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Technical Paper

Influence of the Alcohol Type and Concentration in Alcohol-Blended Fuels on the Combustion and Emission of Small Two-Stroke SI Engines

The combustion processes optimization is one of the most important factors to enhancing thermal efficiency and reducing exhaust emissions of combustion engines [1; 2]. Future emission regulations for small two-stroke SI engines require that the emissions of gases causing the greenhouse effect, such as carbon dioxide, to be reduced. One possible way to reduce exhaust gas emissions from two-stroke small off-road engines (SORE) is to use biogenic fuels. Because of their nearly closed carbon dioxide circuit, the emissions of carbon dioxide decrease compared to the use of fossil fuels. Also biogenic fuels have a significant influence on the combustion process and thus the emissions of different exhaust gas components may be reduced. Besides greenhouse gases, several other exhaust gas components need to be reduced because of their toxicity to the human health. For example, aromatic hydrocarbons cause dangerous health problems, and can be reduced by using alkylate fuel.
Technical Paper

Use of Ceramic Components in Sliding Systems for High-Pressure Gasoline Fuel Injection Pumps

Spray-guided gasoline direct injection demonstrates great potential to reduce both fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. However, conventional materials used in high-pressure pumps wear severely under fuel injection pressures above 20 MPa as the lubricity and viscosity of gasoline are very low. The use of ceramic components promises to overcome these difficulties and to exploit the full benefits of spray-guided GDI-engines. As part of the Collaborative Research Centre “High performance sliding and friction systems based on advanced ceramics” at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, a single-piston high-pressure gasoline pump operating at up to 50 MPa has been designed. It consists of 2 fuel-lubricated sliding systems (piston/cylinder and cam/sliding shoe) that are built with ceramic parts. The pump is equipped with force, pressure and temperature sensors in order to assess the behaviour of several material pairs.
Journal Article

Investigations on Pre-Ignition in Highly Supercharged SI Engines

This paper presents the results of a study on reasons for the occurrence of pre-ignition in highly supercharged spark ignition engines. During the study, the phenomena to be taken into account were foremost structured into a decision tree according to their physical working principles. Using this decision tree all conceivable single mechanisms to be considered as reasons for pre-ignition could be derived. In order to judge each of them with respect to their ability to promote pre-ignition in a test engine, experimental investigations as well as numerical simulations were carried out. The interdependence between engine operating conditions and pre-ignition frequency was examined experimentally by varying specific parameters. Additionally, optical measurements using an UV sensitive high-speed camera system were performed to obtain information about the spatial distribution of pre-ignition origins and their progress.
Technical Paper

Comparison of the Emission Behaviour and Fuel Consumption of a Small Two-Stroke SI Chainsaw under Test-Bed- and Real In-Use Conditions

The emission behaviour of an internal combustion engine under test-bed conditions shows differences to the emission behaviour under real in-use conditions. Because of this fact, the developers of combustion engines and the legislator are focussing on the measurement and optimization of real in-use emissions. To this day, the research, the adjustment of the carburettor and the legislation of small handheld engines is performed under test bench conditions, especially conditioned fuel pressure and temperature, as well as air temperature. Also the engines are laid out for two operation points: rated speed with full open throttle and idle speed. This test-procedure is used for all kinds of handheld off-road applications and does not consider the load profile of the different power tools. Especially applications with transient load profiles, for example chainsaws, work in more than two operating points in real use.
Technical Paper

Investigations on Soot Emission Behavior of A Common-Rail Diesel Engine during Steady and Non-Steady Operating Conditions by Means of Several Measuring Techniques

In this work the influence of various engine load changes with different engine speeds on the soot particle concentrations and properties was investigated because these operating modes are well known for short but high soot emissions. To derive specific information on emission behavior of particle matters tests were carried out with the Two-Color-Method and the so called RAYLIX technique in a four-cylinder CR-Diesel engine. The Two-Color-Method (2CM) gives crank angle resolved information about soot formation and oxidation processes inside the combustion chamber of a single cylinder. The RAYLIX technique is a combination of Rayleigh-scattering, Laser-Induced-Incandescence (LII) and extinction measurements which enable simultaneous measurements of temporally and spatially resolved soot concentration, mean primary particle radii and number densities in the exhaust gas manifold of the same cylinder investigated by the Two-Color-Method.
Technical Paper

