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Technical Paper

Ideal homogeneous combustion versus partly homogeneous combustion for PC diesel engines

2007-09-16
2007-24-0016
Because of its outstanding efficiency, the direct-injection diesel engine is the preferred drive source in many fields. However, its emission behavior, especially with regard to particulate and nitrogen-oxide emissions, is problematic. A promising approach to reducing emissions inside the engine is presented by various (partially) homogeneous diesel combustion processes, which use suitable mixture formation and combustion management to prevent the formation of nitrogen-oxide and soot. In this paper, starting out from an ideally homogeneous combustion process with manifold injection, two further partially homogeneous combustion processes with internal mixture formation are examined. With regard to the maximum obtainable indicated mean effective pressure and the combustion noise, the ideally homogeneous combustion process proved - in the examined configuration - not to be desirable.
Technical Paper

Fundamentals of Pressure Trace Analysis for Gasoline Engines with Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition

2010-10-25
2010-01-2182
Regarding further development of gasoline engines several new technologies are investigated in order to diminish pollutant emissions and particularly fuel consumption. The Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) seems to be a promising way to reach these targets. Therefore, in the past years there had been a lot of experimental efforts in this field of combustion system engineering. Negative valve overlap with pilot injection before pumping top dead center (PTDC) and an “intermediate” compression and combustion during PTDC, followed by the main injection after PTDC, is one way to realize and to proper control a HCCI operation. For conventional CI and SI combustion the pressure trace analysis (PTA) is a powerful and widely used tool to analyse, understand and optimize the combustion process.
Technical Paper

A Way towards Remarkable Reduction of Co2-Emissions in Motorsports: The CNG-Engine

2011-06-09
2011-37-0006
Until a few years ago the discussion of reduction of CO₂ emissions was completely out of place in motorsports. Nowadays, also in this field, car manufacturers want to investigate different approaches towards a more responsible and sustainable concept. For this target an interesting and feasible solution is the use of methane as an alternative fuel. At the 2009 edition of the 24-hour endurance race of the Nürburgring the Volkswagen Motorsport GmbH, in addition to vehicles powered by gasoline engines, introduced two vehicles powered by turbocharged CNG engines. The aim was to prove that also an "environment-friendly" concept is able to provide the required efficiency, dynamic and reliability for a successful participation in motorsports. After the success in the 2009 edition the engagement has been continued in 2010; this time exclusively with CNG vehicles.
Technical Paper

Potentials of Phlegmatization in Diesel Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2011-06-09
2011-37-0018
An approach for model-based control strategy design for diesel hybrid drive-trains has been developed, permitting the reduction of fuel consumption as well as of exhaust gas emissions. The control strategy consists of four core-functions: the SOC-management, the operation mode determination, the gear selection, and the thermal monitoring. Based on those different interpretations, a control strategy can be designed that leads to great reductions in fuel consumption or alternatively to a mentionable decline of nitrous oxides. In this trade-off, both aims can not be optimized at a time. Though, the strategy to be used is a compromise, designs for control strategies are possible that reduce both for a significant amount. Extending this control strategy by adding functions for transient behavior at start-up and load changes; phlegmatization enables additional potentials for emission reduction.
Technical Paper

Improvement of a High-Performance CNG-Engine Based on an innovative Virtual Development Process

2011-09-11
2011-24-0140
Methane as an alternative fuel in motorsports? Actually this solution is well known for the reduction of CO₂ emissions but apparently it does not really awake race feelings. At the 2009 edition of the 24-hour endurance race on the Nürburgring the Volkswagen Motorsport GmbH, in addition to vehicles powered by gasoline engines, introduced two vehicles powered by innovative turbo-charged CNG engines for the first time. The aim was to prove, that also an "environment-friendly" concept is able to provide the required efficiency, dynamic and reliability for a successful participation in motorsports. After the success in the 2009 edition the engagement has been continued also in 2010, this time exclusively with CNG vehicles. Focusing on the CO₂ emission, reclusively the higher hydrogen content of methane which represents the main component of NG leads to a CO₂ reduction during the combustion of about 20% compared to gasoline.
Technical Paper

