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Journal Article

Differential Drive Assisted Steering Control for an In-wheel Motor Electric Vehicle

2015-04-14
2015-01-1599
For an electric vehicle driven by four in-wheel motors, the torque of each wheel can be controlled precisely and independently. A closed-loop control method of differential drive assisted steering (DDAS) has been proposed to improve vehicle steering properties based on those advantages. With consideration of acceleration requirement, a three dimensional characteristic curve that indicates the relation between torque and angle of the steering wheel at different vehicle speeds was designed as a basis of the control system. In order to deal with the saturation of motor's output torque under certain conditions, an anti-windup PI control algorithm was designed. Simulations and vehicle tests, including pivot steering test, lemniscate test and central steering test were carried out to verify the performance of the DDAS in steering portability and road feeling.
Technical Paper

Pressure Estimation Algorithms in Decoupled Electro-Hydraulic Brake System Considering the Friction and Pressure-Position Relationship

2019-04-02
2019-01-0438
This paper presents several pressure estimation algorithms (PEAs) for a decoupled electro-hydraulic brake system (EHB), which is driven by an electric motor + reduction gear. Most of the pressure control solutions are based on standard pressure-based feedback control, requiring a pressure signal. Although the pressure sensor can produce the pressure feedback signal, it will increase cost and enlarge installation space. The rotation angle of electric motor is available by the built-in sensor, so the pressure can be estimated by using the rotation angle. Considering the typical nonlinearities (i.e. friction, pressure-position relationship) and uncertainties (i.e. disturbance caused by friction model), the estimation-oriented model is established. The LuGre model is selected to describe the friction, and the pressure-position relationship is fitted by a quadratic polynomial.
Technical Paper

A Steerable Curvature Approach for Efficient Executable Path Planning for on-Road Autonomous Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0675
A rapid path-planning algorithm that generates drivable paths for an autonomous vehicle operating in structural road is proposed in this paper. Cubic B-spline curve is adopted to generating smooth path for continuous curvature and, more, parametric basic points of the spline is adjusted to controlling the curvature extremum for kinematic constraints on vehicle. Other than previous approaches such as inverse kinematics, model-based prediction postprocess approach or closed-loop forward simulation, using the kinematics model in each iteration of path for smoothing and controlling curvature leading to time consumption increasing, our method characterized the vehicle curvature constraint by the minimum length of segment line, which synchronously realized constraint and smooth for generating path. And Differ from the path of robot escaping from a maze, the intelligent vehicle traveling on road in structured environments needs to meet the traffic rules.
Technical Paper

A Control Allocation Strategy for Electric Vehicles with In-wheel Motors and Hydraulic Brake System

2015-04-14
2015-01-1600
Distributed drive electric vehicle (EV) is driven by four independent hub motors mounted directly in wheels and retains traditional hydraulic brake system. So it can quickly produce driving/braking motor torque and large stable hydraulic braking force. In this paper a new control allocation strategy for distributed drive electric vehicle is proposed to improve vehicle's lateral stability performance. It exploits the quick response of motor torque and controllable hydraulic pressure of the hydraulic brake system. The allocation strategy consists of two sections. The first section uses an optimal allocation controller to calculate the total longitudinal force of each wheel. In the controller, a dynamic efficiency matrix is designed via local linearization to improve lateral stability control performance, as it considers the influence of tire coupling characteristics over yaw moment control in extreme situations.
Technical Paper

Speed Tracking Control for All-Terrain Vehicle Considering Road Slope and Saturation Constraint of Actuator

2017-09-23
2017-01-1953
In this paper, a speed tracking controller is designed for the All-terrain vehicles. The method of feedforward with state variable feedback based on conditional integrators is adopted by the proposed control algorithm. The feedforward is designed considering the influence of the road slope on the longitudinal dynamics, which makes the All-terrain vehicles satisfy the acceleration demand of the upper controller when it tracks the desired speed on the road with slope varying greatly. The road slope is estimated based on a combined kinematic and dynamic model. This method solves the problem that road slope estimation requires an accurate vehicle dynamic model and are susceptible to acceleration sensor bias. Based on the vehicle dynamic model and the nonlinear tire model, the method of conditional integration is used in the state variable feedback, which considers the saturation constraint of the actuator with the intention of preventing the divergent integral operation.
Technical Paper

