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Technical Paper

A Study of Quantitative Impact on Emissions of High Proportion RME-Based Biodiesel Blends

2007-01-23
2007-01-0072
Previous work of the authors' group has shown that biodiesel fuels as a replacement for conventional diesel fuel in engine combustion can reduce PM level dramatically while lowering some other regulated emissions as well. It has shown that these fuels have the potential to increase the overall engine performance due to their lower sulphur and/or aromatics content compared with standard diesel fuels. This paper presents a study on a single cylinder naturally aspirated direct injection (DI) diesel engine, equipped with a pump-line-nozzle injection system, operating with varied biodiesel fuel blends (0%, 25%, and 50% of RME by volume) with ultra low sulphur diesel fuel (ULSD). The detailed analysis of the measurement data shows that the ignition delay and exhaust emissions are affected by the proportion of biodiesel due to the effect of different physical and chemical properties of the two fuels.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation into HCCI Combustion Using Gasoline and Diesel Blended Fuels

2005-10-24
2005-01-3733
Gasoline and diesel, the two fuels with very different characteristics and with wide availability for conventional engine use, were blended as a HCCI engine fuel. Gasoline, with high volatility, easy vaporization and mixture formation, is used to form the homogeneous charge. Diesel fuel which has good ignitability and fast combustion at the conditions predominating in the HCCI environment, is used to dominate the auto-ignition and restrain the knocking combustion. It is expected that these two different fuels with opposite but complementary properties can be used to reach a good compromise in HCCI combustion. Experiments, conducted with moderate compression ratios (CR) and using two modes of HCCI control, i.e. intake heating with CR 15.0 and negative valve overlap (NVO) with CR 10.4, yielded results that prove this expectation.
Technical Paper

Residual Gas Trapping for Natural Gas HCCI

2004-06-08
2004-01-1973
With the high auto ignition temperature of natural gas, various approaches such as high compression ratios and/or intake charge heating are required for auto ignition. Another approach utilizes the trapping of internal residual gas (as used before in gasoline controlled auto ignition engines), to lower the thermal requirements for the auto ignition process in natural gas. In the present work, the achievable engine load range is controlled by the degree of internal trapping of exhaust gas supplemented by intake charge heating. Special valve strategies were used to control the internal retention of exhaust gas. Significant differences in the degree of valve overlap were necessary when compared to gasoline operation at the same speeds and loads, resulting in lower amounts of residual gas observed. The dilution effect of residual gas trapping is hence reduced, resulting in higher NOx emissions for the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio operation as compared to gasoline.
Technical Paper

Effect of Hydrogen Addition on Natural Gas HCCI Combustion

2004-06-08
2004-01-1972
Natural gas has a high auto-ignition temperature, requiring high compression ratios and/or intake charge heating to achieve HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) engine operation. Previous work by the authors has shown that hydrogen addition improves combustion stability in various difficult combustion conditions. It is shown here that hydrogen, together with residual gas trapping, helps also in lowering the intake temperature required for HCCI. It has been argued in literature that the addition of hydrogen advances the start of combustion in the cylinder. This would translate into the lowering of the minimum intake temperature required for auto-ignition to occur during the compression stroke. The experimental results of this work show that, with hydrogen replacing part of the fuel, a decrease in intake air temperature requirement is observed for a range of engine loads, with larger reductions in temperature noted at lower loads.
Technical Paper

Particulate Emissions from a Common Rail Fuel Injection Diesel Engine with RME-based Biodiesel Blended Fuelling Using Thermo-gravimetric Analysis

2008-04-14
2008-01-0074
Increasing biodiesel content in mineral diesel is being promoted considerably for road transportation in Europe. With positive benefits in terms of net CO2 emissions, biofuels with compatible properties to those of conventional diesel are increasingly being used in combustion engines. In comparison to standard diesel fuel, the near zero sulphur content and low levels of aromatic compounds in biodiesel fuel can have a profound effect not only on combustion characteristics but on engine-out emissions as well. This paper presents analysis of particulate matter (PM) emissions from a turbo-charged, common rail direct injection (DI) V6 Jaguar engine operating with an RME (rapeseed methyl ester) biodiesel blended with ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) fuel (B30 - 30% of RME by volume). Three different engine load and speed conditions were selected for the test and no modifications were made to the engine hardware or engine management system (EMS) calibration.
Technical Paper

