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Technical Paper

Computational Considerations of Fuel Spray Mixing in an HCCI Operated Optical Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0710
Fuel spray mixing has been analyzed numerically in a single-cylinder optical research engine with a flat piston top. In the study, a narrow spray angle has been used to align the sprays towards the piston top. Fuel spray mass flow rate has been simulated with 1-D code in order to have reliable boundary condition for the CFD simulations. Different start of fuel injections were tested as well as three charge air pressures and two initial mixture temperatures. Quantitative analysis was performed for the evaporation rates, mixture homogeneity at top dead center, and for the local air-fuel ratios. One of the observations of this study was that there exists an optimum start of fuel injection when the rate of spray evaporation and the mixture homogeneity are considered.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Structure and Mixing of Low-Pressure Gas Jet Using Tracer-Based PLIF Technique

2011-09-11
2011-24-0039
Natural gas has been considered as one promising alternative fuel for internal combustion (IC) engines to meet strict engine emission regulations and reduce the dependence on petroleum oil. Although compressed natural gas (CNG) intake manifold injection has been successfully applied into spark ignition (SI) engines in the past decade, natural gas direct injection compression ignition (DICI) engine with new injection system is being pursued to improve engine performance. Gas jet behaves significantly different from liquid fuels, so the better understanding of the effects of gas jet on fuel distribution and mixing process is essential for combustion and emission optimization. The present work is aimed to gain further insight into the characteristics of low pressure gas jet. An experimental gas jet investigation has been successfully conducted using tracer-based planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique. For safety reason, nitrogen (N₂) was instead of CNG in this study.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Spray Characteristics between Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) and Crude Oil Based EN 590 Diesel Fuel

2011-09-11
2011-24-0042
The aim of current study was to compare the global fuel spray characteristics between renewable hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) and crude oil-based EN 590 diesel fuel. According to previous studies, the use of HVO enables reductions in carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbon (THC), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particle matter (PM) emissions without any changes to the engine or its controls. Fuel injection strategies and global fuel spray characteristics affect on engine combustion and exhaust gas emissions. Due to different physical properties of two different fuels, fuel spray characteristics differ. Fuel spray studies were performed with backlight imaging using a pressurized test chamber imitating real engine conditions at the end of compression stroke. However, the measurements were made in non-evaporative conditions. Various injection parameters such as injection pressures and orifice diameter were tested.
Journal Article

Real Gas Effects in High-Pressure Engine Environment

2010-04-12
2010-01-0627
Real gas effects are studied during the compression stroke of a diesel engine. Several different real gas models are compared to the ideal gas law and to the experimental pressure history. Comparisons are done with both 1-D and CFD simulations, and reasons and answers are found out for the observed differences between simulations and experimental data. The engine compression ratio was measured for accurate model predictions. In addition, a 300bar extreme pressure case is also analyzed with the real gas model since an engine capable for this performance level is currently being built at the Aalto University School of Science and Technology. Real gas effects are even more important in these extreme conditions than in normal operating pressures. Finally, it is shown that the predicted pressure history during an engine compression stroke by a real gas model is more accurately predicted than by the ideal gas law.
Technical Paper

Momentum Coupling by Means of Lagrange Polynomials in the CFD Simulation of High-Velocity Dense Sprays

2004-03-08
2004-01-0535
The discrete droplet model is widely used to describe two-phase flows such as high-velocity dense sprays. The interaction between the liquid and the gas phase is modeled via appropriate source terms in the gas phase equations. This approach can lead to a strong dependence of the liquid-gas coupling on the spatial resolution of the gas phase. The liquid-gas coupling requires the computation of source terms using the gas phase properties, and, subsequently, these sources are then distributed onto the gas phase mesh. In this study, a Lagrange polynomial interpolation method has been developed to evaluate the source terms and also to distribute these source terms onto the gas mesh. The focus of this investigation has been on the momentum exchange between the two phases. The Lagrange polynomial interpolation and source term distribution methods are evaluated for non-evaporating sprays using KIVA3 as a modeling platform.
Technical Paper