Research of Motor Control Based on Integrated-Electro-Hydraulic Braking System

2016-09-14
2016-01-1886
With development of vehicle advanced driver assistant system and intelligent techniques, safer and more intelligent Integrated-Electro-Hydraulic Braking System is required to realize brake-by-wire. Thus, more and more companies and universities developed Integrated-Electro-Hydraulic Braking System to fulfill these requirements. In this paper, an Integrated-Electro-Hydraulic Braking System is introduced, which consists of active source power, pedal feel emulator and electro control unit. As a composite system of mechanic, electron and hydraulic pressure, the Integrated-Electro-Hydraulic Braking System has complex system characteristics. Integrated-Electro-Hydraulic Braking System and active power source have very different dynamic characteristics. So algorithms of hydraulic pressure control and motor control should be apart, but algorithm of them should be united in hardware to meet integration demand.
Journal Article

The Influences of the Subframe Flexibility on Handling and Stability Simulation When Using ADAMS/Car

2016-04-05
2016-01-1637
To analyze the K&C (kinematics and compliance), handling and stability performance of the vehicle chassis, some simulations are usually performed using a multi-body dynamics software named ADAMS. This software introduces assumptions that simplify the components of the suspension as rigid bodies. However, these assumptions weaken the accuracy of the simulation of ADAMS. Therefore the use of flexible bodies in K&C and handling and stability simulation in ADAMS is needed to conduct more precise suspension system designs. This paper mainly analyses the influences of the subframe flexibility on handling and stability simulation in ADAMS/Car. Two complete vehicle models are built using ADAMS/Car and Hypermesh. The only difference between the two models is the subframe of the front McPherson suspension. One of the subframes is simplified as a rigid body. The other one is a flexible body built using the MNF file from Hypermesh.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic Control of Integrated Electronic Hydraulic Brake System based on Command Feed-Forward

2016-04-05
2016-01-1658
With the development of vehicle electrification, electronic hydraulic brake system is gradually applied. Many companies have introduced products related to integrated electronic hydraulic brake system (I-EHB). In this paper, an I-EHB system is introduced, which uses the motor to drive the reduction mechanism as a power source for braking. The reduction mechanism is composed of a turbine, a worm, a gear and a rack. A control method based on command feed-forward is proposed to improve the hydraulic pressure control of I-EHB. Based on previous research, we simplify the system to first order system, and the theoretical design of the command feed-forward compensator is carried out. The feed-forward controller is applied, including the velocity feed-forward and the acceleration feed-forward, to improve the response speed and tracking effect of the system.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic Control of Integrated Electronic Hydraulic Brake System Based on LuGre Friction Model

2017-09-17
2017-01-2513
In this paper, an integrated electronic hydraulic brake(I-EHB) system is introduced, which is mainly composed of a motor, a worm gear, a worm, a gear, a rack etc. The friction leads the system to the creeping phenomenon and the dead zone. These phenomenon seriously affect the response speed and the hydraulic pressure control .In order to realize the accurate hydraulic pressure control of I-EHB system, a new friction compensation control method is proposed based on LuGre dynamic friction model. And the theoretical design of adaptive control method is designed based on the feedback of the master cylinder pressure and the operating state of the system. Then the stability of the control method is proved by Lyapunov theorem. A co-simulation model is built with Matlab/Simulink and AMESim, so as to prove the validity of the control method.
Technical Paper

Adaptive Cascade Optimum Braking Control Based on a Novel Mechatronic Booster

2017-09-17
2017-01-2514
BBW (Brake-by-wire) can increase the electric and hybrid vehicles performance and safety. This paper proposes a novel mechatronic booster system, which includes APS (active power source), PFE (pedal feel emulator), ECU (electronic control unit). The system is easily disturbed when the system parameters and the outside conditions change. The system performance is weakened. The cascade control technique can be used to solve the problem. This paper develops an adaptive cascade optimum control (ACOC) algorithm based on the novel mechatronic booster system. The system is divided into main loop and servo loop, both of them are closed-loop system. The servo-loop system can eliminate the disturbance which exists in the servo loop. So the robustness of the cascade control system is improved than which of the general closed-loop control system. Different control object is respectively chosen. The control-oriented mathematical model is designed.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Brake System Control Strategy in Typical Transient Conditions

