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Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Ultra Low Solidity Airfoil Diffuser in an Automotive Turbocharger Compressor

For the application of advanced clean combustion technologies, such as diesel HCCI/LTC, a compressor with high efficiency over a broad operation range is required to supply a high amount of EGR with minimum pumping loss. A compressor with high pitch of vaneless diffuser would substantially improve the flow range of the compressor, but it is at the cost of compressor efficiency, especially at low mass flow area where most of the city driving cycles resides. In present study, an ultra low solidity compressor vane diffuser was numerically investigated. It is well known that the flow leaving the impeller is highly distorted, unsteady and turbulent, especially at relative low mass flow rate and near the shroud side of the compressor. A conventional vaned diffuser with high stagger angle could help to improve the performance of the compressor at low end. However, adding diffuser vane to a compressor typically restricts the flow range at high end.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Measurements in Transient Port Injector Sprays

A global characterization of the spray distribution of various current and development types of automotive fuel injectors was obtained. Axial and radial measurement of droplet sizes, velocities and volume fluxes were made with a phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA) for a transient port injector spray in quiescent atmospheric conditions. Time-resolved measurements involving the time-of-arrival of each droplet associated with its size and velocity components were also acquired. Additionally, the liquid sprays emanating from various types of port fuel injectors were visualized, through planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique, at different time instants. Such detailed study provides an improved understanding of the temporal or unsteady behavior of port injector spray.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of the Flow Structure Inside the Catalytic Converter of a Gasoline Engine

The flow structure inside the catalytic converter of gasoline engines is very important for consideration of the catalyst light-off condition, converter durability and conversion efficiency. However, the available experimental data under actual engine exhaust conditions are quite limited due to its complicated configuration, critical operating conditions and difficult optical access. Therefore, an experimental study was performed, using laser Doppler velocimetry technique, to measure the velocity distributions inside two production dual-monolith catalytic converters fitted on a firing gasoline engine over several engine operating conditions. This paper reports the normal velocity characteristics measured in a plane 1 mm away from the front surface of first monolith. A small fraction of titanium (IV) isopropoxide was dissolved in gasoline for generating titanium dioxide seeding particles during the engine combustion.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Multi-hole Spray and Mixing of Ethanol and Gasoline Fuels under DI Engine Conditions

Because of their robustness and cost performance, multi-hole gasoline injectors are being adopted as the direct injection (DI) fuel injector of choice as vehicle manufacturers look for ways to reduce fuel consumption without sacrificing power and emission performance. To realize the full benefits of direct injection, the resulting spray needs to be well targeted, atomized, and appropriately mixed with charge air for the desirable fuel vapor concentration distributions in the combustion chamber. Ethanol and ethanol-gasoline blends synergistically improve the turbo-charged DI gasoline performance, especially in down-sized, down-sped and variable-valve-train engine architecture. This paper presents the spray imaging results from two multi-hole DI gasoline injectors with different design, fueled with pure ethanol (E100) or gasoline (E0), under homogeneous and stratified-charge conditions that represent typical engine operating points.
Journal Article

Effects of Fuel Cell Material Properties on Water Management Using CFD Simulation and Neutron Imaging

Effects of fuel cell material properties on water management were numerically investigated using Volume of Fluid (VOF) method in the FLUENT. The results show that the channel surface wettability is an important design variable for both serpentine and interdigitated flow channel configurations. In a serpentine air flow channel, hydrophilic surfaces could benefit the reactant transport to reaction sites by facilitating water transport along channel edges or on channel surfaces; however, the hydrophilic surfaces would also introduce significantly pressure drop as a penalty. For interdigitated air flow channel design, it is observable that liquid water exists only in the outlet channel; it is also observable that water distribution inside GDL is uneven due to the pressure distribution caused by interdigitated structure. An in-situ water measurement method, neutron imaging technique, was used to investigate the water behavior in a PEM fuel cell.
Journal Article

Spray Characterization of Ethanol Gasoline Blends and Comparison to a CFD Model for a Gasoline Direct Injector

