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Technical Paper

Mass Efficient Cross-Sections Using Dual Phase Steels For Axial and Bending Crushes

2007-04-16
2007-01-0978
Because of their excellent crash energy absorption capacity, dual phase (DP) steels are gradually replacing conventional High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA) steels for critical crash components in order to meet the more stringent vehicle crash safety regulations. To achieve optimal axial and bending crush performance using DP steels for crash components designed for crash energy absorption and/or intrusion resistance applications, the cross sections need to be optimized. Correlated crush simulation models were employed for the cross-section study. The models were developed using non-linear finite element code LS-DYNA and correlated to dynamic and quasi-static axial and bending crush tests on hexagonal and octagonal cross-sections made of DP590 steel. Several design concepts were proposed, the axial and bending crush performance in DP780 and DP980 were compared, and the potential mass savings were discussed.
Technical Paper

Influence of AHSS Part Geometric Features on Crash Behavior

2006-04-03
2006-01-1588
Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) are replacing conventional high strength low-alloyed steels (HSLA) in crash sensitive body in white (BIW) applications. Along with innovative product design, they offer superior crash energy management and vehicle weight reduction potential. However, Controlling springback and dimensional accuracy is one of the major concerns in manufacturing AHSS parts. One of the most effective springback control techniques is to design a part with added geometric features such as side stiffening beads, state beads, top hat beads, and embossments, etc. at the product design stage. On the other hand, product design communities tend to believe that the above listed features may result in premature crash initiation in the part. This paper uses an innovative and experimentally verified finite element method (FEM) for crash sensitive component design and optimization.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Studies of Crash Trigger Sensitivity in Frontal Impact

2005-04-11
2005-01-0355
Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) along with innovative design and manufacturing processes are effective ways to improve crash energy management. Crash trigger hole is another technology which can been used on front rails for controlling crash buckling mode, avoiding crash mode instability and minimizing variations in crash mode due to imperfections in materials, part geometry, manufacturing, and assembly processes etc. In this study, prototyped crash columns with different trigger hole shapes, sizes and locations were physically tested in frontal crash impact tests. A corresponding crash computer simulation model was then created to perform the correlation study. The testing data, such as crash force-displacement curves and dynamic crash modes, were used to verify the FEA crash model and to study the trigger sensitivity and effects on front rail crash performance.
Technical Paper

A Benchmark Test for Springback: Experimental Procedures and Results of a Slit-Ring Test

2005-04-11
2005-01-0083
Experimental procedures and results of a benchmark test for springback are reported and a complete suite of obtained data is provided for the validation of forming and springback simulation software. The test is usually referred as the Slit-Ring test where a cylindrical cup is first formed by deep drawing and then a ring is cut from the mid-section of the cup. The opening of the ring upon slitting releases the residual stresses in the formed cup and provides a valuable set of easy-to-measure, easy-to-characterize springback data. The test represents a realistic deep draw stamping operation with stretching and bending deformation, and is highly repeatable in a laboratory environment. In this study, six different automotive materials are evaluated.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of the Response of HSLA and Dual Phase Sheet Steel in Dynamic Crush

2001-10-16
2001-01-3101
Continuing pressure to reduce mass and cost of vehicles is driving the development of new high strength steel products with improved combinations of strength and formability. Galvanized, cold rolled dual phase steel products are new alternatives to conventional high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel for strength limited applications in vehicles. These steels have higher tensile strengths than HSLA products with nearly equivalent formability. This paper compares the performance of HSLA and dual phase sheet steel products in a series of drop tower tests. Samples were prepared by stamping the steel sheets into typical rail-type parts using a production-intent die process. The parts were sectioned, and subsequently fabricated into hat-shaped assemblies that were then dynamically crushed by a drop weight. The experiments were designed such that the entire energy input by the drop weight was absorbed by the samples.
Technical Paper