Virtual Set-up of a Racing Engine for the Optimization of Lap Performance through a Comprehensive Engine-Vehicle-Driver Model

2011-09-11
2011-24-0141
In Motorsports the understanding of the real engine performance within a complete circuit lap is a crucial topic. On the basis of the telemetry data the engineers are able to monitor this performance and try to adapt the engine to the vehicle's and race track's characteristics and driver's needs. However, quite often the telemetry is the sole analysis instrument for the Engine-Vehicle-Driver (EVD) system and it has no prediction capability. The engine optimization for best lap-time or best fuel economy is therefore a topic which is not trivial to solve, without the aid of suitable, reliable and predictive engineering tools. A complete EVD model was therefore built in a GT-SUITE™ environment for a Motorsport racing car (STCC-VW-Scirocco) equipped with a Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) turbocharged S.I. engine and calibrated on the basis of telemetry and test bench data.
Journal Article

Novel Transient Wall Heat Transfer Approach for the Start-up of SI Engines with Gasoline Direct Injection

2010-04-12
2010-01-1270
The introduction of CO₂-reduction technologies like Start-Stop or the Hybrid-Powertrain and the future emissions limits require a detailed optimization of the engine start-up. The combustion concept development as well as the calibration of the ECU makes an explicit thermodynamic analysis of the combustion process during the start-up necessary. Initially, the well-known thermodynamic analysis of in-cylinder pressure at stationary condition was transmitted to the highly non-stationary engine start-up. There, the current models for calculation of the transient wall heat fluxes were found to be misleading. But with a fraction of nearly 45% of the burned fuel energy, the wall heat is very important for the calculation of energy balance and for the combustion process analysis.
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation of a Global Reaction Model for a Range of Gasolines and Kerosenes under HCCI Conditions

2011-09-11
2011-24-0024
Compact and computationally efficient reaction models capable of accurately predicting ignition delay and heat release rates are a prerequisite for the development of strategies to control and optimize HCCI engines. In particular for full boiling range fuels exhibiting two-stage ignition a tremendous demand exists in the engine development community. To this end, in a previous investigation, a global reaction mechanism was developed and fitted to data from shock tube experiments for n-heptane and five full boiling range fuels. By means of a genetic algorithm, for each of these fuels, a set of reaction rate parameters (consisting of pre-exponential factors, activation energies and concentration exponents) has been defined, without any change to the model form.
Technical Paper

Quasi-dimensional and Empirical Modeling of Compression-Ignition Engine Combustion and Emissions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0151
Two combustion models are presented: A quasi-dimensional approach, based on the injection shape and an empirical model. Both models have computation times of less than one second per cycle. The quasi-dimensional approach for CI combustion discretizes the injection jet in slices. Pilot-injections are modeled as separate zones. The forecast capability and the limitations of the model are discussed on the basis of measurements. Mentioned above the base of the quasi-dimensional model is the injection rate. Often it is difficult to obtain these data. There is therefore another empirical approach for combustion, which does not need the injection rate as input. Both models have to be calibrated. This can be done by an automatic calibration tool on the basis of the advanced Powell method. The differences and advantages compared with other optimization methods are shown. Emission-simulation models are highly important in simulating CI engines.
Journal Article

The Development of an Highly Modular Designed Zero-Dimensional Engine Process Calculation Code

2010-04-12
2010-01-0149
The main objective of the FVV-project “Cylinder Module” was the development of a profoundly modular designed concept for object-oriented modeling of in-cylinder processes of internal combustion engines. It was designed in such a way, that it can either be used as a stand-alone real working-process calculation tool or in tools for whole vehicle simulations. It is possible to run the “Cylinder Module”-code inside the FVV-“GPA”-software for transient vehicle and driving cycle simulations and it is possible to use the graphical user interface “ATMOS” of the “GPA”-project. The code can also be used as a user-subroutine in 1-D-flow simulation codes. Much effort was spent on the requirements of flexibility and expandability in order to be well prepared to cope with the diversity of both today's and future tasks. The code is freely available for members of the German Research Association for Combustion Engines (FVV).
Journal Article

Quasi-Dimensional Modeling of CI-Combustion with Multiple Pilot- and Post Injections

