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Technical Paper

Characteristics of a Transient Spray of Fuel with Multiple Components

2005-10-24
2005-01-3846
Almost all the researches relating to the characteristics of transient spray have carried out by using the fuel with only single component. However, the actual fuel oil supplying to a reciprocating engine has multiple components. Thus, this paper describes the experimental results on the characteristics of a transient spray formed by the mixed fuel with three kinds of pure fuel. The state of periphery of non evaporating spray near the nozzle outlet was arranged by the dimensionless number. And the technique of laser Induced fluorescence (LIF) was applied to an evaporating spray to find the state of mixing.
Technical Paper

Measurement and Modeling on Wall Wetted Fuel Film Profile and Mixture Preparation in Intake Port of SI Engine

1999-03-01
1999-01-0798
In SI engines with port injection system, the injected fuel spray adheres surely on the port wall and the inlet valve, consequently, the spray-wall interaction process leads to the generation of unburned hydrocarbons and uncontrollable mixture formation. This paper deals with the fuel mixture preparation process including basic research on characteristics of the wall-wetted fuel film on a flat wall inside a constant volume vessel. In the experiments, iso-octane mixed with biacetyl as a tracer dopant was injected through a pintle type injector against a flat glass wall under the ambient conditions of atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The thickness of the adhered fuel film on the wall was quantitatively measured by using laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technique, which provides 2-D distribution information with high special resolution as a function of the injection duration, the impingement distance from the injector to the wall, and the impingement angle against the wall.
Technical Paper

Distribution of Vapor Concentration in a Diesel Spray Impinging on a Flat Wall by Means of Exciplex Fluorescence Method -In Case of High Injection Pressure-

1997-10-01
972916
Diesel sprays injected into a combustion chamber of a small sized high-speed CI engine impinge surely on a piston surface and a cylinder wall. As a consequence, their vaporization, mixture formation and combustion processes are affected by impingement phenomena. And the other important factors affecting on the processes is the injection pressure. Then, the distribution of the vapor concentration in a single diesel spray impinging on a flat and hot wall was experimented by the exciplex fluorescence method, as a simple case. The injection pressure was varied in the range from 55 MPa to 120 MPa. It is found that the distribution of the vapor concentration in this case is much leaner than that in the case of the low injection pressure of 17.8MPa.
Technical Paper

Organized Structure and Motion in Diesel Spray

1997-02-24
970641
This paper deals with the particle distribution in Diesel spray under the non-evaporating condition from the analytical aspect based on our experimental results. In the analysis, TAB method of KIVA II code and the k-ε turbulent model were used, and the mono-disperse distribution of the initial parcel's diameter, whose size equals to the nozzle hole diameter, was utilized in conjunction with the breakup model. The size distribution of atomized droplets (i.e. the χ-squared distribution function) is justified with the degree of freedom. It is shown that the ambient gas, which is initially quiescent, is induced and led to a turbulent gas jet. The turbulent gas jet which has a equivalent momentum with the Diesel spray was also examined by Discrete Vortex method. The quantitative jet growth was shown to be possible for the estimation and determination in its initial boundary values at the nozzle.
Technical Paper

Effect of Ambient Gas Properties for Characteristics of Non-Reacting Diesel Fuel Spray

1997-02-24
970352
In this paper, spray characteristics were examined to deduce the effect of ambient gas properties. Considered ambient properties were the viscosity μa and density ρa, and thus the kinematic viscosity νa. The objective of this paper is to reveal the effect of compressibility of the ambient gas to spray formation. In the experiments, the changed ranges were And a standard-sac volume nozzle of hole diameter dn =0.25 mm (ln/dn=3.0) was used at constant injection pressure difference (Δp=16.2 MPa). Also the injection pressure was varied in the range of 55 to 120 MPa with a mini-sac volume nozzle of hole diameter dn =0.20 mm (ln/dn =5.5). Several different gases were used to change the ambient viscosity at a room temperature. From the experiments, it is obtained that larger the viscosity, the more the spray spreads in the radial direction, thus the spray angle gets larger and the tip penetration became shorter.
Technical Paper

