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Technical Paper

A Scheduler with a Dynamic Priority and its Influence on a Control System

2012-10-02
2012-36-0367
In critical real-time computer systems, whether aircraft, automotive and industrial products it is very common the use of a fixed priority scheduler. The fixed priority scheduler has shown a good performance in control applications even in different applications where it was adopted. But nowadays, to go forward with the technology, be it in hardware and software, schedulers with dynamic priority can be a better alternative in certain situations. The present work aims to show that a variable priority scheduler can improve the performance of a control system obtained with a fixed priority scheduler, even when it was bad conditioned. This study is based on a four motor position control system. For this, the study will make use of a specialized simulation tool. In the future, we intend to extend this study to schedulers that use random and sporadic tasks.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation of a Satellite Propulsive Subsystem by Physical and Signal Flows

2013-10-07
2013-36-0105
Modeling and Simulation (M&S) of dynamic systems based on computers is a multidisciplinary field that involves several knowledge areas and tools, and is broadly used in all development areas of space industry such as rocket and satellite design and construction. Once space systems are divided into several subsystems for ease of engineering, their models are divided the same way for the same reason. Such models may be done using different computational tools that are based on either physical flows, informational flows, or hybrid flows, depending on the subsystem nature. This is specially true for a satellite propulsion subsystem, and its physical (volume, mass, energy, enthalpy, entropy, linear momentum, etc.) flows. This paper presents the modeling and simulation of a satellite propulsion subsystem by physical and signal flows. To accomplish this task, two different computational tools were used: AMESim and MatLab.
Technical Paper

An Overview of Clock Synchronization Algorithms and their Uses in Aerospace and Automotive Systems

2013-10-07
2013-36-0541
Current systems such as satellites, aircrafts, automobiles, turbines, power controls and traffic controls are becoming increasingly complex and/or highly integrated as prescribed by the SAE-ARP-4754a Standard. Such systems operate in a real time distributed environment which frequently requires a common knowledge of time among different devices, levels and granularities. So, temporal correctness is mostly needed, besides logical correctness. It can be achieved by hardware clocks and devices, software clocks and algorithms, or both, to avoid or tolerate, within appropriate margins, the time faults or failures that may occur in aerospace and automotive systems. This paper presents an overview of clock synchronization algorithms and their uses in aerospace and automotive systems. It is based on a review of the literature, discussion and comparison of some clock synchronization algorithms with different policies.
Technical Paper

Highly Accurate Measure of Time in PC Simulations of Control Systems with Sensors in the Loop

2000-12-01
2000-01-3296
The measure of time intervals with relatively high accuracy (of 1 milisecond, at least) in PC computers is a relatively hard task to solve. But this is essential for the digital simulation, with sensors in the loop, of fast control systems. This work allows the reading of the programmable internal timer 8253 present in a typical PC, reaching 1 ms resolution, at least, through a C high level language routine. The determination of the angular velocity of a 53M2-30H Contraves 3-axis dynamic simulator used in that simulation was improved by the use of this work, allowing the acquisition of consecutive measures of angles and angular velocities with a time interval smaller than 10 ms in some cases. Using this routine and other simulator control and monitoring softwares we estimated the angular velocity faster (100 ms × 210 ms)and better than the simulator Rate Readout Module, and used it in a fast real time control simulation.
Technical Paper

Stabilizing and Improving the Active Vibration Damping by a New S-Z Mapping for Digital Control

2000-12-01
2000-01-3297
This paper presents an analytical and simulation study of the stabilization and improvement of the active vibration damping of a system modeled by a simple analog harmonic oscillator driven by discrete time control. Initially, this control is the Bilinear (or Tustin) s-z mapping equivalent of a continuous-time asymptotically stable Proportional plus Derivative (PD) control. It is tested with high values of the sampling period. It is shown that all classical mappings (Tustin, Schneider, etc.) tested may instabilize the system. To circumvent this, we propose and use a new (ST1) mapping that behaves better than the classical ones tested under the same conditions. We also model an active discrete control of a suspension of a vehicle, and compare the performance between the PD controllers designed by Bilinear and by the new (ST1) S-Z mappings, for this example.
Technical Paper

