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Technical Paper

Adaptive SCR Model for MPC Control Including Aging Effects

2015-04-14
2015-01-1045
The focus in the development of modern exhaust after treatment systems, like the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), is to increase on one hand the oxidation rates of Carbon monoxide (CO), HC (Hydro Carbons) and NO (Nitrogen Oxide) and on the other hand the reduction rates of Particulate Matter (PM) and the NOx emissions to fulfill the more and more restricting requirements of the exhaust emission legislation. The simplest, practical most relevant way to obtain such a dosing strategy of a SCR system is the use of a nonlinear map, which has to be determined by extensive calibration efforts. This feedforward action has the advantage of not requiring a downstream NOx sensor and can achieve high conversion efficiency under steady-state operating conditions for nominal systems.
Technical Paper

On-line Abatement of Transient NOx and PM Diesel Engine Emissions by Oxygen Based Optimal Control

2010-10-25
2010-01-2201
Transient emission peaks have become an important fraction of the total emissions during the standardized test cycles for passenger car Diesel engines. This paper is concerned with their reduction, in particular of nitric oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions, by online receding horizon optimal control. It is based on former works in which alternative target quantities for engine control were proposed, namely in-cylinder oxygen concentrations before (O2,BC) and after combustion (O2,AC). The actual work is concerned with testing an in-cylinder oxygen concentrations based control in simulation as well as by a real-time implementation on a turbocharged common rail passenger car production Diesel engine. The promising results confirm the choice of these concentrations as sensible control references and the feasibility of a real-time use in a model predictive control implementation.
Technical Paper

Control Oriented Crank Angle Based Analysis of Soot Dynamics During Diesel Combustion

2010-10-25
2010-01-2105
This paper presents a detailed optical and thermodynamic analysis of effects which influences the soot formation and oxidation process during Diesel combustion. To measure the actual soot concentration over crank angle an optical sensor was installed on the engine. In combination with a thermodynamic engine process calculation, based on the measured cylinder pressure, several important effects are analyzed and described in detail. The main focus of the paper is to produce knowledge on how soot dynamics is influenced by changed engine control unit (ECU) calibration parameters. A modern 4 cylinder production car Diesel engine was used for the studies, which offers a lot of opportunities to influence combustion by varying injection timing and air path ECU parameters. As a consequence discussion is done on how the analyzed effects are treated by published 0-dimensional simulation models with focus on later control and optimization application.
Technical Paper

Adapted D-Optimal Experimental Design for Transient Emission Models of Diesel Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-0621
Emission abatement is one of the main targets in engine development and design today. Modern turbocharged CRDI Diesel engines with variable turbine geometry (VTG) and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) provide new degrees of freedom for air path control with enormous effects on emissions. Exploiting these degrees of freedom usually involves a huge calibration work, as sensors are available only for few quantities and dynamical models are mostly not available, so feedback or model based optimization is hardly possible. This paper presents a time efficient data based strategy to obtain such models yielding an accurate as well as robust emission model for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) by means of design of experiment. The model output is generated by smoothly switching between local models, representing different engine operating points. An adapted D-optimal design of experiments strategy provides optimal data for model identification.
Technical Paper

Optimization of the transient Diesel engine operation

2009-09-13
2009-24-0113
Transient emission peaks have become an important fraction of the total emissions during the standardized test cycles for passenger car Diesel engines. This paper is concerned with their reduction, in particular for nitric oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions, by online optimization. It is based on a former work [1] in which alternative target quantities for engine control were proposed, namely in-cylinder oxygen concentrations before (O2,BC) and after combustion (O2,AC). A generic nonlinear optimization is applied to provide a systematic determination for the optimal trajectories of these oxygen target quantities during a transient torque maneuver. The proposed method was implemented on a dynamic engine test bed using a production passenger car Diesel engine for the objective function evaluation. Torque response could be maintained unchanged while NOx as well as PM emission peaks were reduced significantly.
Technical Paper

Fuel and Immission Potential of Context Aware Engine Control

2013-04-08
2013-01-0306
This paper shows the potential of a multicalibration approach for reducing fuel consumption while keeping pollutant immissions. The paper demonstrates that the current engine control approach with a single fixed calibration involves important fuel penalties in areas with low vehicle densities where local pollution is not an issue, while the NOx emissions in urban areas are usually too high to fulfill air quality standards. The proposed strategy is based on using information about the vehicle location and the NOx concentrations in the ambient to choose a suitable calibration amongst a set of possibilities. To assess the potential of such a strategy experimental tests have been done with a state-of-art turbocharged Diesel engine. First, a design of experiments is used to obtain three different calibrations.
Technical Paper

Immission Oriented Engine NOx Control

2013-04-08
2013-01-0346
Pollutant immissions must be kept below some threshold values to prevent health and environmental damage. At the moment, the problem is usually met by constant emission limits for each vehicle independently from specific conditions - in particular, without any relation to the actual immission situation. This approach offers the advantage of simplicity, but offers no guarantee that the immission levels will be kept. New developments, in particular the expected diffusion of i2v methods, allows suggesting context specific emission levels so that the total emission roughly corresponding to the local immissions - can be limited to the target values. To meet this goal, emission-oriented control will be needed. This paper proposes a robust control system which allows tracking a time-varying NOx profile, based on the sliding mode concept.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Transient PM Emissions in Diesel Engine