On Formability Assessment of the Automotive Dual Phase Steels

2001-10-16
2001-01-3075
The issue of improving car crash energy management and maintaining cost and weight reduction are the driving forces behind the growing use of advanced high strength steels, particularly in Europe and Japan. Recent developments in the manufacture of high strength steel (HSS) sheets in North America, in particular Dual Phase (DP) steels, offers an attractive option to the automotive designer for weight reduction and improved safety performance. For example, the use of dual phase steels, as opposed to more conventional steel products such as high strength low alloys (HSLA), in some cases may result in up to 40% part weight reduction at similar vehicle crash performance. In this paper the formability of commercially produced hot-dipped dual phase steels of various gages and grades is assessed. Forming Limit Curves (FLCs) are determined for commercial DP590 and DP780 grades. These FLCs were compared to the conventional ASM FLCs calculated from n-value and sheet thickness.
Technical Paper

Springback Prediction Improvement Using New Simulation Technologies

2009-04-20
2009-01-0981
Springback is a major concern in stamping of advanced high strength steels (AHSS). The existing computer simulation technology has difficulty predicting this phenomenon accurately even though it is well developed for formability simulations. Great efforts made in recent years to improve springback predictions have achieved noticeable progress in the computational capability and accuracy. In this work, springback simulation studies are conducted using FEA software LS-DYNA®. Various parametric sensitivity studies are carried out and key variables affecting the springback prediction accuracy are identified. Recently developed simulation technologies in LS-DYNA® are implemented including dynamic effect minimization, smooth tool contact and newly developed nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening material models. Case studies on lab-scale and full-scale industrial parts are provided and the predicted springback results are compared to the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Development of Shear Fracture Criterion for Dual-Phase Steel Stamping

2009-04-20
2009-01-1172
Forming Limit Diagrams (FLD) have been widely and successfully used in sheet metal stamping as a failure criterion to detect localized necking, which is the most common failure mechanism for conventional steels during forming. However, recent experience from stamping Dual-Phase steels found that, under certain circumstances such as stretching-bend over a small die radius, the sheet metal fails earlier than that predicted by the FLD based on the initiation of a localized neck. It appears that a different failure mechanism and mode are in effect, commonly referred to as “shear fracture” in the sheet metal stamping community. In this paper, experimental and numerical analysis is used to investigate the shear fracture mechanism. Numerical models are established for a stretch-bend test on DP780 steel with a wide range of bend radii for various failure modes. The occurrences of shear fracture are identified by correlating numerical simulation results with test data.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Effects of Frame Trigger Hole Location on Crash Behavior

2005-04-11
2005-01-0702
The front rail plays a very important role in vehicle crash. Trigger holes are commonly used to control frame crush mode due to their simple manufacturing process and flexibility for late changes in the product development phase. Therefore, a study, including CAE and testing, was conducted on a production front rail to understand the effects of trigger hole shape, size and orientation. The trigger hole location in the front rail also affects crash performance. Therefore, the effect of trigger hole location on front rail crash behavior was studied, and understanding these effects is the main objective of this study. A tapered front rail produced from 1.7 mm thick DP600 steel was used for the trigger hole location investigation. Front rails with different trigger spacing and sizes were tested using VIA sled test facility and the crash progress was simulated using a commercial code RADIOSS. The strain rate, welding and forming effects were incorporated in the front rail modeling.
Technical Paper

A Failure Criterion for Stretch Bendability of Advanced High Strength Steels

2006-04-03
2006-01-0349
Studies in an Angular Stretch Bend Test (ASBT) have demonstrated that the failure location moves from the side wall to punch nose area. This occurs as the R/T ratio decreases below a certain limit and applies to most low carbon steels with the exception of Dual Phase (DP) steels. Such behavior in DP steels indicates that bending effects have a severe impact on the formability of DP materials. Therefore, the traditional criterion using the forming limit curve (FLC) is not suitable to assess the formability at punch radius areas for DP steels due in part to its uniqueness of unconventional microstructures. In this paper, a new failure criterion, ‘Bending-modified’ FLC (BFLC), is proposed by extending the traditional FLC using the “Stretch Bendability Index” (SBI) concept for the stretch bendability assessment.
Technical Paper

