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Technical Paper

A Study of Quantitative Impact on Emissions of High Proportion RME-Based Biodiesel Blends

2007-01-23
2007-01-0072
Previous work of the authors' group has shown that biodiesel fuels as a replacement for conventional diesel fuel in engine combustion can reduce PM level dramatically while lowering some other regulated emissions as well. It has shown that these fuels have the potential to increase the overall engine performance due to their lower sulphur and/or aromatics content compared with standard diesel fuels. This paper presents a study on a single cylinder naturally aspirated direct injection (DI) diesel engine, equipped with a pump-line-nozzle injection system, operating with varied biodiesel fuel blends (0%, 25%, and 50% of RME by volume) with ultra low sulphur diesel fuel (ULSD). The detailed analysis of the measurement data shows that the ignition delay and exhaust emissions are affected by the proportion of biodiesel due to the effect of different physical and chemical properties of the two fuels.
Technical Paper

A CFD Investigation into the Effects of Intake Valves Events on Airflow Characteristics in a Motored 4-Valve Engine Cylinder with Negative Valve Overlapping

2007-09-16
2007-24-0032
This paper presents a computational study of the airflow features within a motored 4-valve direct injection engine cylinder. An unconventional intake valve strategy was investigated; whereby each valve on the pair of intake valves was assumed to be actuated with different lifts and duration. One of the intake valves was assumed to follow a high-lift long duration valve-lift profile while the other was assumed to follow a low-lift short duration valve-lift profile. The pair of exhaust valves was assumed to be actuated with two identical low-lift short duration valve-lift profiles in order to generate the so-called negative valve overlapping (NVO). The in-cylinder flow fields developed with such intake valve strategy were compared to those produced in the same engine cylinder but with the application of identical low-lift short duration intake valve events.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emissions in a Spark-ignition Engine Fueled with Coal-Bed Gas - Modeling and Experimental Results

2005-10-24
2005-01-3804
There is a worldwide interest in the research of various alternative fuels for automotive engines for the purpose of reduction of CO2 and toxically harmful exhaust emissions. Coal-bed gas, the main component of which is methane, has been considered an attractive alternative fuel for combustion engines due to its abundant resources, high hydrogen-carbon ratios and very low soot formation tendency. The composition of available coal-bed gas, however, can vary considerably, and this has made its combustion stability difficult to control in conventional spark ignition engines. To overcome the problem, a combustion system with a swirl chamber connected to the main combustion chamber through an orifice has been developed for the use of coal-bed gas in spark ignition engines, and the corresponding combustion process has been studied using a developed combustion model involving flame kernel formation and flame front propagation.
Technical Paper

An Investigation into the Operating Mode Transitions of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Using EGR Trapping

2004-06-08
2004-01-1911
While Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is a promising combustion mode with significant advantages in fuel economy improvement and emission reductions for vehicle engines, it is subject to a number of limitations, for example, hardware and control complexity, or NOx and NVH deterioration near its operating upper load boundary, diminishing its advantages. Conventional spark-ignition combustion mode is required for higher loads and speeds, thus the operating conditions near the HCCI boundaries and their corresponding alternatives in SI mode must be studied carefully in order to identify practical strategies to minimise the impact of the combustion mode transition on the performance of the engine. This paper presents the results of an investigation of the combustion mode transitions between SI and HCCI, using a combination of an engine cycle simulation code with a chemical kinetics based HCCI combustion code.
Technical Paper

Residual Gas Trapping for Natural Gas HCCI

2004-06-08
2004-01-1973
With the high auto ignition temperature of natural gas, various approaches such as high compression ratios and/or intake charge heating are required for auto ignition. Another approach utilizes the trapping of internal residual gas (as used before in gasoline controlled auto ignition engines), to lower the thermal requirements for the auto ignition process in natural gas. In the present work, the achievable engine load range is controlled by the degree of internal trapping of exhaust gas supplemented by intake charge heating. Special valve strategies were used to control the internal retention of exhaust gas. Significant differences in the degree of valve overlap were necessary when compared to gasoline operation at the same speeds and loads, resulting in lower amounts of residual gas observed. The dilution effect of residual gas trapping is hence reduced, resulting in higher NOx emissions for the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio operation as compared to gasoline.
Technical Paper