2011-09-11
2011-24-0197
Transient emission peaks have become an important fraction of the total emissions during the standardized test cycles for passenger car Diesel engines. To this end this paper is concerned with the challenge of measuring emissions during transients. The importance of this topic is increasing due to strict regulation on pollutant emissions. Hence, suitably accurate and fast measurement devices for PM emission detection are required. Thus, we present a comparison between different measurement techniques for Particulate matter (PM) emissions from a Diesel engine, in particular during transients. The compared equipments include AVL Micro soot sensor, AVL Opacimeter, Differential mobility spectrometer and Laser induced incandescence. The goal of this paper is to reveal the most accurate device in the sense of sensitivity and dynamics for fast measurements of PM from a Diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Gray Box Diesel Engine Soot Emission Modeling Based on Two-Color Spectroscopy Measurements

2011-09-11
2011-24-0205
Modeling the soot emissions of a Diesel engine is a challenge. Although it was part of many works before, it is still not a solved issue and has a substantial potential for improvement. A major problem is the presence of two competing effects during combustion, soot formation and soot oxidation, whereas only the cumulative difference of these effects can be measured in the exhaust. There is a wide consensus that it is sensible to design crank angle resolved models for both effects. Indeed, many authors propose crank angle based soot models which are mostly based on detailed first principles based structures, e.g. spray models, engine process calculations etc. Although these models are appealing from a theoretical point of view, they are all lacking of the required measurement information to validate all the complex model parts. Finally, most parts of the model remain at their assumed values and only a few parameters are used for calibration.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Injection Adaptation by Input Shaping for Low NOx Emissions during Transients

2014-04-01
2014-01-1161
Especially in view of more and more stringent emission legislation in passenger cars it is required to reduce the amount of pollutants. In the case of Diesel engines mainly NOx and PM are emitted during engine operation. The main influence factors for these pollutants are the in-cylinder oxygen concentration and the injected fuel amount. Typically the engine control task can be divided into two separate main parts, the fuel and the air system. Commonly air system control, consisting of a turbocharger and exhaust gas recirculation control, is used to provide the required amount of oxygen and address the emission targets, whereas the fuel is used to provide the desired torque. Especially in transient maneuvers the different time scales of both systems can lead to emission peaks which are not desired. Against this background in this work instead of the common way to address the air system, the fuel system is considered to reduce emission peaks during transients.
Technical Paper

A Simplified Fuel Efficient Predictive Cruise Control Approach

2015-04-14
2015-01-0296
Adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems allow a safe and reliable driving by adapting the velocity of the vehicle to velocity setpoints and the distance from preceding vehicles. This substantially reduces the effort of the driver especially in heavy traffic conditions. However, standard ACC systems do not necessarily take in account comfort and fuel efficiency. Recently some work has been done of the latter aspect. This paper extends previous works for CI engines by incorporating a prediction model of the surrounding traffic and a simplified control law capable for real time use in experiments. The prediction model itself uses sinusoidal functions as the traffic measurements often show periodic behavior and is adapted in every sample instant with respect to the predecessor's velocity. Furthermore, the controlled vehicle is forced to stay within a specific inter-vehicle distance corridor to avoid collisions and ensure safe driving.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Pressure based Modeling for Injection Parameters by PCA with Feature Correlation Analysis

2013-09-08
2013-24-0148
Modern Diesel engines have become complex systems with a high number of available sensor information and degrees of freedom in control. Due to recent developments in production type in-cylinder pressure sensors, there is again an upcoming interest for in-cylinder pressure based applications. Besides the standard approaches, like to use it for closed loop combustion control, also estimation and on-board diagnostics have become important topics. Not surprising in general the trend is to utilize those sensors for as many tasks as possible. Consequently this work focuses on the estimation of the injection parameters based on the indicated pressure signal information which can be seen as first step of a combustion control based on desirable indicated pressure characteristics which may be utilized for e.g. the minimization of NOx emissions. Currently the acquisition of the cylinder pressure traces can be done in real-time by fast FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) based systems.
Technical Paper

Development of In-Situ, Full Stream, Laser Induced Incandescence Technique for Measurement of Transient Soot Emissions

2013-09-08
2013-24-0169
The Laser Induced Incandescence technique (LII) is a sensitive optical method for reliable spatially and temporally resolved measurement of particulate matter (PM) concentration. This technique appears to be suitable for measurement of fast transient PM emissions, from diesel engines, which forms the main fraction of total emissions during standardized test cycles. However, the existing commercial LII devices require modifications in the exhaust gas flow, dilution, sampling cell, or it measure only in a partial stream. This article presents the development of a laser based optical setup - LII for rapid in-situ measurement of PM concentrations during the combustion process of a diesel production engine. The presented LII setup is suitable for direct in-situ, full stream, measurements of soot emissions without needs of dilution or a sampling cell.
Technical Paper

Dynamical Nonlinear Particulate Matter Estimation Based on Laser Induced Incandescence Measurements