Operation of flex fuel vehicles requires operation with a range of fuel properties. The significant differences in the heat of vaporization and energy density of E0-E100 fuels and the effect on spray development need to be fully comprehended when developing engine control strategies. Limited enthalpy for fuel vaporization needs to be accounted for when developing injection strategies for cold start, homogeneous and stratified operation. Spray imaging of multi-hole gasoline injectors with fuels ranging from E0 to E100 and environmental conditions that represent engine operating points from ambient cold start to hot conditions was performed in a spray chamber. Schlieren visualization technique was used to characterize the sprays and the results were compared with Laser Mie scattering and Back-lighting technique. Open chamber experiments were utilized to provide input and validation of a CFD model.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of the Interaction of MultipleGDI Injections using Laser Diagnostics

In present GDI engines, multiple injection strategies are often employed for engine cold start mixture formation. In the future, these strategies may also be used to control the combustion process, and to prevent misfiring or high emission levels. While the processes occurring during individual injections of GDI injectors have been investigated by a number of researchers, this paper concentrates on the interactions of multiple injection events. Even though multiple injection strategies are already applied in most GDI engines, the impact of the first injection event on the second injection event has not been analyzed in detail yet. Different optical measurement techniques are used in order to investigate the interaction of the two closely timed injection events, as well as the effect of dwell time and the in-cylinder conditions. The injector investigated is a GDI piezo injector with an outwardly opening needle.
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation of Jet Fuel Surrogates in an Optical Engine

Three jet fuel surrogates were compared against their target fuels in a compression ignited optical engine under a range of start-of-injection temperatures and densities. The jet fuel surrogates are representative of petroleum-based Jet-A POSF-4658, natural gas-derived S-8 POSF-4734 and coal-derived Sasol IPK POSF-5642, and were prepared from a palette of n-dodecane, n-decane, decalin, toluene, iso-octane and iso-cetane. Optical chemiluminescence and liquid penetration length measurements as well as cylinder pressure-based combustion analyses were applied to examine fuel behavior during the injection and combustion process. HCHO* emissions obtained from broadband UV imaging were used as a marker for low temperature reactivity, while 309 nm narrow band filtered imaging was applied to identify the occurrence of OH*, autoignition and high temperature reactivity.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Validation of Lithium-Ion Polymer SLI Battery

Lead-acid batteries have dominated the automotive conventional electric system, particularly in the functions of starting (S), lighting (L) and ignition (I) for decades. However, the low energy-to-weight ratio and the low energy-to-volume ratio makes the lead-acid SLI battery relatively heavy, large, and shallow Depth of Discharge (DOD). This could be improved by replacing the lead-acid battery by the lithium-ion polymer battery. The lithium-ion polymer battery can provide the same power with lightweight, compact volume, and deep DOD for engine idle elimination using start-stop function that is a basic feature in electric-drive vehicles. This paper presents the modeling and validation of a lithium-ion battery for SLI application. A lithium-metal-oxide based cell with 3.6 nominal voltage and 20Ah capacity is used in the study. A simulation model of lithium-ion polymer battery pack (14.4V, 80Ah) with battery management system is built in the MATLAB/Simulink environment.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Timings and Intake Port Flow Control on the In-Cylinder Wetted Fuel Footprints during PFI Engine Startup Process

Wall-wetting due to liquid fuel film motion and fuel droplet impingement on combustion chamber walls is a major source of unburned hydrocarbons (UBHC), and is a concern for oil dilution in PFI engines. An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of injection timing, a charge motion control device, and the matching of injector with port geometry, on the “footprints” of liquid fuel inside the combustion chamber during the PFI engine starting process. Using a gasoline-soluble dye and filter paper deployed on the cylinder liner and piston top land surfaces to capture the liquid fuel footprints, the effects of the mixture formation processes on the wetted footprints can be qualitatively and quantitatively examined by comparing the wetted footprint locations and their color intensities. Real-time filming of the development of wetted footprints using a high-speed camera can also show the time history of the fuel wetting process inside an optically accessible engine.
Technical Paper