Valve Train Design for a New Gas Exchange Process

2004-03-08
2004-01-0607
The design and testing of the valve train for a new two-stroke diesel engine concept [1,2] is presented. The gas exchange of this process requires extremely fast-acting inlet valves, which constituted a very demanding designing task. A simulation model of the prototype valve train was constructed with commercially available software. The simulation program served as the main tool for optimizing the dynamic behavior of the valve train. The prototype valve train was built according to the simulations and valve acceleration measurements were performed in order to validate the simulation results. The simulations and measurements are presented in detail in this paper.
Technical Paper

Conjugate Heat Transfer in CI Engine CFD Simulations

2008-04-14
2008-01-0973
The development of new high power diesel engines is continually going for increased mean effective pressures and consequently increased thermal loads on combustion chamber walls close to the limits of endurance. Therefore accurate CFD simulation of conjugate heat transfer on the walls becomes a very important part of the development. In this study the heat transfer and temperature on piston surface was studied using conjugate heat transfer model along with a variety of near wall treatments for turbulence. New wall functions that account for variable density were implemented and tested against standard wall functions and against the hybrid near wall treatment readily available in a CFD software Star-CD.
Technical Paper

Diesel Spray Penetration and Velocity Measurements

2008-10-06
2008-01-2478
This study is presenting a comparative spray study of modern large bore medium speed diesel engine common rail injectors. One subject of paper is to focus on nozzles with same nominal flow rate, but different machining. The other subject is penetration velocity measurements, which have a new approach when trying to understand the early phase of transient spray. A new method to use velocimetry for spray tip penetration measurements is here introduced. The length where spray penetration velocity is changed is found. This length seems to have clear connection to volume fraction of droplets at gas. These measurements also give a tool to divide the development of spray into acceleration region and deceleration region, which is one approach to spray penetration. The measurements were performed with backlight imaging in pressurized injection test rig at non-evaporative conditions. Gas density and injection pressure were matched to normal diesel engine operational conditions.
Technical Paper

Optical In-Cylinder Measurements of a Large-Bore Medium-Speed Diesel Engine

2008-10-06
2008-01-2477
The objective of this study was to build up an optical access into a large bore medium-speed research engine and carry out the first fuel spray Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements in the running large bore medium-speed engine in high pressure environment. The aim was also to measure spray penetration with same optical access and apparatus. The measurements were performed in a single-cylinder large bore medium-speed research engine, the Extreme Value Engine (EVE) with optical access into the combustion chamber. The authors are not aware of any other studies on optical spray measurements in large bore medium-speed diesel engines. Successful optical measurements of the fuel spray penetration and the velocity fields were carried out. This confirms that the exceptional component design and laser sheet alignment used in this study proved to be valid for optical fuel spray measurements in large-bore medium-speed diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Non-Evaporating Diesel Sprays and Verification with Experimental Data

2002-03-04
2002-01-0946
Non-evaporating diesel sprays have been simulated utilizing the ETAB and the WAVE atomization and breakup models and have been compared with experimental data. The experimental penetrations and widths were determined from back-lit spray images and the droplet sizes have been measured by means of a Malvern particle sizer. The model evaluation criteria include the spray penetration, the spray width and the local droplet size. The comparisons have been performed for variations of the injection pressure, the gas density and the fuel viscosity. The fuel nozzle exit velocities used in the simulations have been computed with a special code that considers the effect of in-nozzle cavitation. The simulations showed good overall agreement with experimental data. However, the capabilities of the models to predict the droplet size for different fuels could be improved.
Technical Paper