Effect of Hydrogen Addition on Natural Gas HCCI Combustion

2004-06-08
2004-01-1972
Natural gas has a high auto-ignition temperature, requiring high compression ratios and/or intake charge heating to achieve HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) engine operation. Previous work by the authors has shown that hydrogen addition improves combustion stability in various difficult combustion conditions. It is shown here that hydrogen, together with residual gas trapping, helps also in lowering the intake temperature required for HCCI. It has been argued in literature that the addition of hydrogen advances the start of combustion in the cylinder. This would translate into the lowering of the minimum intake temperature required for auto-ignition to occur during the compression stroke. The experimental results of this work show that, with hydrogen replacing part of the fuel, a decrease in intake air temperature requirement is observed for a range of engine loads, with larger reductions in temperature noted at lower loads.
Technical Paper

Effect of Intake Valves Timings on In-Cylinder Charge Characteristics in a DI Engine Cylinder with Negative Valve Overlapping

2008-04-14
2008-01-1347
This paper presents a computational investigation of the in-cylinder charge characteristics within a motored 4-valve direct injection HCCI engine cylinder with applied negative valve overlapping. Non-typical intake valve strategy was investigated; whereby the pair of intake valves was assumed to follow the same low-lift short-duration valve-lift profile but actuated at different timings. The phase of intake-valve-opening relative to that of exhaust-valve-closing was optimized in terms of pumping losses. The flow fields generated with such an intake valve strategy were compared to those produced in the same engine cylinder but with typical early and late intake-valve-timing. The computational results of such an approach showed modifications in the in-cylinder swirl and tumble motions during the intake and compression strokes.
Technical Paper

Particulate Emissions from a Common Rail Fuel Injection Diesel Engine with RME-based Biodiesel Blended Fuelling Using Thermo-gravimetric Analysis

2008-04-14
2008-01-0074
Increasing biodiesel content in mineral diesel is being promoted considerably for road transportation in Europe. With positive benefits in terms of net CO2 emissions, biofuels with compatible properties to those of conventional diesel are increasingly being used in combustion engines. In comparison to standard diesel fuel, the near zero sulphur content and low levels of aromatic compounds in biodiesel fuel can have a profound effect not only on combustion characteristics but on engine-out emissions as well. This paper presents analysis of particulate matter (PM) emissions from a turbo-charged, common rail direct injection (DI) V6 Jaguar engine operating with an RME (rapeseed methyl ester) biodiesel blended with ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) fuel (B30 - 30% of RME by volume). Three different engine load and speed conditions were selected for the test and no modifications were made to the engine hardware or engine management system (EMS) calibration.
Technical Paper

Performance, Emissions and Exhaust-Gas Reforming of an Emulsified Fuel: A Comparative Study with Conventional Diesel Fuel

2009-06-15
2009-01-1809
The fuel reforming technology has been extensively investigated as a way to produce hydrogen on-board a vehicle that can be utilized in internal combustion engines, fuel cells and aftertreatment technologies. Maximization of H2 production in the reforming process can be achieved when there is optimized water (steam) addition for the different reforming temperatures. A way to increase the already available water quantity on-board a vehicle (i.e. exhaust gas water content) is by using emulsified fuel (e.g. water-diesel blend). This study presents the effect of an emulsified diesel fuel (a blend of water and diesel fuel with an organic surfactant to make the mixture stable) on combustion in conjunction with exhaust gas assisted fuel reforming on a compression ignition engine. No engine modification was required to carry out these tests. The emulsified diesel fuel consisted of about 80% (mass basis) of conventional ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) fuel and fixed water content.
Technical Paper

A 1D Analysis into the Effect of Variable Valve Timing on HCCI Engine Parameters

2008-10-06
2008-01-2459
The effects of variable intake-valve-timing on the gas exchange process and performance of a 4-valve direct-injection HCCI engine were computationally investigated using a 1D gas dynamics engine cycle simulation code. A non-typical strategy to actuate the pair of intake valves was examined; whereby each valve was assumed to be actuated independently at different timing. Using such an intake valves strategy, the obtained results showed a considerable improvement of the engine parameters such as load and charging efficiency as compared with the typical identical intake valve pair timings case. Additional benefits of minimizing pumping losses and improving the fuel economy were demonstrated with the use of the non-simultaneous actuation of the intake valve pair having the opening timing of the early intake valve coupled with a symmetric degree of crank angle for the timing of exhaust valve closing.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen Rich Gas Production in a Diesel Partial Oxidation Reactor with HC Speciation

