allows performing energy consumption analyses for different bus routes. In addition, a user can modify some parameters that affect the powertrain operation to understand their influence in the energy consumption of the bus. These analyses allow the electric bus manufacturers to adapt their powertrain designs and control strategies for different transit agencies with different routes and energy requirements. The simulator was validated using real data from a battery electric bus. The results showed a good correlation between the real and the simulated data. In particular, the absolute error between the real and the simulated State of Charge (SOC), which is one of the most important parameters for this kind of vehicles, was 3.24%.
Journal Article

Conceptualization and Implementation of a 6-Seater Interior Concept for a Hybrid Mainstream Sports Car

2013-04-08
2013-01-0449
The Deep Orange [1] initiative is an integral part of the automotive graduate program at Clemson University International Center for Automotive Research. The initiative was developed to provide the graduate students with hands-on experience of the knowledge attained in the various engineering disciplines and related disciplines (such as marketing and human factors psychology). For the 3rd edition of Deep Orange, the goal was to develop a blank sheet hybrid mainstream sports car concept targeted towards the Generation Y (Gen Y) market segment. The objective of this paper is to explain the unique interior-seating concept that was derived from extensive analyses of the Generation Y market segment based on surveys completed by owners of new cars and light trucks in the United States. The survey data clearly indicated that a significant portion of Gen Y would prefer a vehicle with 5 or more seating positions.
Journal Article

Chassis Dynamometer as a Development Platform for Vehicle Hardware In-the-Loop “VHiL”

2013-05-15
2013-01-9018
This manuscript provides a review of different types and categorization of the chassis dynamometer systems. The review classifies the chassis dynamometers based on the configuration, type of rollers and the application type. Additionally the manuscript discusses several application examples of the chassis dynamometer including: performance and endurance mileage accumulation tests, fuel efficiency and exhaust emissions, noise, vibration and harshness testing (NVH). Different types of the vehicle attachment system in the dynamometer cell and its influences on the driving force characteristics and the vehicle acoustic signature is also discussed. The text also highlights the impact of the use of the chassis dynamometer as a development platform and its impact on the development process. Examples of using chassis dynamometer as a development platform using Vehicle Hardware In-the-Loop (VHiL) approach including drivability assessment and transmission calibrations are presented.
Technical Paper

Conceptual Development and Implementation of a Reconfigurable Interior Concept for an Urban Utility/Activity Vehicle

2016-04-05
2016-01-0321
The Deep Orange framework is an integral part of the graduate automotive engineering education at Clemson University International Center for Automotive Research (CU-ICAR). The initiative was developed to immerse students into the world of an OEM. For the 6th generation of Deep Orange, the goal was to develop an urban utility/activity vehicle for the year 2020. The objective of this paper is to explain the interior concept that offers a flexible interior utility/activity space for Generation Z (Gen Z) users. AutoPacific data were first examined to define personas on the basis of their demographics and psychographics. The resulting market research, benchmarking, and brand essence studies were then converted to consumer needs and wants, to establish technical specifications, which formed the foundation of the Unique Selling Points (USPs) of the concept.
Journal Article

Application of a Novel Metal Folding Technology for Automotive BiW Design

2013-04-08
2013-01-0373
The Deep Orange [1] initiative is an integral part of the automotive graduate program at Clemson University International Center for Automotive Research. The initiative was developed to provide the graduate students with hands-on experience of the knowledge attained in the various engineering disciplines and related disciplines (such as marketing and human factors psychology). For the 3rd edition of Deep Orange, the goal was to develop a blank sheet hybrid mainstream sports car concept targeted towards the Generation Y (Gen Y) market segment. The objective of this paper is to explain the unique body-in-white (BiW) concept that offers space for 6-passengers and includes a dual-mode hybrid all-wheel drive powertrain. An additional objective of the project was to develop and showcase a body-in-white concept that will eliminate metal stamping and high capital investments associated with this technology (such as dies and stamping tools).
Journal Article

Eco-Driving System for Energy Efficient Driving of an Electric Bus

2015-04-14
2015-01-0158
This paper presents the design of an Eco-Driving Assistant System (EDAS) in which the main goal is to minimize the energy use of battery electric vehicles, in particular, vehicles utilized for public transportation. The system optimizes the speed profile of a real route schedule while satisfying the constraints imposed on speed and time. It includes a driver feedback and a driver scoring GUI which allows the driver improving his/her driving skills and comparing him/herself to a “theoretical perfect driver”. The system also includes a backward simulator that generates information related to the vehicle operation under the particular route to be optimized. The output information from the simulator is used as an input to the optimization algorithm. The simulator was validated using real data from a battery electric vehicle. The EDAS system was tested for three different driving profiles and energy consumption reductions of up to 30.33% were achieved.
Technical Paper

Understanding the Automotive Pedal Usage and Foot Movement Characteristics of Older Drivers

2018-04-03
2018-01-0495
This study was driven by the prevalence of older drivers’ overrepresentation in crashes caused by pedal application errors. Previous research has shown tasks prone to pedal errors, which include emergency braking, parking lot maneuvers and reaching out of the driver’s window. However, pedal usage characteristics of older drivers while performing on-road driving tasks are unknown. The objective of this research was to understand pedal usage characteristics of older drivers during on-road driving tasks in an instrumented vehicle. Twenty-six drivers over the age of 60 completed 10 stopping tasks as the baseline for stopping performance, a startle-braking task, two forward parking tasks and two reaching out of the vehicle tasks. Results for this instrumented vehicle study showed significantly positive correlations between stature and the percent of foot pivoting, and between shoe length and percent of foot pivoting in the baseline stopping tasks.
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