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Technical Paper

Quasi-dimensional and Empirical Modeling of Compression-Ignition Engine Combustion and Emissions

Two combustion models are presented: A quasi-dimensional approach, based on the injection shape and an empirical model. Both models have computation times of less than one second per cycle. The quasi-dimensional approach for CI combustion discretizes the injection jet in slices. Pilot-injections are modeled as separate zones. The forecast capability and the limitations of the model are discussed on the basis of measurements. Mentioned above the base of the quasi-dimensional model is the injection rate. Often it is difficult to obtain these data. There is therefore another empirical approach for combustion, which does not need the injection rate as input. Both models have to be calibrated. This can be done by an automatic calibration tool on the basis of the advanced Powell method. The differences and advantages compared with other optimization methods are shown. Emission-simulation models are highly important in simulating CI engines.
Technical Paper

Simulation of the Post-Oxidation in Turbo Charged SI-DI-Engines

Turbocharged SI-DI-engines in combination with a reduction of engine displacement (“Downsizing”) offer the possibility to remarkably reduce the overall fuel consumption. In charged mode it is possible to scavenge fresh unburnt air into the exhaust system if a positive slope during the overlap phase of the gas exchange occurs. The matching of the turbo system in SI-engines always causes a trade-off between low-end torque and high power output. The higher mass flow at low engine speeds of an engine using scavenging allows a partial solution of this trade-off. Thus, higher downsizing grades and fuel consumption reduction potential can be obtained. Through scavenging the global fuel to air ratio deviates from the local in-cylinder fuel to air ratio. It is possible to use a rich in-cylinder fuel to air ratio, whereas the global fuel to air ratio remains stochiometrical. This could be very beneficial to reduce the effect of catalytic aging on the one hand and engine knock on the other hand.
Technical Paper

Virtual Set-up of a Racing Engine for the Optimization of Lap Performance through a Comprehensive Engine-Vehicle-Driver Model

In Motorsports the understanding of the real engine performance within a complete circuit lap is a crucial topic. On the basis of the telemetry data the engineers are able to monitor this performance and try to adapt the engine to the vehicle's and race track's characteristics and driver's needs. However, quite often the telemetry is the sole analysis instrument for the Engine-Vehicle-Driver (EVD) system and it has no prediction capability. The engine optimization for best lap-time or best fuel economy is therefore a topic which is not trivial to solve, without the aid of suitable, reliable and predictive engineering tools. A complete EVD model was therefore built in a GT-SUITE™ environment for a Motorsport racing car (STCC-VW-Scirocco) equipped with a Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) turbocharged S.I. engine and calibrated on the basis of telemetry and test bench data.
Technical Paper

A Novel CFD Approach for an Improved Prediction of Particulate Emissions in GDI Engines by Considering the Spray-Cooling on the Piston

The emission of particulate matter from future GDI engines has to be optimized, to comply with more stringent emission standards such as EU6. Therefore, the mechanisms responsible for the formation of particles have to be analyzed in detail. The understanding of the in-cylinder processes, necessary for this purpose, can only be achieved by a complementary use of optically accessible single-cylinder engines as well as the numerical simulation. This however leads to great demands on the 3D flow simulation. In this paper the complete CFD approach, incorporating a detailed description of the entire underlying model chain is shown. Particularly the wall surface temperature and the temperature drop due to the interaction with liquid fuel spray were identified as important parameters influencing the spray-wall interaction and thus also the particulate emissions. Nevertheless, in conventional CFD models, the spray cooling cannot be captured because of an assumed constant wall temperature.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Investigations of High-Performance SI-Engines by Means of 3D-CFD Simulations

Comparative analyses of a high-performance 4-cylinder DISI-engine and its equivalent single-cylinder research engine were performed by means of fast response 3D-CFD simulations. Both engines have identical geometries of intake and exhaust channels, cylinder head and piston. The used 3D-CFD tool QuickSim was developed at the Forschungsinstitut für Kraftfahrwesen und Fahrzeugmotoren Stuttgart (FKFS), particularly for the numerical simulation of internal combustion engines (ICE). A calibration of the air consumption enabled a comparison of in-cylinder processes, including charge motion, mixture formation and combustion. All calculated operating points showed a similar trend. Deviations during the gas exchange phase led to a higher turbulence level and hence combustion velocity for the single-cylinder research engine. This resulted in a slightly higher maximum cylinder pressure and indicated mean effective pressure.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Simulation of Hybrid Powertrains using Different Combustion Engine Models