2009-04-20
2009-01-0276
In the present work, the partial oxidation of diesel (US07), rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and low temperature Fischer - Tropsch synthetic diesel (SD), almost 100% paraffinic, was investigated for the purpose of hydrogen and intermediate hydrocarbon species production over a prototype reforming catalyst, for the potential use in hydrocarbon selective catalytic reduction (HC-SCR) of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from diesel engines. The presence of small amounts of hydrogen can substantially improve the effectiveness of hydrocarbons in the selective reduction of NOx over lean NOx catalysts, particularly at low temperatures (150-350°C). In this study, the partial oxidation reactor was operating at the same input power (kW), based on the calorific values of the fed fuel. Hydrogen production was as high as 19%, from the partial oxidation of SD fuel, and dropped to 17% and 14% for RME and US07 diesel, respectively.
Technical Paper

Modelling Study of Combustion and Gas Exchange in a HCCI (CAI) Engine

2002-03-04
2002-01-0114
The main obstacle for the development of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines is the control of auto-ignition timing, and one key is to control the trapped gas temperature so as to enable the autoignition at the end of compression stroke. Using special valve mechanisms, very high residual gas mass fraction can be achieved to raise the charge temperature. Gas exchange process hence plays a crucial role in such HCCI engines because of its strong interaction with combustion. The modification of the gas exchange process in a 4-stroke automotive engine for HCCI combustion is not straightforward, since the engine must be able to operate across a considerably wide range of speeds and loads. Intake air temperatures and the valve mechanism need to be controlled in order to deliver optimal engine performance and fuel economy. This paper presents a modelling study of the combustion and gas exchange in a HCCI engine.
Technical Paper

Effect of inlet valve timing on boosted gasoline HCCI with residual gas trapping

2005-05-11
2005-01-2136
With boosted HCCI operation on gasoline using residual gas trapping, the amount of residuals was found to be of importance in determining the boundaries of stable combustion at various boost pressures. This paper represents a development of this approach by concentrating on the effects of inlet valve events on the parameters of boosted HCCI combustion with residual gas trapping. It was found that an optimum inlet valve timing could be found in order to minimize NOx emissions. When the valve timing is significantly advanced or retarded away from this optimum, NOx emissions increase due to the richer air / fuel ratios required for stable combustion. These richer conditions are necessary as a result of either the trapped residual gases becoming cooled in early backflow or because of lowering of the effective compression ratio. The paper also examines the feasibility of using inlet valve timing as a method of controlling the combustion phasing for boosted HCCI with residual gas trapping.
Technical Paper

In-cylinder Flow with Negative Valve Overlapping - Characterised by PIV Measurement

2005-05-11
2005-01-2131
Negative valve overlapping is widely used for trapping residual burned gas within the cylinder to enable controlled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI). HCCI has been shown as a promising combustion technology to improve the fuel economy and NOx emissions of gasoline engines. While the importance of in-cylinder flow in the fuel and air mixing process is recognised, the characteristics of air motion with specially designed valve events having reduced valve lift and durations associated with HCCI engines and their effect on subsequent combustion are not yet fully understood. This paper presents an investigation in an optical engine designed for HCCI combustion using EGR trapping. PIV techniques have been used to measure the in-cylinder flow field under motored conditions and a quantitative analysis has been carried out for the flow characterisation with comparison made against the flow in the same engine with conventional valve strategies for SI combustion.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of Combustion Initiation and development in an Optical HCCI Engine

2005-05-11
2005-01-2129
The major characteristics of the combustion in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines, irrespective of the technological strategy used to enable the ‘controlled auto-ignition’, are that the mixture of fuel and air is preferably premixed and largely homogeneous. Ignition tends to take place simultaneously at multiple points and there is no bulk flame propagation as in conventional spark-ignition (SI) engines. This paper presents an experimental study of flame development in an optical engine operating in HCCI combustion mode. High resolution and high-speed charge coupled device (CCD) cameras were used to take images of the flame during the combustion process. Fuels include gasoline, natural gas (NG) and hydrogen addition to NG all at stoichiometric conditions, permitting the investigation of combustion development for each fuel. The flame imaging data was supplemented by simultaneously recorded in-cylinder pressure data.
Technical Paper