Performance Simulation of a Compression Ignition Free Piston Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-0280
A dual-piston, two-stroke, compression ignition free piston engine has been simulated with zero- and one-dimensional performance simulation codes. The simulation models used in the codes have been developed to analyze and improve the internal combustion engine process of a hydraulic free piston engine prototype. The prototype was designed and constructed in Tampere University of Technology at the Institute of Hydraulics and Automation. Performance simulation analyses were conducted in Helsinki University of Technology at the Internal Combustion Engine Laboratory. The zero-dimensional model is used for the simulation of piston dynamics. The one-dimensional model is used for performance simulation, especially for the simulation of gas exchange process. The simulation results were verified through prototype engine measurements.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Flow Field of a Diesel Engine

2007-10-29
2007-01-4046
The flow through the valves of an engine cylinder head is very complex in nature due to very high gas velocities and strong flow separation. However, it is also the typical situation in almost every engine related flow. In order to gain better understanding of the flow features after the cylinder head, and to gain knowledge of the performance level that can be expected from CFD analysis, flow field measurements and computations were made in an engine rig. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) and paddle wheel measurements have been conducted in a static heavy-duty diesel engine rig to characterize the flow features with different valve lifts and pressure differences. These measurements were compared with CFD predictions of the same engine. The simulations were done with the standard k-ε turbulence model and with the RNG turbulence model using the Star-CD flow solver.
Journal Article

Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) as a Renewable Diesel Fuel: Trade-off between NOx, Particulate Emission, and Fuel Consumption of a Heavy Duty Engine

2008-10-06
2008-01-2500
Hydrotreating of vegetable oils or animal fats is an alternative process to esterification for producing biobased diesel fuels. Hydrotreated products are also called renewable diesel fuels. Hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVO) do not have the detrimental effects of ester-type biodiesel fuels, like increased NOx emission, deposit formation, storage stability problems, more rapid aging of engine oil or poor cold properties. HVOs are straight chain paraffinic hydrocarbons that are free of aromatics, oxygen and sulfur and have high cetane numbers. In this paper, NOx - particulate emission trade-off and NOx - fuel consumption trade-off are studied using different fuel injection timings in a turbocharged charge air cooled common rail heavy duty diesel engine. Tested fuels were sulfur free diesel fuel, neat HVO, and a 30% HVO + 70% diesel fuel blend. The study shows that there is potential for optimizing engine settings together with enhanced fuel composition.
Technical Paper

Applying Soot Phi-T Maps for Engineering CFD Applications in Diesel Engines

2005-10-24
2005-01-3856
Soot modeling has become increasingly important as diesel engine manufacturers are faced with constantly tightening soot emission limits. As such the accuracy of the soot models used is more and more important but at the same time 3-D CFD engine studies require models that are computationally not too demanding. In this study, soot Phi-T maps created with detailed chemistry code have been used to develop a soot model for engineering purposes. The proposed soot model was first validated against detailed chemistry results in premixed laminar environment. As turbulence in engines is of major importance, it was taken into account in the soot oxidation part of the model with the laminar and turbulent characteristic time- type of approach. Finally, the model was tested in a large bore Diesel engine with varying loads. Within the steps described above, the proposed model was also compared with the well-known Hiroyasu-Magnussen soot model.
Technical Paper

Effect of Intake Channel Design to Cylinder Charge and Initial Swirl

2010-04-12
2010-01-0624
Two different medium-speed diesel engine cylinder head designs have been studied. The focus of the study has been the effect of intake channel design in the in-cylinder flow. The study has been carried out by CFD. The first cylinder head is a standard Wärtsilä 20 cylinder head and the second one is a specially designed head for a single cylinder research engine, called Extreme Value Engine (EVE). The CFD boundary conditions have been simulated by the help of a 1-d simulation code. In the full load cases the maximum cylinder pressure was 300 bar. Simulations have been done at lower load level too. One simulation with the new cylinder head was carried out with one intake valve closed in order to get an idea of the swirl to be generated by this approach. In the study the in-cylinder flow field, the cylinder charge and turbulence kinetic energy have been examined.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection System Simulation with Renewable Diesel Fuels

