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Technical Paper

Performance and Emissions Characteristics of an LPG Direct Injection Diesel Engines

In this study, performance and emissions characteristics of an LPG direct injection (DI) engine with a rotary distributor pump were examined by using cetane enhanced LPG fuel developed for diesel engines. Results showed that stable engine operation was possible for a wide range of engine loads. Also, engine output power with cetane enhanced LPG was comparable to diesel fuel operation. Exhaust emissions measurements showed NOx and smoke could be reduced with the cetane enhanced LPG fuel. Experimental model vehicle with an in-line plunger pump has received its license plate in June 2000 and started high-speed tests on a test course. It has already been operated more than 15,000 km without any major failure. Another, experimental model vehicle with a rotary distributor pump was developed and received its license plate to operate on public roads.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emissions of a DI Diesel Engine Operated with LPG and Ignition Improving Additives

This research investigated the performance and emissions of a direct injection (DI) Diesel engine operated on 100% butane liquid petroleum gas (LPG). The LPG has a low cetane number, therefore di-tertiary-butyl peroxide (DTBP) and aliphatic hydrocarbon (AHC) were added to the LPG (100% butane) to enhance cetane number. With the cetane improver, stable Diesel engine operation over a wide range of the engine loads was possible. By changing the concentration of DTBP and AHC several different LPG blended fuels were obtained. In-cylinder visualization was also used in this research to check the combustion behavior. LPG and only AHC blended fuel showed NOX emission increased compared to Diesel fuel operation. Experimental result showed that the thermal efficiency of LPG powered Diesel engine was comparable to Diesel fuel operation. Exhaust emissions measurements showed that NOX and smoke could be considerably reduced with the blend of LPG, DTBP and AHC.
Technical Paper

Fuel and System Interaction Effects on Urea-SCR Control of NOx in Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment

This work considers the performance of a NOx control system on a diesel engine and the interaction between the NOx and particulate control devices. A commercial urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst (twin catalytic reactors used in series) was characterized for the impact of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on the ammonia consumption, production of nitrous oxide (N2O) and relative selectivity of the urea-SCR catalyst for NO2 versus NO when the SCR reactors were positioned downstream of a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). The aqueous urea solution was injected into the exhaust by using a twin fluid, air-assisted atomizer. It was possible to observe the role of NO2 due to the catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF) upstream of the SCR catalyst. This catalyzed DPF oxidizes nitric oxide (NO) in the engine-out emissions to NO2. Further, it uses NO2 to oxidize particulate matter (PM).
Technical Paper

Performance of NOX Catalyst in a DI Diesel Engine Operated with Neat Dimethyl Ether

An experiment was conducted with a direct injection Diesel engine operated with neat dimethyl ether (DME). Main focus of this research is to investigate the performance of the catalysts designed for NOx reduction, such as Co–alumina and Sn–alumina catalysts, for the reduction of NOX and other unburned species contained in the exhaust gas. In the experiments, DME concentration in the exhaust gas was changed by adding extra DME before the catalytic reactor, which is the important experimental parameter in the research. Results showed that NOX reduction rate was not so high without any DME addition, because the content of unburned DME, reducing agent, is very low in the DME engine exhaust gas. However, NOX reduction rate increased with increase in DME content and it reached around 80% with enough DME addition. The NOX reduction rate increased with increase in reaction temperature up to around 300 °C.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emissions Performance of Low Sulfur, Ultra Low Sulfur and Biodiesel Blends in a DI Diesel Engine

Experiments were conducted with a commercially available six-cylinder, 4-valves per cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection (DI) diesel engine. The engine was operated with low sulfur diesel fuel, ultra low sulfur diesel fuel and two other blends, low sulfur diesel fuel with 20 wt.% biodiesel and ultra low sulfur diesel fuel with 20 wt.% biodiesel, to investigate the effect of the base fuels and their blends on combustion and emissions. Combustion analysis, particulate matter emissions and exhaust gas composition (CO, NOX and total hydrocarbons) were determined at eight steady-state operating conditions according to the AVL 8-Mode test protocol. Combustion analysis showed at high load conditions a retarded start of injection, an earlier start of combustion and a lower premixed burn peak with ultra low sulfur diesel fuel. Mode averaged NOX emissions decreased with ultra low sulfur diesel fuel and biodiesel blends compared to low sulfur diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Direct Injection Diesel Engine Operated with Propane - DME Blended Fuel

A novel way of using low-cetane-number petroleum gases in a compression ignition (CI) engine is introduced, by directly injecting blends of such fuels with dimethyl ether (DME), a high-cetane-number alternative fuel for low soot emissions. This method both extends advantages of DME and complements its deficiency. Although DME mixes with most hydrocarbon fuels in any ratio, in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the new method and facilitate the analysis, DME-propane blends were investigated in a direct injection CI engine. Some findings of the study are listed. In the engine operated by DME and propane blends, there was no need for significantly increasing the complexity of the fuel system than that employed in the use of neat DME. For the same reason, this method eliminates or minimizes cumbersome hardware necessary when the said gaseous fuels are separately introduced in CI engines.