2014-04-01
2014-01-0267
The control in transient conditions when hydraulic brake and regenerative brake switch mutually is the key technical issue about electric vehicle hybrid brake system, which has a direct influence on the braking feel of driver and vehicle braking comfort. A coordination control system has been proposed, including brake force distribution correction module and motor force compensation module. Brake force distribution correction module has fixed the distribution results in hydraulic brake force intervention condition, hydraulic brake force evacuation condition and regenerative brake force low speed evacuation condition. Motor compensation module has compensated hydraulic system with motor system, which has fast and accurate response, thus the response of whole hybrid system has been improved.
Technical Paper

Research of Active Power Source Based on Electronic Hydraulic Braking System

2015-04-14
2015-01-1211
To research the dynamic response of active power source of electronic hydraulic brake system, the paper proposes a restricted distribution control strategy. Building control strategy model and active power source model to simulation with Matlab/Simulink and AMEsim, and bench test is conducted on different driving cycles, which proves that the dynamic response of active power source is fit and controllable by adjusting PID parameters.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Sideslip Angle Estimation Considering the Tire Pneumatic Trail Variation

2018-04-03
2018-01-0571
Vehicle sideslip angle is significant for electronic stability control devices and hard to estimate due to the nonlinear and uncertain vehicle and tire dynamics. In this paper, based on the two track vehicle dynamic model considering the tire pneumatic trail variation, the vehicle sideslip angle estimation method was proposed. First, the extra steering angle of each wheel caused by kinematics and compliance characteristics of the steering system and suspension system was analyzed. The steering angle estimation method was designed. Since the pneumatic trail would vary with different tire slip angle, distances between the center of gravity (COG) and front&rear axle also change with the tire slip angle. Then, based on the dynamic pneumatic trail and estimated steering angle, we modified the traditional two track vehicle dynamic model using a brush tire model. This model matches the vehicle dynamics more accurately.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Sideslip Angle Estimation: A Review

2018-04-03
2018-01-0569
Vehicle sideslip angle estimation is of great importance to the vehicle stability control as it could not be measured directly by ordinary vehicle-mounted sensors. As a result, researchers worldwide have carried out comprehensive research in estimating the vehicle sideslip angle. First, as the attitude would affect the acceleration information measured by the IMU directly, different kinds of vehicle attitude estimation methods with multi-sensor fusion are presented. Then, the estimation algorithms of the vehicle sideslip angle are classified into the following three aspects: kinematic model based method, dynamic model based method, and fusion method. The characteristics of different estimation algorithms are also discussed. Finally, the conclusion and development trend of the sideslip angle estimation are prospected.
Technical Paper

Braking Pressure Tracking Control of a Pressure Sensor Unequipped Electro-Hydraulic Booster Based on a Nonlinear Observer

2018-04-03
2018-01-0581
BBW (Brake-by-wire) can increase the vehicle safety performance due to high control accuracy and fast response speed. As one solution of BBW, the novel Integrated-electro-hydraulic brake system (I-EHB) is proposed, which consists of electro-hydraulic booster and hydraulic pressure control unit. The electro-hydraulic booster is activated by an electric motor that driving linear motion mechanism to directly produce the master cylinder pressure. With electro-hydraulic booster as an actuator, the hydraulic pressure control problem is a key issue. Most literatures deal with the pressure control issue based on the feedback pressure signal measured by pressure sensor. As far as the authors are aware, none of the proposed techniques takes into account the pressure sensor unequipped BBW. In this paper, there is no pressure feedback signal, but there is only position feedback signal measured by position sensor for control law design.
Technical Paper

Optimal Torque Allocation for Distributed Drive Electric Skid-Steered Vehicles Based on Energy Efficiency