Ultrafast X-Ray Phase-Enhanced Microimaging for Visualizing Fuel Injection Process

Propagation-based and phase-enhanced x-ray imaging was developed as a unique metrology technique to visualize the internal structure of high-pressure fuel injection nozzles. We have visualized the microstructures inside 200-μm fuel injection nozzles in a 3-mm-thick steel housing using this novel technique. Furthermore, this new x-ray-based metrology technique has been used to directly study the highly transient needle motion in the nozzles in situ and in real-time, which is virtually impossible by any other means. The needle motion has been shown to have the most direct effect on the fuel jet structure and spray formation immediately outside of the nozzle. In addition, the spray cone-angle has been perfectly correlated with the numerically simulated fuel flow inside the nozzle due to the transient nature of the needle during the injection.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Swirl Ratio on Turbulent Flow Structure in a Motored HSDI Diesel Engine - A Combined Experimental and Numerical Study

Simultaneous two-component measurements of gas velocity and multi-dimensional numerical simulation are employed to characterize the evolution of the in-cylinder turbulent flow structure in a re-entrant bowl-in-piston engine under motored operation. The evolution of the mean flow field, turbulence energy, turbulent length scales, and the various terms contributing to the production of the turbulence energy are correlated and compared, with the objectives of clarifying the physical mechanisms and flow structures that dominate the turbulence production and of identifying the source of discrepancies between the measured and simulated turbulence fields. Additionally, the applicability of the linear turbulent stress modeling hypothesis employed in the k-ε model is assessed using the experimental mean flow gradients, turbulence energy, and length scales.
Technical Paper

A Visualization Study of Liquid Fuel Distribution and Combustion Inside a Port-Injected Gasoline Engine Under Different Start Conditions

High-speed video of combustion processes and cylinder pressure traces were obtained from a single-cylinder optical-accessible engine with a production four-valve cylinder head to study the mixture formation and flame propagation characteristics at near-stoichiometric start condition. Laser-sheet Mie-scattering images were collected for liquid droplet distributions inside the cylinder to correlate the mixture formation process with the combustion results. A dual-stream (DS) injector and a quad-stream (QS) injector were used to study the spray dispersion effect on engine starting, under different injection timings, throttle valve positions, engine speeds, and intake temperatures. It was found that most of the fuel under open-valve injection (OVI) conditions entered the cylinder as droplet mist. A significant part of the fuel droplets hit the far end of the cylinder wall at the exhaust-valve side.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Measurements of Direct-Injection Gasoline Fuel Sprays in Near-Nozzle Region Using Synchrotron X-Ray

A quantitative and time-resolved technique has been developed to probe the dense spray structure of direct-injection (DI) gasoline sprays in near-nozzle region. This technique uses the line-of-sight absorption of monochromatic x-rays from a synchrotron source to measure the fuel mass with time resolution better than 1 μs. The small scattering cross-section of fuel at x-rays regime allows direct measurements of spray structure that are difficult with most visible-light optical techniques. Appropriate models were developed to determine the fuel density as a function of time.
Technical Paper

Combustion Visualization of DI Diesel Spray Combustion inside a Small-Bore Cylinder under different EGR and Swirl Ratios

An experimental setup using rapid compression machine to provide excellent optical access to visualize simulated high-speed small-bore direct injection diesel engine combustion processes is described. Typical combustion visualization results of diesel spray combustion under different EGR, swirl, and injection pressure and nozzle conditions are presented. Different swirl intensities are achieved using an air nozzle with variable orientations and a check valve to connect the compression chamber and the combustion chamber. Different EGR ratios are achieved by pre-injection of diesel fuel prior to the main observation sequence. Clear visualization of the high-pressure fuel injection, ignition, combustion and spray/wall/swirl interactions is obtained. The injection system is a high-pressure common-rail system with either a VCO or a mini-sac nozzle. High-speed movies up to 35,000 frame-per-second are taken using a framing drum camera to record the combustion events.
Technical Paper

Visualization and Analysis of the Impingement Processes of a Narrow-Cone DI Gasoline Spray