Performance, Emissions and Exhaust-Gas Reforming of an Emulsified Fuel: A Comparative Study with Conventional Diesel Fuel

2009-06-15
2009-01-1809
The fuel reforming technology has been extensively investigated as a way to produce hydrogen on-board a vehicle that can be utilized in internal combustion engines, fuel cells and aftertreatment technologies. Maximization of H2 production in the reforming process can be achieved when there is optimized water (steam) addition for the different reforming temperatures. A way to increase the already available water quantity on-board a vehicle (i.e. exhaust gas water content) is by using emulsified fuel (e.g. water-diesel blend). This study presents the effect of an emulsified diesel fuel (a blend of water and diesel fuel with an organic surfactant to make the mixture stable) on combustion in conjunction with exhaust gas assisted fuel reforming on a compression ignition engine. No engine modification was required to carry out these tests. The emulsified diesel fuel consisted of about 80% (mass basis) of conventional ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) fuel and fixed water content.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen Rich Gas Production in a Diesel Partial Oxidation Reactor with HC Speciation

2009-04-20
2009-01-0276
In the present work, the partial oxidation of diesel (US07), rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and low temperature Fischer - Tropsch synthetic diesel (SD), almost 100% paraffinic, was investigated for the purpose of hydrogen and intermediate hydrocarbon species production over a prototype reforming catalyst, for the potential use in hydrocarbon selective catalytic reduction (HC-SCR) of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from diesel engines. The presence of small amounts of hydrogen can substantially improve the effectiveness of hydrocarbons in the selective reduction of NOx over lean NOx catalysts, particularly at low temperatures (150-350°C). In this study, the partial oxidation reactor was operating at the same input power (kW), based on the calorific values of the fed fuel. Hydrogen production was as high as 19%, from the partial oxidation of SD fuel, and dropped to 17% and 14% for RME and US07 diesel, respectively.
Technical Paper

Effect of inlet valve timing on boosted gasoline HCCI with residual gas trapping

2005-05-11
2005-01-2136
With boosted HCCI operation on gasoline using residual gas trapping, the amount of residuals was found to be of importance in determining the boundaries of stable combustion at various boost pressures. This paper represents a development of this approach by concentrating on the effects of inlet valve events on the parameters of boosted HCCI combustion with residual gas trapping. It was found that an optimum inlet valve timing could be found in order to minimize NOx emissions. When the valve timing is significantly advanced or retarded away from this optimum, NOx emissions increase due to the richer air / fuel ratios required for stable combustion. These richer conditions are necessary as a result of either the trapped residual gases becoming cooled in early backflow or because of lowering of the effective compression ratio. The paper also examines the feasibility of using inlet valve timing as a method of controlling the combustion phasing for boosted HCCI with residual gas trapping.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of Combustion Initiation and development in an Optical HCCI Engine

2005-05-11
2005-01-2129
The major characteristics of the combustion in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines, irrespective of the technological strategy used to enable the ‘controlled auto-ignition’, are that the mixture of fuel and air is preferably premixed and largely homogeneous. Ignition tends to take place simultaneously at multiple points and there is no bulk flame propagation as in conventional spark-ignition (SI) engines. This paper presents an experimental study of flame development in an optical engine operating in HCCI combustion mode. High resolution and high-speed charge coupled device (CCD) cameras were used to take images of the flame during the combustion process. Fuels include gasoline, natural gas (NG) and hydrogen addition to NG all at stoichiometric conditions, permitting the investigation of combustion development for each fuel. The flame imaging data was supplemented by simultaneously recorded in-cylinder pressure data.
Technical Paper

Applying boosting to gasoline HCCI operation with residual gas trapping

2005-05-11
2005-01-2121
The application of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion to naturally aspirated engines has shown a much reduced usable load range as compared to spark ignition (SI) engines. The approach documented here applies inlet charge boosting to gasoline HCCI operation on an engine configuration that is typical for SI gasoline engines, in conjunction with residual gas trapping. The latter helps to retain the benefits of much reduced requirement for external heating. In the present work, the achievable engine load range is controlled by the level of boost pressure while varying the amount of trapped residual gas. In addition, it was found that there is a maximum amount of boost that can be applied without intake heating for any given amount of trapped residuals. NOx emissions decrease with increasing amounts of trapped residual.
Technical Paper