2018-04-03
2018-01-0579
Steering of skid-steered vehicles without steering mechanism is realized by differential drive/brake torque generated from in-wheel motors at left and right sides. Compared to traditional Ackerman-steered vehicles, skid-steered vehicles consume much more energy while steering due to greater steering resistance. Torque allocation is critical to the distributed drive skid-steered vehicles, since it influences not only steering performance, but also energy efficiency. In this paper, the dynamic characteristics of six-wheeled skid-steered vehicles were analyzed, and a 2-DOF vehicle model was established, which is important for both motion tracking control and torque allocation. Furthermore, a hierarchical controller was proposed. Considering tire force characteristics and tire slip, the upper layer calculates the generalized force and desired yaw moment based on anti-windup PI (proportion-integral) control method.
Journal Article

Torque Vectoring Control for Distributed Drive Electric Vehicle Based on State Variable Feedback

2014-04-01
2014-01-0155
Torque Vectoring Control for distributed drive electric vehicle is studied. A handling improvement algorithm for normal cornering maneuvers is proposed based on state variable feedback control: Yaw rate feedback together with steer angle feedforward is employed to improve transient response and steady gain of the yaw rate, respectively. According to the feedback coefficient's influence on the transient response, an optimization function is proposed to obtain optimum feedback coefficients under different speeds. After maximum feedforward coefficients under different speeds are obtained from the constraint of the motor exterior characteristic, final feedforward coefficients are calculated according to an optimal steering characteristic. A torque distribution algorithm is presented to help the driver to speed up during the direct yaw moment control.
Journal Article

Anti-Lock Braking System Control Design on An Integrated-Electro-Hydraulic Braking System

2017-03-28
2017-01-1578
Two control strategies, safety preferred control and master cylinder oscillation control, were designed for anti-lock braking on a novel integrated-electro-hydraulic braking system (I-EHB) which has only four solenoid valves in its innovative hydraulic control unit (HCU) instead of eight in a traditional one. The main idea of safety preferred control is to reduce the hydraulic pressure provided by the motor in the master cylinder whenever a wheel tends to be locking even if some of the other wheels may need more braking torque. In contrast, regarding master cylinder oscillation control, a sinusoidal signal is given to the motor making the hydraulic pressure in the master cylinder oscillate in certain frequency and amplitude. Hardware-in-the-loop simulations were conducted to verify the effectiveness of the two control strategies mentioned above and to evaluate them.
Technical Paper

Control of Novel Integrated-Electro-Hydraulic Brake System for Automotive

2015-09-27
2015-01-2699
With the electrification and intelligentialization of vehicle, requirements on more intelligent and integrated brake system are put forward. A novel integrated-electro-hydraulic brake system (I-EHB) for automotive is presented to fulfill these requirements. I-EHB is consisted of active power source (APS), pedal feel emulator (PFE), electro control unit (ECU) and hydraulic control unit (HCU). The system characteristics of I-EHB are tested through test rig. According to characteristics experiments, friction and non-linear phenomena in hydraulic pressure control are found. In order to overcome these phenomena in control of I-EHB, chatter-compensation is adopted based on experiment analysis. Algorithm are tested and optimized through test rig. As a result, through chatter-compensation the hydraulic pressure is controlled accurately and chatter-compensation is optimized for different working conditions.
Technical Paper

An Integrated-Electro-Hydraulic Brake System for Active Safety

2016-04-05
2016-01-1640
An integrated-electro-hydraulic brake system (I-EHB) is presented to fulfill the requirements of active safety. Because I-EHB can control the brake pressure accurately and fast. Furthermore I-EHB is a decoupled system, so it could make the maximum regenerative braking while offers the same brake pedal feeling and also good for ADAS and unmanned driving application. Based on the analysis of current electrohydraulic brake systems, regulation requirements and the requirements for brake system, the operating mode requirements of I-EHB are formed. Furthermore, system topological structure and a conceptual design are proposed. After the selection of key components, the parameter design is accomplished by modeling the system. According to the above-mentioned design method, an I-EHB prototype and test rig is made. Through the test rig, characteristics of the system are tested. Results show that this I-EHB system responded rapidly.
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