Studies on Edge Strain Hardening Produced by Trimming Operations

2013-04-08
2013-01-1774
Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are widely used in the automotive industry for various applications especially for structural and safety parts. One of the concerns for AHSS in stamping operations is edge fracture originating from sheared blanked edges. This type of failure cannot be predicted by computer simulations using the conventional forming limit as the failure criterion. The reason for this is that edge damage produced by the blanking operation is not incorporated into the computer models to properly simulate the material edge formability. This study presents a method to evaluate edge damage in terms of the residual stress at the sheared edge produced by the blanking operation. The method uses the level and distribution of edge strain hardening (ESH) through the material thickness as an index to characterize the edge damage caused by the shearing operation.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity of Material Constitutive Parameters in Sheet Metal Forming Simulations

1998-09-29
982300
Material constitutive modeling is an important aspect in the continuous improvement process for sheet metal forming simulation and analysis. In this study, a sensitivity study of material constitutive parameters on forming simulation results is carried out for two different sheet metal parts. Three different yield criteria are evaluated in the simulation including isotropic yield criterion, Hill's 1948 anisotropic yield criterion and Barlat's non-quadratic anisotropic yield criterion. It is found that the forming results depend upon the yield criterion used in the simulation. Both thinning and stress in the formed part are very sensitive to the change in anisotropy value (r-value). Effects of strain rate sensitivity of a material on forming results are demostrated through the use of two different stress and strain data from different tensile speeds. It is also found that forming results such as thinning are very sensitive to the strain hardening behavior of the material.
Technical Paper

A New Measurement of Aluminum Alloy Edge Stretching Limit Based on Digital Image Correlation Method

2016-04-05
2016-01-0417
In Aluminum Alloy, AA, sheet metal forming, the through thickness cracking at the edge of cut out is one of the major fracture modes. In order to prevent the edge cracking in production forming process, practical edge stretch limit criteria are needed for virtual forming prediction and early stamping trial evaluations. This paper proposes new methods for determining the edge stretching limit of the sheet coupons, with and without pre-stretching, based on the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique. A numbers of sets of notch-shaped smaller coupons with three different pre-stretching conditions (near 5%, 10% and fractured) are cut from the prestretched large specimens. Then the notch-shaped smaller coupons are stretched by uniaxial tension up to through edge cracking observed. A dual-camera 3D-DIC system is utilized to measure both coupon face strain and thickness strain in the notch area at the same time.
Journal Article

Development of Empirical Shear Fracture Criterion for AHSS

2010-04-12
2010-01-0977
The conventional forming limit curve (FLC) has been widely and successfully used as a failure criterion to detect localized necking in stamping. However, in stamping advanced high strength steels (AHSS), under certain circumstances such as stretching-bending over a small die radius, the sheet metal fails much earlier than predicted by the FLC. This type of failure on the die radius is commonly called “shear fracture.” In this paper, the laboratory Stretch-Forming Simulator (SFS) and the Bending under Tension (BUT) tester are used to study shear fracture occurring during both early and later stages of stamping. Results demonstrate that the occurrence of shear fracture depends on the combination of the radius-to-thickness (R/T) ratio and the tension/stretch level applied to the sheet during stretching or drawing. Based on numerous experimental results, an empirical shear fracture limit curve or criterion is obtained.
Journal Article

AHSS Shear Fracture Predictions Based on a Recently Developed Fracture Criterion

2010-04-12
2010-01-0988
One of the issues in stamping of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) is the stretch bending fracture on a sharp radius (commonly referred to as shear fracture). Shear fracture typically occurs at a strain level below the conventional forming limit curve (FLC). Therefore it is difficult to predict in computer simulations using the FLC as the failure criterion. A modified Mohr-Coulomb (M-C) fracture criterion has been developed to predict shear fracture. The model parameters for several AHSS have been calibrated using various tests including the butter-fly shaped shear test. In this paper, validation simulations are conducted using the modified (M-C) fracture criterion for a dual phase (DP) 780 steel to predict fracture in the stretch forming simulator (SFS) test and the bending under tension (BUT) test. Various deformation fracture modes are analyzed, and the range of usability of the criterion is identified.
Technical Paper