Effect of Nozzle Configurations for Characteristics of Non-Reacting Diesel Fuel Spray

1997-02-24
970355
The spray structure under the pressurized atmosphere at a room temperature was examined by the various photographic methods. The fuel flow inside the nozzle was investigated by the transparent model nozzles. The experimental analysis of sprays yielded the spray dispersing angle, the distribution of fuel droplets inside the spray and the jet intact core length. The obtained results of those spray characteristics showed that the spray structure is divided into two spatial regimes due to their formation mechanisms. Within 10 mm from the nozzle, the spray dispersion is dominated by the turbulent states of fuel which are initiated inside the nozzle. At distance from the nozzle z > 20 - 40 mm, the spray consists of an induced gas vortex street whose length is about half of the spray width. It is proposed that the kinematic viscosity of ambient gas is a important factor which rules the process of momentum exchange form the fuel jet to the ambient gas.
Technical Paper

Vaporization Characteristics and Liquid-Phase Penetration for Multi-Component Fuels

2004-03-08
2004-01-0529
The maximum liquid-phase penetration and vaporization behavior was investigated by using simultaneous measurement for mie-scattered light images and shadowgraph ones. The objective of this study was to analyze effect of variant parameters (injection pressure, ambient gas condition and fuel temperature) and fuel properties on vaporization behavior, and to investigate liquid phase penetration for the single- and multi-component fuels. The experiments were conducted in a constant-volume vessel with optical access. Fuel was injected into the vessel with electronically controlled common rail injector.
Technical Paper

Modelling of Atomization Process in Flash Boiling Spray

1994-10-01
941925
This paper presents the analysis of atomization and vaporization processes in a flash boiling spray based on experimental results obtained from injection systems in the suction manifold of a gasoline engine. Two kinds of liquid fuel, n-Pentane and n-Hexane, were injected into quiescent atmosphere at room-temperature and low-pressure through a pintle type injector with electronic control. The spray characteristics of both fuels below various atmospheric pressures were investigated in detail by taking photography. Then, in the region of flash boiling, where the back pressure was below the saturated vapor pressure of fuel, the bubble nucleation process due to the flash boiling was modelled by both the measurement results of bubble and the nucleation rate equation using the degree of superheat of the liquid fuel.
Technical Paper

Effects of Flame Lift-Off and Flame Temperature on Soot Formation in Oxygenated Fuel Sprays

2003-03-03
2003-01-0073
Considering the bell-shaped temperature dependence of soot particle formation, the control of flame temperature has a possibility to drastically suppress of soot formation. Furthermore, oxygenated fuels are very effective on soot reduction, and the use of these kinds of fuels has a potentiality for smokeless diesel combustion. In this paper, the effects of flame lift-off and flame temperature on soot formation in oxygenated fuel sprays were experimentally investigated using a constant volume combustion vessel which simulated diesel engine conditions. The diffusion flame lift-off length was measured in order to estimate the amount of the oxygen entrained upstream of the flame lift-off length in the fuel jet. This was determined from time-averaged OH chemiluminescence imaging technique. Also, the flame temperature and soot concentration were simultaneously evaluated by means of two-color method.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study On Transient Gas Jet

1984-01-01
845036
This paper presents the experimental study on the characteristics of a transient gas jet. Helium was injected instantaneously into a quiescent atmosphere with constant pressure. The distributions of instantaneous static pressure, radial and axial velocities and concentration at measuring points in the jet, which is obtained by the statistical data processing, are discussed to explain a transient mixture formation in the jet. The analogy between this jet and a diesel spray as for this mixture formation are also discussed by using these results.
Technical Paper