Generation and Customization of Real Time Code for Embedded Controllers Using a Modeling and Simulation Environment

2007-11-28
2007-01-2924
This works presents the generation and customization of real time code for embedded controllers using a modeling and simulation environment. When the controller model is considered satisfactory, the developers can use a code generation tool to build a real time source code capable to be migrated to an embedded target processor. The code generation tool used is capable to generate real time code in ANSI C or ADA 95 languages. This process can be customized to adequate to a target processor and/or a Real Time Operating System (RTOS). The code customization can be achieved using a specific Template Programming Language (TPL) that specifies how the code will be generated. This technique makes it possible the instantiation of real time embedded controllers code using the same controller model to a wide variety of target processors and/or RTOSs.
Technical Paper

Design of an Attitude Control System for the Multi-Mission Platform and its Migration to a Real Time Operating System

2007-11-28
2007-01-2857
This paper presents the first of four parts of the academic design of an Attitude Control System (ACS) for the Multi-Mission Platform (MMP) and its migration to a Real Time Operating System. The MMP is a three axis stabilized artificial satellite now under development at the National Institute for Space Research (INPE). Such design applied some software engineering concepts as: 1)visual modeling; 2)automatic code generation; 3)automatic code migration; 4)soft real time simulation; and 5)hard real time simulation. A block diagram based modeling and a virtual time simulation of the MMP ACS in its nominal operational mode were built in the MatrixX 7.1 environment satisfying the three axis pointing and stabilization requirements. After that, its AutoCode module was used to generate C ANSI code representing the block diagram model. Time characteristics were added to the ACS generated code to make it the real time control software of MMP nominal operational mode.
Technical Paper

Propagation of Uncertainties in the Navigation of Aerospace Vehicles to Minimize the Collision Risk

2008-10-07
2008-36-0407
One challenge that the space, aeronautical and automotive industries are facing today is the fast growing number of vehicles versus the slowly growing number of useful orbits, routes, and speedways. Furthermore, the adoption of “free-flight”, “speed-drive”, etc. policies in the near future will only aggravate it. All these factors increase the risk of collisions and the frequency of deviation maneuvers to avoid them. But they also create the opportunity to devise policies to mitigate such problems, including algorithms to propagate the uncertainties in vehicle motions and to predict the risk of their collisions. This work discusses the development and simulation of an algorithm for the propagation of navigation uncertainties in the trajectory of aerospace vehicles, to minimize the risk of collisions. The scenario of Satellites Formation Flying shall be used for the simulations, with focus on the prediction of the collision probability.
Technical Paper

Automatic Code Generation of an Attitude Control System for the Multi-Mission Platform

2008-10-07
2008-36-0362
This paper presents the automatic code generation process of the academic design of an Attitude Control System (ACS) for the Multi-Mission Platform (MMP). The MMP is a three axis stabilized artificial satellite now under development at the National Institute for Space Research (INPE). Such design applied some software engineering concepts as: 1)visual modeling; 2)automatic code generation; 3)automatic code migration; 4)soft real time simulation; and 5)hard real time simulation. A block diagram based modeling and a virtual time simulation of the MMP ACS in its nominal operational mode were built in the MatrixX 7.1 environment satisfying the three axis pointing and stabilization requirements. After that, its AutoCode module was used to generate C ANSI code representing the block diagram model. Four operating systems were used for code migration: 1)Windows 2000; 2)Mandrake Linux 10.1; 3)RedHawk Linux 2.1; and 4)RTEMS 4.6.2.
Technical Paper

Analysis, Design and Simulation of the Transition from Pre-Nominal to Nominal Mode of the Reconfigurable Control Architecture for the Multi-Mission Platform

2008-10-07
2008-36-0343
This work presents the first part of the analysis, design and simulation of the reconfigurable control architecture for the Multi-Mission Platform (MMP), a generic service module currently under design at INPE. Its control system can be switched among nine main Modes of Operation. The implementation followed the specifications when they were found, otherwise it was designed. The manager block of the control system was implemented as a finite state machine. The tests were based in simulations with the MatriX/SystemBuild software. They focused mainly on the worst cases that the satellite is supposed to endure in its mission.
Technical Paper

