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Technical Paper

Development of an In-Cylinder Heat Transfer Model with Compressibility Effects on Turbulent Prandtl Number, Eddy Viscosity Ratio and Kinematic Viscosity Variation

2009-04-20
2009-01-0702
In-cylinder heat transfer has strong effects on engine performance and emissions and heat transfer modeling is closely related to the physics of the thermal boundary layer, especially the effects of conductivity and Prandtl number inside the thermal boundary layer. Compressibility effects on the thermal boundary layer are important issues in multi-dimensional in-cylinder heat transfer modeling. Nevertheless, the compressibility effects on kinematic viscosity and the variation of turbulent Prandtl number and eddy viscosity ratio have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, an in-cylinder heat transfer model is developed by introducing compressibility effects on turbulent Prandtl number, eddy viscosity ratio and kinematic viscosity variation with a power-law approximation. This new heat transfer model is implemented to a spark-ignition engine with a coherent flamelet turbulent combustion model and the RNG k- turbulence model.
Journal Article

Comparison of Different Boosting Strategies for Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engines - A Modeling Study

2010-04-12
2010-01-0571
Boosted Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) has been modeled and has demonstrated the potential to extend the engine's upper load limit. A commercially available engine simulation software (GT-PowerÖ) coupled to the University of Michigan HCCI combustion and heat transfer correlations was used to model a 4-cylinder boosted HCCI engine with three different boosting configurations: turbocharging, supercharging and series turbocharging. The scope of this study is to identify the best boosting approach in order to extend the HCCI engine's operating range. The results of this study are consistent with the literature: Boosting helps increase the HCCI upper load limit, but matching of turbochargers is a problem. In addition, the low exhaust gas enthalpy resulting from HCCI combustion leads to high pressures in the exhaust manifold increasing pumping work. The series turbocharging strategy appears to provide the largest load range extension.
Technical Paper

Development and Use of a Computer Simulation of the Turbocompounded Diesel System for Engine Performance and Component Heat Transfer Studies

1986-03-01
860329
A computer simulation of the turbocharged turbocompounded direct-injection diesel engine system has been developed in order to study the performance characteristics of the total system as major design parameters and materials are varied. Quasi-steady flow models of the compressor, turbines, manifolds, intercooler, and ducting are coupled with a multi-cylinder reciprocator diesel model where each cylinder undergoes the same thermodynamic cycle. Appropriate thermal loading models relate the heat flow through critical system components to material properties and design details. This paper describes the basic system models and their calibration and validation against available experimental engine test data. The use of the model is illustrated by predicting the performance gains and the component design trade-offs associated with a partially insulated engine achieving a 40 percent reduction in heat loss over a baseline cooled engine.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Pressure Reconstruction and its Application to Heat Transfer Analysis

2004-03-08
2004-01-0922
In this paper, a new method for cylinder pressure reconstruction is proposed based on the concept of a dimensionless pressure curve in the frequency domain. It is shown that cylinder pressure profiles, acquired over a wide range of engine speeds and loads, exhibit similarity. Hence, cylinder pressure traces collapse into a set of dimensionless curves within a narrow range after normalization in the frequency domain. The dimensionless pressure traces can be described by a curve-fit family, which can be used for reconstructing pressure diagrams back into the time domain at any desired condition. The accuracy associated with this method is analyzed and its application to engine heat transfer analysis is demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Control of a Multi-Cylinder HCCI Engine During Transient Operation by Modulating Residual Gas Fraction to Compensate for Wall Temperature Effects

2007-04-16
2007-01-0204
The thermal conditions of an engine structure, in particular the wall temperatures, have been shown to have a great effect on the HCCI engine combustion timing and burn rates through wall heat transfer, especially during transient operations. This study addresses the effects of thermal inertia on combustion in an HCCI engine. In this study, the control of combustion timing in an HCCI engine is achieved by modulating the residual gas fraction (RGF) while considering the wall temperatures. A multi-cylinder engine simulation with detailed geometry is carried out using a 1-D system model (GT-Power®) that is linked with Simulink®. The model includes a finite element wall temperature solver and is enhanced with original HCCI combustion and heat transfer models. Initially, the required residual gas fraction for optimal BSFC is determined for steady-state operation. The model is then used to derive a map of the sensitivity of optimal residual gas fraction to wall temperature excursions.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling of Cross Flow Compact Heat Exchanger with Louvered Fins using Thermal Resistance Concept