2010-04-12
2010-01-0150
A new phenomenological CI combustion model was developed. Within this model the given injection rate may contain an arbitrary number of injections during one cycle. Another target was a short computation time of one second per cycle on average. The new approach should also have the ability to simulate a wide engine spectrum from passenger-car engines through to marine engines. The ignition delay is calculated separately for each single injection. In this way the model depicts the influence of pilot injections on the ignition delay of proximate injections. Each pilot injection is modeled as a single air-fuel mixture cloud with air entrainment. The burn rate of the pilot injection is modeled as a function of flame propagation and of the current local excess air ratio. If the local excess air ratio becomes too lean the pilot combustion stops or does not start at all. Main and post-injections are calculated by means of a slice approach.
Technical Paper

Development Approach for the Investigation of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition in a Free-Piston Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0047
In this paper the development approach and the results of numerical and experimental investigations on homogeneous charge compression ignition in a free piston engine are presented. The Free Piston Linear Generator (FPLG) is a new type of internal combustion engine designed for the application in a hybrid electric vehicle. The highly integrated system consists of a two-stroke combustion unit, a linear generator, and a mass-variable gas spring. These three subsystems are arranged longitudinally in a double piston configuration. The system oscillates linearly between the combustion chamber and the gas spring, while electrical energy is extracted by the centrally arranged linear generator. The mass-variable gas spring is used as intermediate energy storage between the downstroke and upstroke. Due to this arrangement piston stroke and compression ratio are no longer determined by a mechanical system.
Technical Paper

Development of a Measurement Technology in Order to Determine the Dynamic Behavior of a Two-Stage Variable Connecting Rod

2018-04-15
2018-01-5002
Variation of the geometric compression ratio in gasoline combustion engines during engine operation enables potential for decreasing fuel consumption as well as emissions. One way to achieve a variable geometric compression ratio (VCR) is the application of a connecting rod with a variable effective length between its large end and its small end. Such a system consists of a connecting rod body with an eccentrically supported piston pin and a linkage which is supported hydraulically. Therefore, the connecting rod evolves from a solid part to a complex assembly of mechanical and hydraulic parts. In order to deploy this system in the most efficient way, an understanding of the physics and the dynamic behavior of the VCR connecting rod is necessary. This includes the mechanical subsystem as well as the hydraulic subsystem. This paper describes the experimental examination of a two stage variable connecting rod.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Studies on Mixture Formation with an Outward-Opening Nozzle in a SI Engine with CNG-DI

2016-04-05
2016-01-0801
CNG direct injection is a promising technology to promote the acceptance of natural gas engines. Among the beneficial properties of CNG, like reduced pollutants and CO2 emissions, the direct injection contributes to a higher volumetric efficiency and thus to a better driveability, one of the most limiting drawbacks of today’s CNG vehicles. But such a combustion concept increases the demands on the injection system and mixture formation. Among other things it requires a much higher flow rate at low injection pressure. This can be only provided by an outward-opening nozzle due to its large cross-section. Nevertheless its hollow cone jet with a specific propagation behavior leads to an adverse fuel-air distribution especially at higher loads under scavenging conditions. This paper covers numerical and experimental analysis of CNG direct injection to understand its mixture formation.
Technical Paper

Development of a Fast, Predictive Burn Rate Model for Gasoline-HCCI

2016-04-05
2016-01-0569
Operating gasoline engines at part load in a so-called Gasoline-HCCI (gHCCI) combustion mode has shown promising results in terms of improved efficiency and reduced emissions. So far, research has primarily been focused on experimental investigations on the test bench, whereas fast, predictive burn rate models for use in process calculation have not been available. Such a phenomenological model is henceforth presented. It describes the current burn rate as the sum of a sequential self-ignition process on the one hand and a laminar-turbulent flame propagation on the other hand. The first mechanism is essentially represented by ignition delay calculation, in which the reaction rate is computed separately for some hundred groups of different temperatures based on the Arrhenius equation. Thermal inhomogeneity is described by a contaminated normal distribution which accounts for the influence of wall temperature on mixture close to the cylinder wall.
Technical Paper