Automatic Generation, Migration, and Tests of a Real Time Code to an Embedded Controller

2008-10-07
2008-36-0342
A constant challenge for the mobility engineering is to build correctly, the right product at the right time, cost and quality. This challenge gives opportunities to adopt new paradigms in system development, especially in generation, migration and tests of controller codes. This work presents the automatic generation, migration, and tests of real time code to an embedded controller. This is part of the Attitude and Orbit Control System (AOCS) for the Multi-Mission Platform (MMP) of the National Institute for Space Research (INPE). The modeling and simulation paradigm associated with automatic code generation makes possible the migration of a real time embedded controller code to a wide variety of target processors and/or Real Time Operating Systems (RTOS) using the same controller model. The MATRIXx (XMath/SystemBuild/AutoCode/DocumentIt) modeling and simulation environment was used to analyze and design the controller and generate its real time code.
Technical Paper

Coordination and Synchronization in the Internet of Things: Design Issues for Real-time Applications

2017-11-07
2017-36-0431
Internet of Things (IoT) for real-time applications are demanding more and more high performance, precision, accuracy, modularity, integration, dependability and other attributes in a complex and/or highly integrated environment. Such systems need to provide coordination among the integrated components (e.g. sensors, computer, controller and networks) for enabling the application to take real-time measurements and to translate into controllable, observable and smart actions with strict timing requirements. Therefore, coordination and synchronization are required to ensure the controllable, observable and smart actions of real-time IoT systems. This paper shows the design issues about the coordination and synchronization in the internet of things applied to real-time applications. We also show the current coordination and synchronization techniques and their design issues when applied to IoT systems.
Technical Paper

The Fault Avoidance and The Fault Tolerance Approaches for Increasing the Reliability of Aerospace and Automotive Systems

2005-11-22
2005-01-4157
In this work we discuss the fault avoidance and the fault tolerance approaches for increasing the reliability of aerospace and automotive systems. This includes: the basic definitions/concepts (reliability, maintainability, availability, redundancy, etc.), and characteristics (a priori analysis, a posteriori analysis, physical/hardware redundancy, analytical/software redundancy, etc.) of both approaches, their mathematical background and models (exponential, Weilbull, etc.), their basic theory, their methods and techniques (fault trees, dependence diagrams, Markov chains, etc.), some of their standards (SAE-ARP4761, AC 25.1309, etc.) and simulation environments (Cafta, etc.), and their applications to the reliability analysis and reliability improvement of aerospace and automotive vehicles. This is illustrated by some examples driven from the aerospace and automotive industries.
Technical Paper

Stability degradation due to delays in a networked control systems

2008-10-07
2008-36-0286
In this work, still under development, we study the stability degradation due to delays in a networked control system. Our networked system is composed by: 1) a computer with Rate Monotonic Scheduler policy and, 2) a communication network based on TDMA access. Under this scenario, we analyze an integrated communication-computing delay and define the worst delay. The simulations shows that the presence of a worst delay can be determined only with an extensive analysis. The simulations were done in Matlab/Simulink with the help of Truetime toolbox.
Technical Paper

Distributed Simulation of the Longitudinal Mode of an Aircraft by Using the DoD High Level Architecture (HLA)

2008-10-07
2008-36-0299
This work presents the distributed simulation of the longitudinal mode of an aircraft by using the DoD High Level Architecture (HLA). The HLA is a general-purpose architecture for simulation reuse and interoperability. This architecture was developed under the leadership of the Defense Modeling and Simulation Office (DMSO) to support reuse and interoperability across the large numbers of different types of simulations developed and maintained by the DoD. To do this, the transfer function of the longitudinal mode of a hypothetical aircraft was implemented by means of a SystemBuild/MATRIXx model. The output of this model was connected to a Run-Time Infrastructure (RTI) and monitored on a remote computer. The connection between the model and the RTI was implemented by using a wrapper which was developed in C++. The HLA RTI implementation used in this work was the poRTIco.
Technical Paper