2006-04-03
2006-01-0726
Compact heat exchangers have been widely used in various applications in thermal fluid systems including automotive thermal management systems. Radiators for engine cooling systems, evaporators and condensers for HVAC systems, oil coolers, and intercoolers are typical examples of the compact heat exchangers that can be found in ground vehicles. Among the different types of heat exchangers for engine cooling applications, cross flow compact heat exchangers with louvered fins are of special interest because of their higher heat rejection capability with the lower flow resistance. In this study, a predictive numerical model for the cross flow type heat exchanger with louvered fins has been developed based on the thermal resistance concept and the finite difference method in order to provide a design and development tool for the heat exchanger. The model was validated with the experimental data from an engine cooling radiator.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Alternative Thermocouple Designs for Transient Heat Transfer Measurements in Metal and Ceramic Engines

1989-02-01
890571
Finite element models of various fast-response thermocouple designs have been developed. Due to the small differences in thermal properties between thermoelements and metal engine components, standard co-axial thermocouples can measure transient temperatures of metal components within an accuracy of 98%. However, these relatively small errors in total temperature measurement translate into as high as 30% errors in indicated peak-to-peak-temperature swings for iron surfaces. The transient swing errors result in up to 30% errors in peak heat flux rates to iron surfaces. These peak heat flux errors can be substantially larger if coaxial thermocouples are used for heat flux measurements in aluminum or ceramic surfaces. Increasing the thin film thickness is a compromise solution to reduce the discrepancy in peak heat flux measured with coaxial designs in metal engines. An alternative overlapping thin film thermocouple design has also been evaluated.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Heat Transfer Studies in a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

1989-09-01
891902
An experimental investigation is being conducted to study the heat release and transient heat transfer characteristics of a single cylinder diesel engine. Pressure and transient temperature data from two stationary locations in the cylinder head were used to calculate heat release and transient heat flux rates for various injection timings, speeds, and loads. As injection timing is retarded, the heat release indicates a shift from predominantly pre-mixed combustion to largely diffusion limited combustion. Changes in load affected mainly the diffusion phase of combustion, while changes in speed more strongly affected the pre-mixed portion of combustion. Fluxes calculated at both locations reflect the prominent traits of the heat release profiles, but lag several crank angle in phase. The surface temperature and flux over the bowl were greater than over the crown. The flux at the outer location exhibited greater variation as engine operating conditions were changed.
Technical Paper

Transient Spray Cone Angles in Pressure-Swirl Injector Sprays

2004-10-25
2004-01-2939
The transient cone angle of pressure swirl sprays from injectors intended for use in gasoline direct injection engines was measured from 2D Mie scattering images. A variety of injectors with varying nominal cone angle and flow rate were investigated. The general cone angle behavior was found to correlate well qualitatively with the measured fuel line pressure and was affected by the different injector specifications. Experimentally measured modulations in cone angle and injection pressure were forced on a comprehensive spray simulation to understand the sensitivity of pulsating injector boundary conditions on general spray structure. Ignoring the nozzle fluctuations led to a computed spray shape that inadequately replicated the experimental images; hence, demonstrating the importance of quantifying the injector boundary conditions when characterizing a spray using high-fidelity simulation tools.
Technical Paper

New Heat Transfer Correlation for an HCCI Engine Derived from Measurements of Instantaneous Surface Heat Flux

2004-10-25
2004-01-2996
An experimental study has been carried out to provide qualitative and quantitative insight into gas to wall heat transfer in a gasoline fueled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. Fast response thermocouples are embedded in the piston top and cylinder head surface to measure instantaneous wall temperature and heat flux. Heat flux measurements obtained at multiple locations show small spatial variations, thus confirming relative uniformity of in-cylinder conditions in a HCCI engine operating with premixed charge. Consequently, the spatially-averaged heat flux represents well the global heat transfer from the gas to the combustion chamber walls in the premixed HCCI engine, as confirmed through the gross heat release analysis. Heat flux measurements were used for assessing several existing heat transfer correlations. One of the most popular models, the Woschni expression, was shown to be inadequate for the HCCI engine.
Technical Paper