This study presents a comparison of different approaches for the simulation of HEV fuel consumption. For this purpose a detailed 1D-CFD model within an HEV drivetrain is compared to a ‘traditional’ map-based combustion engine model as well as different types of simplified engine models which are able to reduce computing time significantly while keeping the model accuracy at a high level. First, a simplified air path model (fast running model) is coupled with a quasi dimensional, predictive combustion model. In a further step of reducing the computation time, an alternative way of modeling the in cylinder processes was evaluated, by replacing the combustion model with a mean value model. For this approach, the most important influencing factors of the 1D-CFD air path model (temperature, pressure, A/F-ratio) are used as input values into neural nets, while the corresponding outputs are in turn used as feedback for the air path model.
Technical Paper

Presenting a Fourier-Based Air Path Model for Real-Time Capable Engine Simulation Enhanced by a Semi-Physical NO-Emission Model with a High Degree of Predictability

Longitudinal models are used to evaluate different vehicle-engine concepts with respect to driving behavior and emissions. The engine is generally map-based. An explicit calculation of both fluid dynamics inside the engine air path and cylinder combustion is not considered due to long computing times. Particularly for dynamic certification cycles (WLTC, US06 etc.), dynamic engine effects severely influence the quality of results. Hence, an evaluation of transient engine behavior with map-based engine models is restricted to a certain extent. The coupling of detailed 1D-engine models is an alternative, which rapidly increases the model computation time to approximately 300 times higher than that of real time. In many technical areas, the Fourier transformation (FT) method is applied, which makes it possible to represent superimposed oscillations by their sinusoidal harmonic oscillations of different orders.
Technical Paper

A Quasi-Dimensional Charge Motion and Turbulence Model for Diesel Engines with a Fully Variable Valve Train

With the increasingly strict emission regulations and economic demands, variable valve trains are gaining in importance in Diesel engines. A valve control strategy has a great impact on the in-cylinder charge motions, turbulence level, thus also on the combustion and emission formation. In order to predict in-cylinder charge motions and turbulence properties for a working process calculation, a zero−/quasi-dimensional flow model is developed for the Diesel engines with a fully variable valve train. For the purpose of better understanding the in-cylinder flow phenomena, detailed 3D CFD simulations of intake and compression strokes are performed at different operating conditions with various piston configurations. In the course of model development, global in-cylinder charge motions are assigned to idealized flow fields. Among them, swirl flow is characterized by an engine swirl number that is determined by both developments of the swirl angular momentum and the moment of inertia.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Autoignition, Knock and Combustion for Methane-Based Fuels

Engine Knock is a stochastic phenomenon that occurs during the regular combustion of spark ignition (SI) engines and limits its efficiency. Knock is triggered by an autoignition of local “hot spots” in the unburned zone, ahead of the flame front. Regarding chemical kinetics, the temperature and pressure history as well as the knock resistance of the fuel are the main driver for the autoignition process. In this paper, a new knock modeling approach for natural gas blends is presented. It is based on a kinetic fit for the ignition delay times that has been derived from chemical kinetics simulations. The knock model is coupled with an enhanced burn rate model that was modified for Methane-based fuels. The two newly developed models are incorporated in a predictive 0D/1D simulation tool that provides a cost-effective method for the development of natural gas powered SI engines.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection Analysis with a Fast Response 3D-CFD Tool

Main limiting factor in the application of 3D-CFD simulations within an engine development is the very high time demand, which is predominantly influenced by the number of cells within the computational mesh. Arbitrary cell coarsening, however, results in a distinct distortion of the simulation outcome. It is rather necessary to adapt the calculation models to the new mesh structure in order to ensure reliability and predictability of the 3D-CFD engine simulation. In the last decade, a fast response 3D-CFD tool was developed at FKFS in Stuttgart. It aims for a harmonized interaction between computational mesh, implemented calculation models and defined boundary conditions in order to enable fast running simulations for engine development tasks. Their susceptibility to errors is significantly minimized by various measures, e.g. extension of the simulation domain (full engine) and multi-cycle simulations.
Technical Paper