Study on an Electronically Controlled Common-Rail Injection System for Liquefied Alternative Fuels

2005-05-11
2005-01-2085
Liquefied alternative fuels offer great potential benefits in reducing exhaust emissions and improving fuel economy of automotive engines. In order to achieve the best performance of the engine running with such fuels, it is critical to have an appropriate fuel system. In the present work, a new electronically controlled common-rail injection system has been specially designed and tested for the direct injection of liquefied alternative fuels, since a conventional pump-line-injector injection system in the conventional diesel engine was not suitable for the purpose. Experimental work has been carried out to examine and improve matching of the fuel injection system on a new fuel injection pump test bench. The preliminary engine bench test has demonstrated that this arrangement meets the requirement for the operating characteristics of a fuel injection system in a direct injection diesel engine operating with dimethyl ether (DME).
Technical Paper

Characterizing Propane Flash Boiling Spray from Multi-Hole GDI Injector

2018-04-03
2018-01-0278
In this research, propane flash boiling sprays discharged from a five-hole gasoline direct injector were studied in a constant volume vessel. The fuel temperature (Tfuel) ranged from 30 °C to 90 °C, and the ambient pressure (Pamb) varied from 0.05 bar to 11.0 bar. Different flash boiling spray behavior compared to that under sub-atmospheric conditions was found at high Pamb. Specifically, at the sub-atmospheric pressures, the individual flashing jets merged into one single jet due to the strong spray collapse. In contrast, at Pamb above 3.0 bar and Tfuel above 50 °C, the spray collapse was mitigated and the flashing jets were separated from each other. Further analyses revealed that the mitigation of spray collapse at high Pamb was ascribed to the suppression of jet expansion. In addition, it was found that the spray structure was much different at similar Rp, indicating that Rp lacked the generality in describing the structure of flash boiling sprays.
Journal Article

Spray Characteristics Study of DMF Using Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer

2010-05-05
2010-01-1505
2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) is currently regarded as a potential alternative fuel to gasoline due to the development of new production technology. In this paper, the spray characteristics of DMF and its blends with gasoline were studied from a high pressure direct injection gasoline injector using the shadowgraph and Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) techniques, This includes the spray penetration, droplet velocity and size distribution of the various mixtures. In parallel commercial gasoline and ethanol were measured in order to compare the characteristics of DMF. A total of 52 points were measured along the spray so that the experimental results could be used for subsequent numerical modeling. In summary, the experimental results showed that DMF and its blends have similar spray properties to gasoline, compared to ethanol. The droplet size of DMF is generally smaller than ethanol and decreases faster with the increase of injection pressure.
Journal Article

The Particle Emissions Characteristics of a Light Duty Diesel Engine with 10% Alternative Fuel Blends

2010-05-05
2010-01-1556
In this study, the particle emission characteristics of 10% alternative diesel fuel blends (Rapeseed Methyl Ester and Gas-to-Liquid) were investigated through the tests carried out on a light duty common-rail Euro 4 diesel engine. Under steady engine conditions, the study focused on particle number concentration and size distribution, to comply with the particle metrics of the European Emission Regulations (Regulation NO 715/2007, amended by 692/2008 and 595/2009). The non-volatile particle characteristics during the engine warming up were also investigated. They indicated that without any modification to the engine, adding selected alternative fuels, even at a low percentage, can result in a noticeable reduction of the total particle numbers; however, the number of nucleation mode particles can increase in certain cases.
Journal Article

Transient Emissions Characteristics of a Turbocharged Engine Fuelled by Biodiesel Blends

2013-04-08
2013-01-1302
The effects of different biodiesel blends on engine-out emissions under various transient conditions were investigated in this study using fast response diagnostic equipment. The experimental work was conducted on a modern 3.0 L, V6 high pressure common rail diesel engine fuelled with mineral diesel (B0) and three different blends of rapeseed methyl esters (RME) (B30, B60, B100 by volume) without any modifications of engine parameters. DMS500, Fast FID and Fast CLD were used to measure particulate matter (PM), total hydrocarbon (THC) and nitrogen monoxide (NO) respectively. The tests were conducted during a 12 seconds period with two tests in which load and speed were changed simultaneously and one test with only load changing. The results show that as biodiesel blend ratio increased, total particle number (PN) and THC were decreased whereas NO was increased for all the three transient conditions.
Journal Article