A Prototype Thin-Film Thermocouple for Transient Heat Transfer Measurements in Ceramic-Coated Combustion Chambers

1990-02-01
900691
A prototype chromel-alumel overlapping thin-film thermocouple (TFTC) has been developed for transient heat transfer measurements in ceramic-coated combustion chambers. The TFTC has been evaluated using various metallurgical techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray detection, and Auger electron spectroscopy. The sensor was calibrated against a standard thermocouple in ice, boiling water, and a furnace at 1000°C. The microstructural and chemical analysis of the thin-films showed the alumel film composition was very similar to the bulk material, while the chromel film varied slightly. An initial set of ceramic plug surface temperatures was taken while motoring and firing the engine at 1900 rpm to verify thermocouple operation. The data shows a 613 K mean temperature and a 55 K swing for the ceramic surface compared with a 493 K mean temperature and a 20 K swing for the metal surface at the same location.
Technical Paper

Thin Thermal Barrier Coatings for Engines

1989-02-01
890143
Contrary to the thick thermal barrier coating approach used in adiabatic diesel engines, the authors have investigated the merits of thin coatings. Transient heat transfer analysis indicates that the temperature swings experienced at combustion chamber surfaces depend primarily on material thermophysical properties, i.e., conductivity, density, and specific heat. Thus, cyclic temperature swings should be alike whether thick or thin (less than 0.25 mm) coatings are applied, Furthermore, thin coatings would lead to lower mean component temperatures and would be easier to apply than thick coatings. The thinly-coated engine concept offers several advantages including improved volumetric efficiency, lower cylinder liner wall temperatures, improved piston-liner tribological behavior, and improved erosion-corrosion resistance and thus greater component durability.
Technical Paper

Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Natural Gas Ignition Under Compression Ignition Conditions Using Detailed Chemistry

1998-02-23
980136
A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism, consisting of 22 species and 104 elementary reactions, has been used in conjunction with the multi-dimensional reactive flow code KIVA-3 to study autoignition of natural gas injected under compression ignition conditions. Calculations for three different blends of natural gas are performed on a three-dimensional computational grid by modeling both the injection and ignition processes. Ignition delay predictions at pressures and temperatures typical of top-dead-center conditions in compression ignition engines compare well with the measurements of Naber et al. [1] in a combustion bomb. Two different criteria, based on pressure rise and mass of fuel burned, are used to detect the onset of ignition. Parametric studies are conducted to show the effect of additives like ethane and hydrogen peroxide in increasing the fuel consumption rate.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling and Experimental Investigations of EGR Cooler Fouling in a Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1506
EGR coolers are mainly used on diesel engines to reduce intake charge temperature and thus reduce emissions of NOx and PM. Soot and hydrocarbon deposition in the EGR cooler reduces heat transfer efficiency of the cooler and increases emissions and pressure drop across the cooler. They may also be acidic and corrosive. Fouling has been always treated as an approximate factor in heat exchanger designs and it has not been modeled in detail. The aim of this paper is to look into fouling formation in an EGR cooler of a diesel engine. A 1-D model is developed to predict and calculate EGR cooler fouling amount and distribution across a concentric tube heat exchanger with a constant wall temperature. The model is compared to an experiment that is designed for correlation of the model. Effectiveness, mass deposition, and pressure drop are the parameters that have been compared. The results of the model are in a good agreement with the experimental data.
Journal Article

Simulation-based Assessment of Various Dual-Stage Boosting Systems in Terms of Performance and Fuel Economy Improvements

2009-04-20
2009-01-1471
Diesel engines have been used in large vehicles, locomotives and ships as more efficient alternatives to the gasoline engines. They have also been used in small passenger vehicle applications, but have not been as popular as in other applications until recently. The two main factors that kept them from becoming the major contender in the small passenger vehicle applications were the low power outputs and the noise levels. A combination of improved mechanical technologies such as multiple injection, higher injection pressure, and advanced electronic control has mostly mitigated the problems associated with the noise level and changed the public notion of the Diesel engine technology in the latest generation of common-rail designs. The power output of the Diesel engines has also been improved substantially through the use of variable geometry turbines combined with the advanced fuel injection technology.
Technical Paper

A Universal Heat Transfer Correlation for Intake and Exhaust Flows in an Spark-Ignition Internal Combustion Engine