2009-09-13
2009-24-0105
Renewable diesel-type fuels and their compatibility with a single-cylinder medium-speed research diesel engine were studied. The report consists of a literature study on the fuels, introduction of the simulation model designed and simulations made, and of the results and summary sections. The fuels studied were traditional biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester, FAME), hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO), Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel fuels and dimethyl ether (DME). According to the simulations, the behaviors of different renewable diesel fuels in the fuel injection system are quite similar to one another, with the greatest deviations found with DME. The main differences in the physical properties are fuel densities and viscosities and especially with DME compressibility, which have some predictable effect. The chemical properties of the fuels are more critical for a common rail fuel injection system.
Technical Paper

NOx Reduction in a Medium-Speed Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine using Miller Cycle with Very Advanced Valve Timing

2009-09-13
2009-24-0112
The objective of this study is to achieve high reduction of NOx emissions in a medium-speed single-cylinder research engine. The main feature of this research engine is that the gas exchange valve timing is completely adjustable with electro-hydraulic actuators. The study is carried out at high engine load and using a very advanced Miller valve timing. Since the engine has no turbocharger, but a separate charge air system, 1-D simulations are carried out to find the engine setup, which would be close to the operating points of a real engine. The obtained NOx reduction is over 40% with no penalty in fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

CFD Modeling of the Initial Turbulence Prior to Combustion in a Large Bore Diesel Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-0977
The study aims at providing more accurate initial conditions for turbulence prior to combustion with the help of a four valve, large bore diesel engine CFD model. Combustion simulations are typically done with a sector mesh and initial turbulence in these simulations is usually taken from relatively inaccurate correlations. This study also aims at developing a more accurate initial turbulence correlation for combustion simulations. A one-dimensional model was first used to provide boundary conditions as well as the initial flow conditions at the beginning of the simulation. Steady state and transient boundary conditions were studied. Also, the standard κ - ε and RNG/κ - ε turbulence models were compared. From the averaged values of turbulence kinetic energy and its dissipation rate over the cylinder volume, a re-tuned correlation for defining the initial turbulent conditions at bottom dead center (BDC) prior to the compression stroke is proposed.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Charge, Initial Flow Field and Fuel Injection Boundary Condition in the Multidimensional Modeling of Combustion in Compression Ignition Engines

2004-10-25
2004-01-2963
Cylinder charge, cylinder flow field and fuel injection play the dominant roles in controlling combustion in compression ignition engines. Respective computational cylinder charge, initial flow field and fuel injection boundary affect combustion simulation and the quality of emission prediction. In this study the means of generating the initial values and boundary data are presented and the effect of different methods is discussed. This study deals with three different compression ignition engines with cylinder diameters of 111, 200 and 460 mm. The initial cylinder charge has been carefully analyzed through gas exchange pressure recordings and corresponding 1-dimensional simulation. The swirl generated by intake ports in a high-speed engine is simulated and measured. The combustion simulation using a whole cylinder model was compared with a sector model simulation result.
Technical Paper

Comparing Single-Step and Multi-Step Chemistry Using The Laminar and Turbulent Characteristic Time Combustion Model In Two Diesel Engines

2002-05-06
2002-01-1749
Three-dimensional diesel engine combustion simulations with single-step chemistry have been compared with two-step and three-step chemistry by means of the Laminar and Turbulent Characteristic Time Combustion model using the Star-CD program. The second reaction describes the oxidation of CO and the third reaction describes the combustion of H2. The comparisons have been performed for two heavy-duty diesel engines. The two-step chemistry was investigated for a purely kinetically controlled, for a mixing limited and for a combination of kinetically and mixing limited oxidation. For the latter case, two different descriptions of the laminar reaction rates were also tested. The best agreement with the experimental cylinder pressure has been achieved with the three-step mechanism but the differences with respect to the two-step and single-step reactions were small.
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