A New Flame Jet Concept to Improve the Inflammation of Lean Burn Mixtures in SI Engines

Engines with gasoline direct injection promise an increase in efficiency mainly due to the overall lean mixture and reduced pumping losses at part load. But the near stoichiometric combustion of the stratified mixture with high combustion temperature leads to high NOx emissions. The need for expensive lean NOx catalysts in combination with complex operation strategies may reduce the advantages in efficiency significantly. The Bowl-Prechamber-Ignition (BPI) concept with flame jet ignition was developed to ignite premixed lean mixtures in DISI engines. The mainly homogeneous lean mixture leads to low combustion temperatures and subsequently to low NOx emissions. By additional EGR a further reduction of the combustion temperature is achievable. The BPI concept is realized by a prechamber spark plug and a piston bowl. The main feature of the concept is its dual injection strategy.
Technical Paper

Potential of Reducing the NOX Emissions in a Spray Guided DI Gasoline Engine by Stratified Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR)

In this paper, results of experimental and numerical investigations of stratified exhaust gas recirculation in a single-cylinder gasoline engine are presented. The engine was operated in spray guided direct injection mode. The radial exhaust gas stratification was achieved by a spatial and temporal separated intake of exhaust gas and fresh air. The spatial separation of both fluids was realized by specially shaped baffles in the inlet ports, which prevent an early mixing up to the inlet valves. The temporally separation was performed by impulse charge valves, with one for the fresh air and one for the exhaust gas. From various possible strategies for time-dependent intake of fresh air and exhaust gas, four different strategies for the exhaust gas stratification were examined.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) with Various Compression Ratios, Intake Air Temperatures and Fuels with Port and Direct Fuel Injection

A promising approach for reducing both NOx- and particulate matter emissions with low fuel consumption is the so called homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion process. Single-cylinder engine tests were carried out to assess the influence of several parameters on the HCCI combustion. The experiments were performed both with port fuel injection (PFI) and with direct injection (DI) under various compression ratios, intake air temperatures and EGR-rates. Special emphasis was put on the fuel composition by using different gasoline and diesel fuels as well as n-heptane. Besides engine out emissions (CO2, CO, NO, O2, HC, soot) and in-cylinder pressure indication for burning process analysis, the combustion itself was visualised using an optical probe.
Technical Paper

Temperature Measurement and NO Determination in SI Engines Using Optical Fiber Sensors

This paper presents a special optical fiber technique which allows to measure temperatures in SI engines using the emission bands or respectively emission lines of the temperature radiation of diatomic molecules. The measurement technique enables the detection of average temperature in a small volume element. These temperatures are used to determine the local NO concentrations using the extended Zeldovich-mechanism. First, theoretical background of both temperature and NO-determination and measurement technique including optical fiber sensors are described. Finally, the temperature and NO dependence versus crank angle are presented and discussed at different combustion chamber locations for different engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Spectroscopic Measurements in Small Two-Stroke SI Engines

This paper demonstrates the potential of optical sensors in the combustion chamber of a small two-stroke SI engine to detect conditions that hinder an optimal combustion process using emission bands and/or emission lines. The primary focus is on the spectroscopic examination of the combustion radiation emissions cycle-by-cycle. For this purpose, spark-ignition type combustion events, as well as the influence of both the air-fuel-ratio and the fuel type, are investigated on a crank angle resolved basis. Furthermore, an assessment of the radiation emissions of the OH, CH and C2 radicals is made. As a next step, the calculation of a temperature profile inside the combustion chamber is attempted by means of the line-emission-method regarding the thermally excited alkaline metals sodium and potassium. These data enable recognition of diffusion combustion and the detection of inadequate mixture quality.
Technical Paper