2002-03-04
2002-01-0372
In this paper, the available correlations proposed in the literature for the gas-side heat transfer in the intake and exhaust system of a spark-ignition internal combustion engine were surveyed. It was noticed that these only by empirically fitted constants. This similarity provided the impetus for the authors to explore if a universal correlation could be developed. Based on a scaling approach using microscales of turbulence, the authors have fixed the exponential factor on the Reynolds number and thus reduced the number of adjustable coefficients to just one; the latter can be determined from a least squares curve-fit of available experimental data. Using intake and exhaust side data, it was shown that the universal correlation The correlation coefficient of this proposed heat transfer model with all available experimental data is 0.845 for the intake side and 0.800 for the exhaust side.
Journal Article

Modeling of Thermophoretic Soot Deposition and Hydrocarbon Condensation in EGR Coolers

2009-06-15
2009-01-1939
EGR coolers are effective to reduce NOx emissions from diesel engines due to lower intake charge temperature. EGR cooler fouling reduces heat transfer capacity of the cooler significantly and increases pressure drop across the cooler. Engine coolant provided at 40–90 C is used to cool EGR coolers. The presence of a cold surface in the cooler causes particulate soot deposition and hydrocarbon condensation. The experimental data also indicates that the fouling is mainly caused by soot and hydrocarbons. In this study, a 1-D model is extended to simulate particulate soot and hydrocarbon deposition on a concentric tube EGR cooler with a constant wall temperature. The soot deposition caused by thermophoresis phenomena is taken into account the model. Condensation of a wide range of hydrocarbon molecules are also modeled but the results show condensation of only heavy molecules at coolant temperature.
Technical Paper

Optical and Infrared In-Situ Measurements of EGR Cooler Fouling

2013-04-08
2013-01-1289
The use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in internal combustion engines has significant impacts on combustion and emissions. EGR can be used to reduce in-cylinder NOx production, reduce emitted particulate matter, and enable advanced forms of combustion. To maximize the benefits of EGR, the exhaust gases are often cooled with on-engine liquid to gas heat exchangers. A common problem with this approach is the build-up of a fouling layer inside the heat exchanger due to thermophoresis and condensation, reducing the effectiveness of the heat exchanger in lowering gas temperatures. Literature has shown the effectiveness to initially drop rapidly and then approach steady state after a variable amount of time. The asymptotic behavior of the effectiveness has not been well explained. A range of theories have been proposed including fouling layer removal, changing fouling layer properties, and cessation of thermophoresis.
Technical Paper

First and Second Law Analyses of a Naturally-Aspirated, Miller Cycle, SI Engine with Late Intake Valve Closure

1998-02-23
980889
A naturally-aspirated, Miller cycle, Spark-Ignition (SI) engine that controls output with variable intake valve closure is compared to a conventionally-throttled engine using computer simulation. Based on First and Second Law analyses, the two load control strategies are compared in detail through one thermodynamic cycle at light load conditions and over a wide range of loads at 2000 rpm. The Miller Cycle engine can use late intake valve closure (LIVC) to control indicated output down to 35% of the maximum, but requires supplemental throttling at lighter loads. The First Law analysis shows that the Miller cycle increases indicated thermal efficiency at light loads by as much as 6.3%, primarily due to reductions in pumping and compression work while heat transfer losses are comparable.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Air Fuel Ratio of a SI Engine from Exhaust Gas Temperature at Cold Start Condition

2002-05-06
2002-01-1667
Wall wetting of injected fuel onto the intake manifold and cylinder wall causes unpredictable transient behavior of air-fuel mixing which results in a significant emission of unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emission during cold start operation. Heated exhaust gas oxygen (HEGO) sensors cannot measure the air-fuel ratio (A/F) of exhaust gas during cold start condition. Precise and fast estimation of air/fuel ratio of the exhaust gas is required to elucidate the wall wetting phenomena and subsequent HC formation. Refined A/F estimation can enable the control of fuel injection minimizing HC emissions during cold start conditions so that HC emissions can be minimized. A new estimator for A/F of the exhaust gas has been developed. The A/F estimator described in this study utilizes measured exhaust gas temperature and general engine parameters such as engine speed, airflow, coolant temperature, etc.
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