A Downsized, Turbocharged Natural Gas SI Engine - Including Hybridization - For Minimized CO2 Emissions

To demonstrate the potential of a CO2-minimized propulsion concept a study of a natural-gas, micro-hybrid powertrain was carried out. The basis was built by experimental investigations of a turbocharged 1.0-l, 3-cylinder engine operated at stoichiometric and lean air/fuel ratio with EGR and an optimized combustion strategy. With the results of this study a still existing model for micro-hybrid vehicles was filled and the CO2 emissions for several concepts were calculated. It could be shown that CO2 improvements of 30 to 40% for the IC engine and up to 50% for the complete micro-hybrid propulsion system accompanied with better driveability are possible.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Engine Heat-Transfer Calculation in the Three-Dimensional Simulation Using a Phenomenological Heat-Transfer Model

Improvement of heat-transfer calculation for SI-engines in the three-dimensional simulation has been achieved and widely been tested by using a phenomenological heat-transfer model. The model is based on the local application of an improved Re-Nu-correlation (dimensional analysis) proposed by Bargende [1]. This approach takes advantage of long experience in engine heat transfer modeling in the real working process analysis. The results of numerous simulations of different engine meshes show that the proposed heat-transfer model enables to calculate the overall as well as the local heat transfer in good agreement with both real working process analyses and experimental investigations. The influence of the mesh structure has also been remarkably reduced and compared to the standard wall function approach, no additional CPU-time is required.
Technical Paper

A Hydrodynamic Contact Algorithm

Today, mechanical systems such as the piston groups of internal combustion engines are simulated using Multiple Body-System (MBS) - approaches. However, the use of these models is restricted to a few problems as their adaptability is limited. The simulation of mechanical systems only by means of finite elements shows great promise for the future. In order to consider lubrication effects between two touching bodies of a mechanical system, a hydrodynamic contact algorithm (HCA) for finite element (FE) applications was developed. This paper discusses the technical background and first results for the simulation of a piston group using this new approach.
Technical Paper

Investigation on Mixture Formation and Combustion Process in a CNG-Engine by Using a Fast Response 3D-CFD-Simulation

The research institute FKFS in cooperation with the IVK Universität Stuttgart has recently presented QuickSim, a 3D-CFD-tool, that works integrated into the commercial 3D-CFD-code Star-CD. QuickSim has been developed to cover a vacancy in the market of simulation programs for engine development. The code introduces a new concept in the 3D-CFD-simulation of internal combustion engines (SI-Manifold-Injection and SI-GDI), that drastically reduces the CPU-time in comparison to a conventional 3D-CFD-simulation. QuickSim, as a 3D-CFD-tool, combines the advantages of local resolution of the fluid-dynamical field of internal combustion engines exactly like that provided by traditional 3D-CFD-simulations and the versatility and clearness of the real working-process analysis (WP) and of the full 1D-flow calculations. The CPU-time always remains in an acceptable range (few hours over a full operating cycle for a single-processor computing simulation).
Technical Paper

Direct Coupled 1D/3D-CFD-Computation (GT-Power/Star-CD) of the Flow in the Switch-Over Intake System of an 8-Cylinder SI Engine with External Exhaust Gas Recirculation

The setting of boundary conditions on the boundaries of a 3D-CFD grid under certain conditions is a source of significant errors. The latter might occur by numerical reflection of pressure waves on the boundary or by incorrect setting of the chemical composition of the gas mixture in recirculation zones (e.g. in the intake manifold of internal combustion engines when the burnt gas from the cylinder enters the intake manifold and passes the boundary of the CDF-grid. When the flow direction is changed the setting of pure new charge on the boundary leads to errors). This type of problems should receive attention in operation points with low engine speed and load. The direct coupling of a 3D-CFD program (Star-CD) with a 1D-CFD program (GT-Power) is done by integration of the 3D-grid of the engine component as a „CFD-component” of the 1D computational model of a complete engine.
Journal Article