Knocking Investigations in a small Two-Stroke SI Engine

The trend of higher specific power and increased volumetric efficiency leads to unwanted combustion phenomenon such as knocking, pre-ignition and self-ignition. For four-stroke engines, the literature reports that knocking depends, to a large extent, on the ignition angle, the degree of enrichment and the volumetric efficiency. In recent research, knock investigations in two-stroke engines have only been carried out to a limited extent. This paper discusses an investigation of the influence of various parameters on the knock characteristics of a small, high-speed, two-stroke SI engine. In particular, the degree of enrichment, the volumetric efficiency and the ignition timing serve as the parameters.
Technical Paper

Influence of High Frequency Ignition on the Combustion and Emission Behaviour of Small Two-Stroke Spark Ignition Engines

The two-stroke SI engine is the predominant driving unit in applications that require a high power-to-weight ratio, such as handheld power tools. Regarding the latest regulations in emission limits the main development area is clearly a further reduction of the exhaust emissions. The emissions are directly linked to the combustion processes and the scavenging losses. The optimization of the combustion processes, which represents one of the most challenging fields of research, is still one of the most important keys to enhance the thermal efficiency and reduce exhaust emissions. Regarding future emission regulations for small two-stroke SI engines it is inevitable that the emissions of gases causing the greenhouse effect, like carbon dioxide, need to be reduced. As most small SI engines are carburetted and operate open loop, the mixture formation and the amount of residual gas differs from cycle to cycle [1].
Technical Paper

67 Analysis of Mixture Conditions in a Small Two Stroke Engine Using a Gas Sampling Valve

The quality of mixture formation and the combustion process is of significant importance for reducing the hydrocarbon emissions of small two stroke engines. The scope of this work was to investigate the mixture conditions after the exhaust closes and after the end of combustion depending on various engine operating points. For this experimental investigation a Gas Sampling Valve (GSV) was combined with a flame ionisation detector (FID) and a CO2-analyser. Using this technique, it was possible to measure the hydrocarbon concentration after end of combustion. Furthermore the local residual gas concentration after exhaust closes was determined. To allow for a comparison of the experimental results with calculations with CFD codes, in cylinder pressure measurement and exhaust gas measurements are done additionally.
Journal Article

Is a High Pressure Direct Injection System a Solution to Reduce Exhaust Gas Emissions in a Small Two-Stroke Engine?

Small gasoline engines are used in motorcycles and handheld machinery, because of their high power density, low cost and compact design. The reduction of hydrocarbon emissions and fuel consumption is an important factor regarding the upcoming emission standards and operational expenses. The scavenging process of the two-stroke engine causes scavenging losses. A reduction in hydrocarbon emissions due to scavenging losses can be achieved through inner mixture formation using direct injection (DI). The time frame for fuel vaporization is limited using two-stroke SI engines by the high number of revolutions. A high pressure DI system was used to offer fast and accurate injections. An injection pressure of up to 140 MPa was provided by a common rail system, built out of components normally used in automotive engineering. A standard electromagnetic injector is applied for the fuel injection. This injection unit is dimensioned for multi-point injections in diesel engines.
Journal Article

Investigations on the Effects of the Ignition Spark with Controlled Autoignition (CAI)

Controlled Autoignition (CAI) is a very promising technology for simultaneous reduction of fuel consumption and engine-out emissions [3, 4, 9, 16]. But the operating range of this combustion mode is limited on the one hand by high pressure gradients with the subsequent occurrence of knocking, increasing NOX-emissions and cyclic variations, and on the other hand by limited operating stability due to low mixture temperatures. At higher loads the required amount of internal EGR decrease to reach self-ignition conditions decrease and hence the influence of the ignition spark gain. The timing of the ignition spark highly influence the combustion process at higher loads. With the ignition spark, pre-reactions are initialized with a defined heat release. Thus the location of inflammation and flame propagation can be strongly influenced and cyclic variations at higher loads can be reduced.
Journal Article

Investigation of the Flow Velocity in the Spark Plug Gap of a Two-Stroke Gasoline Engine using Laser-Doppler-Anemometry