Transient Simulation of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions of CI Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-1002
This paper presents a quasi-dimensional emission model for calculating the transient nitric oxide emissions of a diesel engine. Using conventional and high-speed measurement technology, steady-state and transient emissions of a V6 diesel engine were examined. Based on measured load steps and steady-state measurements a direct influence of the combustion chamber wall temperature on the nitric oxide emissions was found. Load steps to and from, as well as steady-state measurements down to almost stoichiometric global combustion air ratios were used to examine the behavior of nitric oxide formation under these operating conditions. An existing emission model was expanded in order to represent the direct influence of the combustion chamber wall temperature on the nitric oxide emissions as well as enabling the forecasting of nitric oxide emissions at low global combustion air ratios: Both particularly important aspects for the simulation of transient emissions.
Journal Article

Development of an Innovative Combustion Process: Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition

2017-09-04
2017-24-0147
In the competition for the powertrain of the future the internal combustion engine faces tough challenges. Reduced environmental impact, higher mileage, lower cost and new technologies are required in order to maintain its global position both in public and private mobility. For a long time, researchers have been investigating the so called Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) that promises a higher efficiency due to a rapid combustion - i.e. closer to the ideal thermodynamic Otto cycle - and therefore more work and lower exhaust gas temperatures. Consequently, a rich mixture to cool down the turbocharger under high load may no longer be needed. As the combustion does not have a distinguished flame front it is able to burn very lean mixtures, with the potential of reducing HC and CO emissions. However, until recently, HCCI was considered to be reasonably applicable only at part load operating conditions.
Journal Article

In-Situ Measurements of the Piston and Connecting Rod Dynamics Correlated with TEHL-Simulation Techniques

2017-09-04
2017-24-0157
High combustion pressure in combination with high pressure gradient, as they e.g. can be evoked by high efficient combustion systems and e.g. by alternative fuels, acts as broadband excitation force which stimulates natural vibrations of piston, connecting rod and crankshaft during engine operation. Starting from the combustion chamber the assembly of piston, connecting rod and crankshaft and the main bearings represent the system of internal vibration transfer. To generate exact input and validation values for simulation models of structural dynamic and elasto-hydrodynamic coupled multi-body systems, experimental investigations are done. These are carried out on a 1.5-l inline four cylinder Euro 6 Diesel engine. The modal behaviour of the system was examined in detail in simulation and test as a basis for the investigations. In an anechoic test bench airborne and structure-borne noises and combustion pressure are measured to identify the engine´s vibrational behaviour.
Journal Article

Two-Stage Ignition Occurrence in the End Gas and Modeling Its Influence on Engine Knock

2017-09-04
2017-24-0001
The most significant operation limit prohibiting the further reduction of the CO2 emissions of gasoline engines is the occurrence of knock. Thus, being able to predict the incidence of this phenomenon is of vital importance for the engine process simulation - a tool widely used in the engine development. Common knock models in the 0D/1D simulation are based on the calculation of a pre-reaction state of the unburnt mixture (also called knock integral), which is a simplified approach for modeling the progress of the chemical reactions in the end gas where knock occurs. Simulations of thousands of knocking single working cycles with a model representing the Entrainment model’s unburnt zone were performed using a detailed chemical reaction mechanism. The investigations showed that, at specific boundary conditions, the auto-ignition of the unburnt mixture resulting in knock happens in two stages.
Technical Paper

A Downsized, Turbocharged Natural Gas SI Engine - Including Hybridization - For Minimized CO2 Emissions

2005-09-11
2005-24-026
To demonstrate the potential of a CO2-minimized propulsion concept a study of a natural-gas, micro-hybrid powertrain was carried out. The basis was built by experimental investigations of a turbocharged 1.0-l, 3-cylinder engine operated at stoichiometric and lean air/fuel ratio with EGR and an optimized combustion strategy. With the results of this study a still existing model for micro-hybrid vehicles was filled and the CO2 emissions for several concepts were calculated. It could be shown that CO2 improvements of 30 to 40% for the IC engine and up to 50% for the complete micro-hybrid propulsion system accompanied with better driveability are possible.
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