3D-CFD Virtual Engine Test Bench of a 1.6 Liter Turbo-Charged GDI-Race-Engine with Focus on Fuel Injection

In the last years motorsport is facing a technical revolution concerning the engine technology in every category, from touring car championships up to the F1. The strategy of the car manufacturers to bring motorsport engine technology closer to mass production one (e.g. turbo-charging, downsizing and direct injection) allows both to reduce development costs and to create a better image and technology transfer by linking motorsport activities to the daily business. Under these requirements the so-called Global Race Engine (GRE) concept has been introduced, giving the possibility to use one unique engine platform concept as basis for different engine specifications and racing categories. In order to optimize the performance of this kind of engines, especially due to the highly complex mixture formation mechanisms related to the direct injection, it is nowadays mandatory to resort to reliable 3D-CFD simulations.
Journal Article

Optimal Control based Calibration of Rule-Based Energy Management for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles

In this paper a rule-based energy management for parallel hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) is presented, which is based on the principles describing the optimal control behavior. Therefore we first show the general relations that can be used to describe the optimal limit of electric driving as well as the optimal torque split among the two propulsion systems. Subsequently these relations are employed to derive maps, which represent the optimal behavior depending on several input parameters. These maps are then used as inputs for the rules in the proposed energy management. This not only makes it possible to automatically calibrate the rule-based controller but also gives the optimal control in every driving situation. Given it is not fuel-efficient to turn the internal combustion engine (ICE) on or off for short intervals, it is further shown how this approach allows to adjust the established limit for electric driving by additional rules.
Journal Article

Investigation of the Parameters Influencing the Spray-Wall Interaction in a GDI Engine - Prerequisite for the Prediction of Particulate Emissions by Numerical Simulation

Due to the EU6 emission standard that will be mandatory starting in September 2014 the particulate emissions of GDI engines come into the focus of development. For this reason, soot and the mechanisms responsible for the soot formation are of particular importance. A very significant source of particulate emissions from engines with gasoline direct injection is the wall film formation. Therefore, the analysis of soot emission sources in the CFD calculation requires a detailed description of the entire underlying model chain, with special emphasis on the spray-wall interaction and the wall film dynamics. The validation of the mentioned spray-wall interaction and wall film models is performed using basic experimental investigations, like the infrared-thermography and fluorescence based measurements conducted at the University of Magdeburg.
Journal Article

A New Approach for Modeling Cycle-to-Cycle Variations within the Framework of a Real Working-Process Simulation

For a reliable and accurate simulation of SI engines reproduction of their operation limits (misfiring and knock limit) and in this context the knowledge of cyclic combustion variations and their influence on knock simulation are mandatory. For this purpose in this paper a real working-process simulation approach for the ability to predict cycle-to-cycle variations (ccv) of gasoline engines is proposed. An extensive measurement data base of four different test engines applying various operation strategies was provided in order to gain a better understanding of the physical background of the cyclic variations. So the ccv initiated by dilution strategies (internal EGR, lean operation), the ccv at full load and at the knock limit could be investigated in detail. Finally, the model was validated on the basis of three further engines which were not part of the actual development process.
Journal Article

In-Situ Measurements of the Piston and Connecting Rod Dynamics Correlated with TEHL-Simulation Techniques

High combustion pressure in combination with high pressure gradient, as they e.g. can be evoked by high efficient combustion systems and e.g. by alternative fuels, acts as broadband excitation force which stimulates natural vibrations of piston, connecting rod and crankshaft during engine operation. Starting from the combustion chamber the assembly of piston, connecting rod and crankshaft and the main bearings represent the system of internal vibration transfer. To generate exact input and validation values for simulation models of structural dynamic and elasto-hydrodynamic coupled multi-body systems, experimental investigations are done. These are carried out on a 1.5-l inline four cylinder Euro 6 Diesel engine. The modal behaviour of the system was examined in detail in simulation and test as a basis for the investigations. In an anechoic test bench airborne and structure-borne noises and combustion pressure are measured to identify the engine´s vibrational behaviour.