The two-stroke SI engine remains the dominant concept for handheld power tools. Its main advantages are a good power-to-weight ratio, simple mechanical design and low production costs. Because of these reasons, the two-stroke SI engine will remain the dominant engine in such applications for the foreseeable future. Increasingly stringent exhaust emission laws, in conjunction with the drive for more efficiency, have made new scavenging and combustion processes necessary. The main foci are to reduce raw emissions of unburned hydrocarbons via intelligent guidance of the fresh air-fuel mixture and to improve performance to reduce specific emissions. The flow velocity in the electrode gap of the spark plug is of great interest for the ignition of the air-fuel-mixture and the early combustion phase of all kinds of SI engines. In these investigations, the flow velocity in the spark plug gap of a two-stroke gasoline engine with stratified scavenging was measured under various conditions.
Journal Article

Premature Flame Initiation in a Turbocharged DISI Engine - Numerical and Experimental Investigations

This paper presents the results of experimental and numerical investigations on pre-ignition in a series-production turbocharged DISI engine. Previous studies led to the conclusion that pre-ignition can be triggered by auto-ignition of oil droplets generated in the combustion chamber. Analysis of more recent experiments shows that a modification of the engine operation parameters that promotes spray/lubricant interaction also increases pre-ignition frequency, while modifications that enhance the speed of chemical reactions (thereby favoring auto-ignition) have little or no influence. The experimental and numerical findings can be explained if we assume the existence of a substance (originating from lubricant/fuel interaction) that displays extremely short ignition delay times.
Journal Article

Effect of different nozzle geometries using Pure Rapeseed Oil in a modern Diesel engine on combustion and exhaust emissions

Rapeseed oil can be a possible substitute for fossil fuel in Diesel engines. Due to different physical properties of rapeseed oil like higher viscosity and higher compressibility compared to diesel fuel, rapeseed oil cannot be easily used in conventional Diesel engines without modifications. Especially incomplete combustion leads to deposits in the combustion chamber and higher exhaust gas emissions. These unfavorable characteristics are caused primarily by insufficient mixture preparation. The adjustment of the injection system will improve the mixture preparation and the combustion of a Diesel engine, operated with rapeseed oil. The nozzle geometry is the main parameter of the whole injection system chain to realize a better combustion process and so higher efficiency and lower exhaust gas emissions.
Technical Paper

Investigations of Ignition Processes Using High Frequency Ignition

High frequency ignition (HFI) and conventional transistor coil ignition (TCI) were investigated with an optically accessible single-cylinder research engine to gain fundamental understanding of the chemical reactions taking place prior to the onset of combustion. Instead of generating heat in the gap of a conventional spark plug, a high frequency / high voltage electric field is employed in HFI to form chemical radicals. It is generated using a resonant circuit and sharp metallic tips placed in the combustion chamber. The setup is optimized to cause a so-called corona discharge in which highly energized channels (streamers) are created while avoiding a spark discharge. At a certain energy the number of ionized hydrocarbon molecules becomes sufficient to initiate self-sustained combustion. HFI enables engine operation with highly diluted (by air or EGR) gasoline-air mixtures or at high boost levels due to the lower voltage required.
Technical Paper

Investigations of Spray-Induced Vortex Structures during Multiple Injections of a DISI Engine in Stratified Operation Using High-Speed-PIV

Modern gasoline direct injection engines with spray-guided combustion processes require a stable and reliable fuel mixture formation as well as an optimal stratification at time of ignition. Due to the limited time for this process the temporal and spatial analysis of the in-cylinder flow field and its influence is of significant interest. The application of a piezo injector with outward opening nozzle and its capability to realize multiple injections within the compression stroke provides additional degrees of freedom for the stratified engine operation. To improve the performance of this combination a detailed knowledge of the in-cylinder flow field and its interaction with the spray propagation during and after multiple injections is essential. The flow field measurements were applied in an optical borescope single-cylinder research engine using a high-speed particle image velocimetry (HSPIV) setup.