Study on an Electronically Controlled Common-Rail Injection System for Liquefied Alternative Fuels

2005-05-11
2005-01-2085
Liquefied alternative fuels offer great potential benefits in reducing exhaust emissions and improving fuel economy of automotive engines. In order to achieve the best performance of the engine running with such fuels, it is critical to have an appropriate fuel system. In the present work, a new electronically controlled common-rail injection system has been specially designed and tested for the direct injection of liquefied alternative fuels, since a conventional pump-line-injector injection system in the conventional diesel engine was not suitable for the purpose. Experimental work has been carried out to examine and improve matching of the fuel injection system on a new fuel injection pump test bench. The preliminary engine bench test has demonstrated that this arrangement meets the requirement for the operating characteristics of a fuel injection system in a direct injection diesel engine operating with dimethyl ether (DME).
Technical Paper

Phenomenology of EGR in a Light Duty Diesel Engine Fuelled with Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil (HVO), Used Vegetable Oil Methyl Ester (UVOME) and Their Blends

2013-04-08
2013-01-1688
HVO contains paraffin only and UVOME is methyl ester with long chain alkyl while mineral diesel is complex compound and contains lots of aromatic and Naphthenic. This paper compares the effects of EGR on the two different types of biodiesels blends compared to diesel. The combustion performance and emissions of biodiesel blends of UVOME and HVO were investigated in a turbocharged direct injection V6 diesel engine with EGR swept from 0% to the calibration setting for diesel. The EGR sweep tests with increment of 5% were conducted at the engine speed of 1500 RPM for the load of between 72 Nm to 143 Nm, using sulfur-free diesel blended with UVOME and HVO at 30% and 60% by volume respectively. As the EGR rate was increased, the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) for each fuel was reduced at lower load but increased at higher load. The BSFC of mineral diesel was lower than UVOME blends and similar to the HVO blends.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of DMF and Gasoline Spray and Mixture Preparation in a GDI Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1592
2, 5-Dimethylfuran (DMF) has been receiving increasing interest as a potential alternative fuel to fossil fuels, owing to the recent development of new production technology. However, the influence of DMF properties on the in-cylinder fuel spray and its evaporation, subsequent combustion processes as well as emission formation in current gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines is still not well understood, due to the lack of comprehensive understanding of its physical and chemical characteristics. To better understand the spray characteristics of DMF and its application to the IC engine, the fuel sprays of DMF and gasoline were investigated by experimental and computational methods. The shadowgraph and Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) techniques were used for measuring spray penetration, droplet velocity and size distribution of both fuels.
Technical Paper

Study of Near Nozzle Spray Characteristics of Ethanol under Different Saturation Ratios

2016-10-17
2016-01-2189
Atomization of fuel sprays is a key factor in controlling the combustion quality in the direct-injection engines. In this present work, the effect of saturation ratio (Rs) on the near nozzle spray patterns of ethanol was investigated using an ultra-high speed imaging technique. The Rs range covered both flash-boiling and non-flash boiling regions. Ethanol was injected from a single-hole injector into an optically accessible constant volume chamber at a fixed injection pressure of 40 MPa with different fuel temperatures and back pressures. High-speed imaging was performed using an ultrahigh speed camera (1 million fps) coupled with a long-distance microscope. Under non-flash boiling conditions, the effect of Rs on fuel development was small but observable. Clear fuel collision can be observed at Rs=1.5 and 1.0. Under the flash boiling conditions, near-nozzle spray patterns were significant different from the non-flash boiling ones.
Technical Paper

Control of A/F Ratio During Engine Transients

1999-05-03
1999-01-1484
Variations in air-fuel ratio within a 16-valve port-injection spark-ignition engine have been examined as a consequence of rapid transients in load at constant speed with fuel injection controlled by the production engine-management system and by a custom-built controller. The purpose was to minimize excursions from stoichiometry by the use of a controller to impose an injection strategy, guided by results obtained with the production management system. The strategy involves a model that takes account of manifold filling and the delays in transport of fuel from the injectors to the cylinder. The results show that the excursions in air-fuel ratio from stoichiometry were reduced from more than 25% to 6%.
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