Investigation on the Characteristics of Diesel Fuel Spray

1980-09-01
800968
The authors carried out a basic and systematic investigation on diesel combustion processes using three different experimental apparatuses. This paper summarized the experimental results obtained from the three devices. Among the data contained in this paper are; (1) The structure and shape of diesel spray, the air movement around diesel spray and the spatial and temporal distributions of the size of droplets in diesel spray injected into the high pressure and room temperature charge. (2) The shape of diesel spray injected into the high pressure and high tempertaure charge. (3) The characteraistics of flame, and illumination delay, and ignition delay in the high pressure and high temperature charge.
Technical Paper

Atomization of Spray under Low-Pressure Field from Pintle Type Gasoline Injector

1992-02-01
920382
This paper presents an atomization mechanism of a spray injected into the low-pressure field, as the subject of injection system in a suction manifold of gasoline engine. Pure liquid fuel, which is n-Pentane or n-Hexane is injected into quiescent gaseous atmosphere at room-temperature and low- pressure through pintle type electronic control injector. Fuel sprays are observed by taking photographs for variation of the back pressure and the changes in spray characteristics with the back pressure below atmospheric pressure are examined in detail. In particular, in the case of the back pressure below the saturated vapor pressure of fuel, the atomization mechanism is discussed from a viewpoint of flash boiling phenomena, those are bubble growth rate and so on.
Technical Paper

Knocking Phenomena in a Rapid Compression and Expansion Machine

1992-02-01
920064
In this study, a rapid compression and expansion machine(RCEM) with a pancake combustion chamber was designed to investigate fundamentally on the knocking phenomena in spark ignition(S.I) engines. This RCEM is intended to simulate combustion in an actual engine. The homogeneous pre-mixture of n-pentane and air was charged into a quiescent atmosphere of the chamber. Then, the combustion field become simpler in this machine than it in a real S.I. engine. Also, the combustion phenomena, that is a cylinder pressure history, the behavior of flame propagation and so on, with high reproducibility are realized in this machine. The phenomena caught in this experiment were so-called low speed knocking. And, this knocking characteristics such as a knock intensity and a knock mass fraction were revealed by the cylinder pressure analysis varying the charge pressure and the equivalence ratio of the mixture, a compression ratio and an ignition timing.
Technical Paper

Combustion in a Small DI Diesel Engine at Starting

1992-02-01
920697
It is unavoidable that a DI diesel engine exhausts a blue and white smoke at starting, especially in the cold atmosphere. In the experiments presented here, a small DI diesel engine started under the conditions of coolant and suction air whose minimum temperatures were 255 K and 268 K, respectively. The flame was photographed by high-speed photography, the temperature of flame and the soot concentration were measured by two-color method, and CO2 concentration was detected by luminous method. The engine cannot be started over several cycles when the coolant temperature is 255 K and suction air temperature is 268 K. As the temperature of coolant and suction air are decreasing, the maxima of the cylinder pressure, the flame temperature, the soot concentration and CO2 concentration are decreasing. Luminous small dots or small lumps of flame become scattered in the piston cavity.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Combustion in an IDI Diesel Engine with a Swirl Chamber Made of Ceramics

1992-02-01
920696
There is a concept that the increase in the temperature of charge in a combustion chamber and the shield of heat transferred through a chamber wall can facilitate the oxidation of soot and reduce the discharge of soot from the engine. In the experiments presented here in, an IDI diesel engine was used to inspect the concept. The engine was installed a bigger sized cylindrical swirl chamber which was equipped with two flat quarts windows, in order to observe the combustion phenomena and to apply the optical measurement. The experiments were carried out using two types of divided chambers, that is, the swirl chamber made of ceramics and that made of steel, to examine the the effects mentioned above.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Transient Gas Diffusion Flame