2013-09-08
2013-24-0180
Measurements of transient emissions become more important due to the increasing contribution of transient operation to the total tail pipe emissions. While for many quantities measurement devices with response time in the range of few milliseconds exist, the same is not true for particulate matter(PM). Pulsed Laser Induced Incandescence (LII) is widely used in experimental setups and may offer a viable approach also for production engines, but the specific nature of LII raises doubts on the quantitative precision achievable by the method, especially in transient operation. Indeed, there are two main problems in particular for dynamic measurements. On one side, the emitted laser power must be high enough to excite a sufficiently large number of particles within the observed area, but not as high to destroy them, and varying engine operating conditions imply changes in the number and size distribution of the particles as well.
Technical Paper

Virtual Sensor Design of Particulate and Nitric Oxide Emissions in a DI Diesel Engine

2005-09-11
2005-24-063
As a physical description of the emissions of a specific engine is seldom possible, we present here a method to design an online dynamic estimator for PM and NOx based on data. The design method is based on a systematic search of function candidates performed using genetic programming after data have been pre-treated in an adequate fashion. While data and a simple data pretreatment prove enough for NOx, some basic physical understanding is necessary to preset the method and obtain the required precision in the case of PM. The method has been applied for raw emissions of a production DI diesel engine and shows a remarkable prediction performance.
Technical Paper

NOx Virtual Sensor Based on Structure Identification and Global Optimization

2005-04-11
2005-01-0050
On-line measurement of engine NOx emissions is the object of a substantial effort, as it would strongly improve the control of CI engines. Many efforts have been directed towards hardware solutions, in particular to physical sensors, which have already reached a certain degree of maturity. In this paper, we are concerned with an alternative approach, a virtual sensor, which is essentially a software code able to estimate the correct value of an unmeasured variable, thus including in some sense an input/output model of the process. Most virtual sensors are either derived by fitting data to a generic structure (like an artificial neural network, ANN) or by physical principles. In both cases, the quality of the sensor tends to be poor outside the measured values.
Journal Article

Simplified Calculation of Chemical Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Properties for Diesel Combustion

2011-09-11
2011-24-0020
Computation of combustion, in particular of emissions over crank angle, relies on chemical oriented models. In some cases, chemical equilibrium can be assumed, as chemical reaction time scales tend to be fast compared to the crank rotation, so the rather complex reaction kinetics can be neglected. For engine process calculation based on the measured cylinder pressure chemical equilibrium concentrations are needed for every crank angle or calculation time step. On the one hand the equilibrium concentrations are necessary for estimating the thermodynamic properties of the working gas (internal energy and specific gas constant) which are needed for deriving the energy release (burn rate) and on the other hand the obtained concentrations are inputs for crank angle based soot and nitric oxygen emission models which depends also on the engine process calculation results.
Journal Article

Pressure Based Virtual Sensing of Transient Particulate Matter of CI Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-1635
At the moment, no equipment is available for fast measurements of particulate matter (PM) from production CI engines, especially during transients. Against this background, virtual sensors may be an option, provided their precision can be validated. This paper presents a new approach to estimate PM emission based only on in-cylinder pressure data. To this end, an in-cylinder pressure trace is measured with a high resolution (0.5 CAD) and every trace is divided into 8 segments according to critical cylinder events (e.g. opening of the valves or the beginning of injection). A piecewise principle component analysis (PCA) is used to compress the information. This information is then used for PM estimation via a second order polynomial model structure. The key element is the separate use of pressure trace information before and during the early stages of combustion. The model is parameterized by steady points and transient experiments which include parts of the FTP and the NEDC.
Journal Article

Sequential Identification of Engine Subsystems by Optimal Input Design

2009-09-13
2009-24-0132
Complexity and nonlinearity of engines makes precise first principle engine models often difficult to obtain, as for instance for emissions. System identification is a well known possible alternative, successfully used in several automotive applications. In most cases system identification is concerned with the estimation of the unknown parameters of a known set of equations. Unfortunately, for many engine subsystems, there is no sufficiently precise or real time suitable model. This paper presents a sequential algorithm which allows to derive real time suitable models on line by a combination of model structure hypothesis of increasing complexity and an associated optimal input design and selection process. This paper introduces the method and shows its use both for a rather simple and a very difficult engine identification task, a dynamical model of the airpath of a Diesel engine and a dynamical model of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter.
Journal Article

Comparison of Virtual and Physical NOx-Sensors for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Application

2010-04-12
2010-01-1296
Nitrogen oxide (NOx) sensing is required both for on-board diagnosis and optimal selective catalytic reduction (SCR)-catalyst control in heavy duty diesel engines. This can be accomplished either by physical solid-state sensors, or by so-called virtual sensors, which estimate the value of the target quantity using other states by means of a model. Both approaches have advantages and disadvantages. This paper resumes the derivation and the identification of a virtual sensor based on a polynomial structure and optimal experimental design methods and compares its performance to the one of a production physical solid state sensor. The virtual sensor is compared with a commercially available solid-state sensor in terms of accuracy (stationary as well as dynamic) and operation limits.
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