Simulation Architechtures and Standards: Their Characteristics and Applications to the Simulation and Control of Aerospace Vehicles

2008-10-07
2008-36-0271
In this work we discuss some types of simulation architectures and standards, their characteristics and applications to the simulation and control of aerospace vehicles. This includes: the basic definitions, types and characteristics of simulators and simulations (physical, computational, hybrid, etc.; discrete events, discrete time, continuous time, etc; deterministic, stochastic, etc.) their basic compromise (simplicity x fidelity), their man-machine interfaces and interactions (virtual, constructive, live, etc.), their evolution law (time, events, mixed, etc.), their architectures (“stand-alone”, PIL, HIL, MIL, DIS, HLA, etc.), their standards (OMBA, SIMNET, ALSP, DIS, HLA 1.3, HLA 1516, ASIA, AP2633, etc.) and their applications to the simulation and control of aerospace vehicles. This is illustrated by some examples driven from the aerospace industry
Technical Paper

A Discussion on the Methods of Thermal Cycling and Power Cycling for Reliability Prediction of Solder Joints of Electronic Components

2015-09-22
2015-36-0553
The increasing use of embedded electronics in aerospace and automotive vehicles increases the designers' concern regarding the reliability of the components as well as the reliability of their interconnections. The discussion about the most appropriate method for assessing the reliability of solder joints for a given application is an ever-present theme in the literature. Several methods of prediction have been developed for assessing the reliability of solder joints. The standard method established by the industries for assessing reliability of solder joints is the thermal cycling. However, when the thermal distributions in real applications are studied, particularly in some electronic components used in on-board electronics of space systems, the thermal cycling does not represent what actually happens in practice in the packaging.
Technical Paper

Integral of Modulus of Error Control for Smoothing Signals when Switching Modes of Aerospace and Automotive Systems

2015-09-22
2015-36-0445
Control systems that can switch between control or plant modes have the advantage of being simpler to design than an equivalent system with a single mode. However, the transition between these modes can introduce steps or overshootings in the state variables, and this can degrade the performance or even damage the system. This is can be of extreme importance in fields such as aerospace and automobilistic, as the switching between manual and autopilot modes or the switching of gears In this work, we will use integral criteria in original ways, to determine a coefficient on the system which should optimize the trajectory of the control signal, during the switching between two modes. Effectively, each transition will be done by a subsystem specific for it, according to the selected criterion. The simulations will be made in MATRIXx, MatLab or both, using models chosen from aerospace or automobilistic fields.
Technical Paper

A Method with Intergral Criteria to Determine Optimal Transitions between Control Modes

2014-09-30
2014-36-0368
Control systems that can switch between control modes have the advantage of being simpler to design than an equivalent system with a single mode. However, the transition between control modes can introduce steps or overshootings in the state variables, and this can degrade the performance or even damage the system. In this work, we will use integral criteria in an original way, to determine a coefficient on the system which should optimize the trajectory of the control signal, during the switching between two modes. Effectively, each transition will be done by a subsystem specific for it, according to the selected criterion. The simulations will be made in MATRIXx, using as models the system of control of attitude of the Multimission Platform, and a system which keeps the synchrony between two induction motors.
Technical Paper

A Discussion of the Performance Evaluation of Time Synchronization Algorithms for Networked Control Systems by Means of Model and Simulation

2014-09-30
2014-36-0382
With the growing complexity and integration of systems as satellites, automobiles, aircrafts, turbines, power controls and traffic controls, as prescribed by SAE-ARP-4754A Standard, the time de-synchronization can cause serious or even catastrophic failures. Time synchronization is a very important aspect to achieve high performance, reliability and determinism in networked control systems. Such systems operate in a real time distributed environment which frequently requires a consistent time view among different devices, levels and granularities. So, to guarantee high performance, reliability and determinism it is required a performance evaluation of time synchronization of the overall system. This time synchronization performance evaluation can be done in different ways, as experiments and/or model and simulation.
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