1997-10-01
972965
CNG is one of the future fuel for a CI engine. Recently, the general tendency is the use of the high pressure injection system over 100 MPa in a CI engine for the near future severe regulation. Combustion phenomenon in a CI engine with such injection system is like a transient gas diffusion flame. The flow in a gas diffusion flame was investigated by the particle image velocimetry on its 2-D images, the relative soot concentration, the temperature and the relative CO2 concentration was detected in the experiments. And the model of transient gas diffusion flame was constructed by use of experimental data.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Analysis of Fuel Vapor Concentration in Diesel Spray by Exciplex Fluorescence Method

1997-02-24
970796
An unsteady single spray of n-tridecane which was mixed with a small quantity of exciplex - forming dopants, that is naphthalene and TMPD, was impinged on a flat wall surface with high temperature of 550 K at a normal angle. These experiments were carried out in a quiescent N2 atmosphere with high temperature of 700 K and high pressure of 2.5 MPa. It was possible to generate the fluorescence emissions from the vapor and liquid phases in this spray, when a laser light sheet from a Nd:YAG laser was passing through the cross section of the spray containing its central axis. Then, clear 2 - D images of vapor and liquid phases in the spray were acquired simultaneously by this method. And, the vapor concentration was analyzed quantitatively by applying Lambert - Beer's law to the measured TMPD monomer fluorescence intensity from vapor phase, and by correcting the intensity for the effect of the quenching process due to the ambient temperature and fuel concentration.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Fuel Vapor Concentration Inside a Flash Boiling Spray

1997-02-24
970871
For current passenger vehicles, multi-point injection (MPI) systems are extensively employed for gasoline engines due to ease of control and rapid response. In these systems, the pressure within the intake manifold to which the injectors are installed can fall below the saturated vapor pressure of some hydrocarbon components present in the fuel. Such a condition leads to an atomization process in which flash boiling occurs. In the present work, the atomization process under flash boiling conditions has been characterized both experimentally and theoretically. The experimental investigation has been carried out with a spray test facility consisting of a variable pressure chamber equipped with a pintle type fuel nozzle. Infrared Extinction/Scattering (IRES) is utilized to provide temporal and spatially resolved distribution of the fuel vapor concentration within the spray.
Technical Paper

Soot Kinetic Modeling and Empirical Validation on Smokeless Diesel Combustion with Oxygenated Fuels

2003-05-19
2003-01-1789
This paper provides new insights on the mechanism of the smokeless diesel combustion with oxygenated fuels, based on a combination of soot kinetic modeling and optical diagnostics. The chemical effects of fuel compositions, including aromatics - paraffins blend, neat oxygenated fuels and oxygenate additives, on sooting equivalence ratio ‘ϕ’ - temperature ‘T’ dependence were numerically examined using a detailed soot kinetic model. To better understand the physical factors affecting soot formation in oxygenated fuel sprays, the effects of injection pressure and ambient gas temperature on the flame lift-off length and relative soot concentration in oxygenated fuel jets were experimentally investigated. The computational results show that the leaner mixture side of soot formation peninsula on the ϕ - T map, rather than the lower temperature one, should be utilized to suppress the formation of PAHs and ultra-fine particles together with the large reduction in particulate mass.
Technical Paper

Distribution of Vapor Concentration of Fuel Mixed with High Volatility Component and Low Volatility Component

2010-10-25
2010-01-2274
The premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion in a compression ignition (Cl) engine is one of countermeasures against the very much severe regulation for exhaust gas of engine out. The authors have been proposed to use the fuel mixed with high volatility component and low volatility component to actualize PCCI combustion. This kind of fuel injected forms a fine and lean spray by the flash boiling phenomena which depends on the pressure and the temperature. The role of the former fuel is to decrease in the generation of particulate matters (PM) and that of the latter one is to break out the ignition. Thus, it is very much significant to find the distribution of vapor concentration of both fuels in a spray. This paper describes both distributions in a single diesel spray by use of the technique of laser induced fluorescence (LIF) in a constant volume chamber with high temperature at high pressure as the fundamental research.
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