The direct injection spray-wall interactions were investigated experimentally using high-speed laser-sheet imaging, shadowgraphy, wetted footprints and phase Doppler interferometry techniques. A narrow-cone high-pressure swirl injector is used to inject iso-octane fuel onto a plate, at three different impact angles inside a pressurized chamber. Heated air and plate conditions were compared with unheated cases. Injection interval was also varied in the heated case to compare dry- and wet- wall impingement behaviors. High-speed macroscopic Mie-scattering images showed that presence of wall and air temperature has only minor effect on the bulk spray structure and penetration speed for the narrow-cone injector tested. The overall bulk motions of the spray plume and its spatial position at a given time are basically unaffected until a few millimeters before impacting the wall.
Technical Paper

Transient Cavitating Flow Simulations Inside a 2-D VCO Nozzle Using the Space-Time CE/SE Method

Cavitating flows inside a two-dimensional valve covered orifice (VCO) nozzle were simulated by using the Space-Time Conservation Element and Solution Element (CE/SE) method in conjunction with a homogeneous equilibrium cavitation model. As a validation for present model, cavitation over a NACA0015 hydrofoil was predicted and compared with previous simulation results as well as experimental observations. The model was then used to investigate the effects on internal cavitating flows of different nozzle design parameters, such as the hole size, hole aspect-ratio, hydro-erosion radius, and orifice inclination. Under different conditions, cavitating flows through fuel injectors generated hydraulic flip, supercavitation, full cavitation, and cyclical cavitation phenomena, which are commonly observed in experiments.
Technical Paper

The Development of an Electronic Control Unit for a High Pressure Common Rail Diesel/Natural Gas Dual-Fuel Engine

Natural gas has been considered to be one of the most promising alternative fuels due to its lower NOx and soot emissions, less carbon footprint as well as attractive price. Furthermore, higher octane number makes it suitable for high compression ratio application compared with other gaseous fuels. For better economical and lower emissions, a turbocharged, four strokes, direct injection, high pressure common rail diesel engine has been converted into a diesel/natural gas dual-fuel engine. For dual-fuel engine operation, natural gas as the main fuel is sequentially injected into intake manifold, and a very small amount of diesel is directly injected into cylinder as the ignition source. In this paper, a dual-fuel electronic control unit (ECU) based on the PowerPC 32-bit microprocessor was developed. It cooperates with the original diesel ECU to control the fuel injection of the diesel/natural gas dual-fuel engine.
Technical Paper

Transient Simulation of DGI Engine Injector with Needle Movement

Utilization of direct injection systems is one of the most promising technologies for fuel economy improvement for SI engine powered passenger cars. Engine performance is essentially influenced by the characteristics of the injection equipment. This paper will present CFD analyses of a swirl type GDI injector carried out with the Multiphase Module of AVL's FIRE/SWIFT CFD code. The simulations considered three phases (liquid fuel, fuel vapor, air) and mesh movement. Thus the transient behavior of the injector can be observed. The flow phenomena known from measurement and shown by previous simulation work [2, 7, 10, 11] were reproduced. In particular the simulations shown in this paper could explain the cause for the outstanding atomization characteristics of the swirl type injector, which are caused by cavitation in the nozzle hole.
Technical Paper

Spectral Analysis and Chemiluminescence Imaging of Hydrogen Addition to HSDI Diesel Combustion Under Conventional and Low-Temperature Conditions

Late-injection low-temperature diesel combustion is found to further reduce NOx and soot simultaneously. The combustion phenomena and detail chemical kinetics are studied with high speed spray/combustion images and time-resolved spectroscopy analysis in a rapid compression machine (RCM) with a small bowl combustion chamber. High swirl and high EGR condition can be achieved in the RCM; variable injection pressure and injection timing is supplied by the high-pressure common-rail fuel injection system. Effect of small amount of premix hydrogen gas on diesel combustion is also studied in the RCM. A hydrogen injector is located in the upstream of air inlet for delivery small amount and premixed hydrogen gas into cylinder just before the compression stroke. The ignition delay is studied both from the pressure curves and the chemiluminescence images.