Dual-Injection as a Knock Mitigation Strategy Using Pure Ethanol and Methanol

2012-04-16
2012-01-1152
For spark ignition (SI) engines, the optimum spark timing is crucial for maximum efficiency. However, as the spark timing is advanced, so the propensity to knock increases, thus compromising efficiency. One method to suppress knock is to use high octane fuel additives. However, the blend ratio of these additives cannot be varied on demand. Therefore, with the advent of aggressive downsizing, new knock mitigation techniques are required. Fortuitously, there are two well-known lower alcohols which exhibit attractive knock mitigation properties: ethanol and methanol. Both not only have high octane ratings, but also result in greater charge-cooling than with gasoline. In the current work, the authors have exploited these attractive properties with the dual-injection, or the dual-fuel concept (gasoline in PFI and fuel additive in DI) using pure ethanol and methanol.
Technical Paper

Exhaust-Gas Reforming of Hydrocarbon Fuels

1993-04-01
931096
This paper presents the findings of theoretical and practical studies of an exhaust-gas reforming process, as applied to hydrocarbon fuels. It is shown that hydrogen-containing gaseous reformed fuels can be produced by the interaction of hot combustion products and an n-heptane feedstock in a small-scale catalytic reforming reactor. Predicted and observed reformed fuel chemical compositions were found to correlate well at the lower reactor space velocities tested, where chemical equilibrium conditions can be closely approached. Under these conditions, respective hydrogen and carbon monoxide yields of around 32 and 20 volume per cent were obtained. Under certain conditions, it was found that carbon solids were deposited on the reforming catalyst. Measures taken to avoid this problem included changes in the reforming oxidant to fuel ratio, and the addition of excess steam to the oxidant composition.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Optical Study on Combustion of DMF and DMF Fuel Blends

2012-04-16
2012-01-1235
The bio-fuel, 2,5 - dimethylfuran (DMF) is currently regarded as a potential alternative fuel to gasoline due to the development of new production technology. However, little is known about the flame behavior in an optical engine. In this paper, high speed imaging (with intensifier) was used during the combustion of DMF and its blends with gasoline and ethanol (D50, D85, E50D50 and E85D15) in an SI optical engine. The flame images from the combustion of each fuel were analyzed at two engine loads: 3bar and 4bar IMEP. For DMF, D50 and E50D50, two modes were compared: DI and PFI. The average flame shapes (in 2D) and the average flame speeds were calculated and combined with mass fraction burned (MFB) data. The results show that when using DMF, the rate of flame growth development and flame speed is higher than when using gasoline. The differences in flame speed between DMF and gasoline is about 10% to 14% at low IMEP.
Technical Paper

An Optical Study of DMF and Ethanol Combustion Under Dual-Injection Strategy

2012-04-16
2012-01-1237
The new fuel, 2, 5-dimenthylfuran, known as DMF, captured worldwide attention since the discovery of its new production method. As a potential bio-fuel, DMF is competitive to gasoline in many areas, such as energy density, combustion efficiency and emissions. However, little work has been performed on its unconventional combustion mode. In this work, high speed imaging and thermal investigation are carried out to study DMF and gasoline dual-injection on a single cylinder, direct injection spark ignition optical engine. This dual-injection strategy combines direct injection (DI) and port fuel injection (PFI) simultaneously which means two different fuels can blend in the cylinder with any ratio. It provides a flexible way to use bio-fuels with gasoline. DMF DI with gasoline PFI and ethanol DI with gasoline PFI are studied under different injection proportions (by volume) and IMEPs.
Technical Paper

Impacts of Low-Level 2-Methylfuran Content in Gasoline on DISI Engine Combustion Behavior and Emissions

2013-04-08
2013-01-1317
Research studies show that 2-methylfuran (MF) is a promising gasoline alternative regarding its positive effect on engine performance and emissions. Before using pure MF in spark ignition engines, it is more likely to be used in a low-level blended form in gasoline. An experimental research study was carried out to investigate the impacts of low-level MF content in gasoline (volumetric 10% MF in blend) on direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine combustion behavior and emissions. The tests were conducted on a single-cylinder spray-guided DISI research engine at an engine speed of 1500 rpm under stoichiometric conditions. The engine loads of 3.5 ~ 8.5 bar IMEP were tested and gasoline-optimized spark timing was used. Furthermore, the effects of spark timing, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and valve overlap on NOx emissions were tested.
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