Measure of Forming Limit Strain on the Aluminum Sheets Passed Through Draw-Bead by Digital Image Correlation

2015-04-14
2015-01-0598
Accurate determination of the forming limit strain of aluminum sheet metal is an important topic which has not been fully solved by industry. Also, the effects of draw beads (enhanced forming limit behaviors), normally reported on steel sheet metals, on aluminum sheet metal is not fully understood. This paper introduces an experimental study on draw bead effects on aluminum sheet metals by measuring the forming limit strain zero (FLD0) of the sheet metal. Two kinds of aluminum, AL 6016-T4 and AL 5754-0, are used. Virgin material, 40% draw bead material and 60% draw bead material conditions are tested for each kind of aluminum. Marciniak punch tests were performed to create a plane strain condition. A dual camera Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system was used to record and measure the deformation distribution history during the punch test. The on-set necking timing is determined directly from surface shape change. The FLD0 of each test situation is reported in this article.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Aluminum Edge Stretching Limit Using 3D Digital Image Correlation

2015-04-14
2015-01-0594
This paper introduces an industrial application of digital image correlation technique on the measurement of aluminum edge stretching limit. In this study, notch-shape aluminum coupons with three different pre-strain conditions are tested. The edge stretching is proceeded by standard MTS machine. A dual-camera 3D Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system is used for the full field measurement of strain distribution in the thickness direction. Selected air brush is utilized to form a random distributed speckle pattern on the edge of sheet metal. A pair of special optical lens systems are used to observe the small measurement edge area. From the test results, it demonstrate that refer to the notched coupon thickness, pre-tension does not affect the fracture limit; refer to the virgin sheet thickness, the average edge stretch thinning limits show a consistent increasing trend as the pre-stretch strain increased.
Technical Paper

The Research on Edge Tearing with Digital Image Correlation

2015-04-14
2015-01-0593
Material formability is a very important aspect in the automotive stamping, which must be tested for the success of manufacturing. One of the most important sheet metal formability parameters for the stamping is the edge tear-ability. In this paper, a novel test method has been present to test the aluminum sheet edge tear-ability with 3D digital image correlation (DIC) system. The newly developed test specimen and fixture design are also presented. In order to capture the edge deformation and strain, sample's edge surface has been sprayed with artificial speckle. A standard MTS tensile machine was used to record the tearing load and displacement. Through the data processing and evaluation of sequence image, testing results are found valid and reliable. The results show that the 3D DIC system with double CCD can effectively carry out sheet edge tear deformation. The edge tearing test method is found to be a simple, reliable, high precision, and able to provide useful results.
Journal Article

Experimental Study of Edge Stretching Limits of DP980IBF Steel in Multistage Forming Process

2015-04-14
2015-01-0525
Automotive structural parts made out of Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) are often produced in a multistage forming process using progressive dies or transfer dies. During each forming stage the steel is subjected to work hardening, which affects the formability of the steel in the subsequent forming operation. Edge flanging and in-plane edge stretching operations are forming modes that are typically employed in the last stage of the multistage forming processes. In this study, the multistage forming process was simulated by pre-straining a DP980 steel in a biaxial strain path with various strain levels followed by edge flanging and in-plane edge stretching. The biaxial prestrains were obtained using the Marciniak stretch test and edge flanging and in-plane edge stretching were accomplished by the hole expansion test using a flat punch and a conical punch, respectively.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of Interface Friction in Different Forming Models for Coated Steel Sheets

1992-02-01
920633
Interface friction between sheet metal and tooling in sheet metal forming is examined in different forming modes using laboratory simulative tests. Stretchability is studied by the limiting dome height test; drawability is investigated by a four inch Swift cup draw test and the coefficient of friction is measured by the draw bead simulator under bending and unbending deformation. The responses of the interface friction in six different coated and uncoated steel sheets are studied using seven different lubricants. It is found that the interface friction between sheet metal and tooling is very sensitive to the forming mode and the type of coating. For the same lubricant and coated material, two different forming modes may produce very different results in interface friction. However, overall good and bad lubricants for all forming modes can be determined for a given coated material using these three tests.
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