Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Technical Paper

The Design and Optimized Combination of Combustion Modesover Full-Load Range in a Multi-cylinder Light-duty Engine

2013-10-14
2013-01-2623
In order to achieve high efficiency and clean combustion indiesel engines, many advanced combustion concepts have been developed to simultaneously reduce NOx and soot emissions with high efficiency. However, the benefits of these combustion modes are limited to low loads because the energy release ratesaretoo fast at high loads. Recently, Dual-fuel highly premixed charge combustion (HPCC) strategies with the port injection of gasoline and direct injection of diesel have demonstrated advantages in terms of extending the operating range by the flexible control of fuel chemical reactivity and charge stratification. However, the extension to high-load in a turbocharged multi-cylinder diesel engine with the HPCC is a critical challenge due to excessive pressure rise rates. Mean while it suffers from the excessive of CO/HC emissions at low loads.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Different Combustion Chamber Configuration, Intake Temperature, and Coolant Temperature in a HCCI Optical Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-1765
The influence of different combustion chamber configuration, intake temperature, and coolant temperature on HCCI combustion processes were investigated in a single-cylinder optical engine. Two-dimensional images of the chemiluminescence were captured using an intensified CCD camera in order to understand the spatial distribution of the combustion. N-heptane was used as the test fuel. Three combustion chamber geometries with different squish lip, salient, orthogonal, reentrant shape, referred as V-type, H-type, and A-type respectively, were used in this study. Intake temperature was set to 65°C and 95°C, while coolant temperature was set to 85°C. The experimental data consisting of the in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate, chemiluminescence images all indicated that the different combustion chamber geometries result in different turbulence intensity in the combustion chamber, and thus affect the auto-ignition timing, chemiluminescence intensity, and combustion processes.
Technical Paper

Study of Biodiesel Combustion in a Constant Volume Chamber with Different Ambient Temperature and Oxygen Concentration

2011-08-30
2011-01-1931
Biodiesel is a widely used biofuel in diesel engines, which is of particular interest as a renewable fuel because it possesses the similar properties as the diesel fuel. The pure soybean biodiesel was tested in an optical constant volume combustion chamber using natural flame luminosity and forward illumination light extinction (FILE) methods to explore the combustion process and soot distribution at various ambient temperatures (800 K and 1000 K) and oxygen concentrations (21%, 16%, 10.5%). Results indicated that, with a lower ambient temperature, the autoignition delay became longer for all three oxygen concentrations and more ambient air was entrained by spray jet and more fuel was burnt by premixed combustion. With less ambient oxygen concentration, the heat release rate showed not only a longer ignition delay but also longer combustion duration.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Different Ported Fuel Injection Strategies and Thermal Stratification in HCCI Engines Using Chemiluminescence Imaging

2010-04-12
2010-01-0163
The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of the effects of port fuel injection strategies and thermal stratification on the HCCI combustion processes. Experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder HCCI engine modified with windows in the combustion chamber for optical access. Two-dimensional images of the chemiluminescence were captured using an intensified CCD camera in order to understand the spatial distribution of the combustion. N-heptane was used as the test fuel. The experimental data consisting of the in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate, chemiluminescence images all indicate that the different port fuel injection strategies result in different charge distributions in the combustion chamber, and thus affect the auto-ignition timing, chemiluminescence intensity, and combustion processes. Under higher intake temperature conditions, the injection strategies have less effect on the combustion processes due to improved mixing.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of the RCCI Combustion Processes Fuelled with Methanol, Ethanol, n-Butanol and Diesel

2016-04-05
2016-01-0777
In the current, numerical study RCCI combustion and emission characteristics using various fuel strategies are investigated, including methanol, ethanol, n-butanol and gasoline as the low reactivity fuel, and diesel fuel as the high reactivity fuel. A reduced Primary Reference Fuel (PRF)-alcohol chemical kinetic mechanism was coupled with a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code to predict RCCI combustion under various operating conditions. The results show that a higher quantity of diesel was required to maintain the same combustion phasing with alcohol-diesel fuel blends, and the combustion durations and pressure rise rates of methanol-diesel (MD) and ethanol-diesel (ED) cases were much shorter and higher than those of gasoline-diesel (GD) and n-butanol-diesel (nBD) cases. The simulations also investigated the sensitivities of the direct injection strategies, intake temperature and premixed fuel ratio on RCCI combustion phasing control.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Modelling Investigations of the Gasoline Compression Ignition Combustion in Diesel Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0741
In this work the gasoline compression ignition (GCI) combustion characterized by both premixed gasoline port injection and gasoline direct injection in a single-cylinder diesel engine was investigated experimentally and computationally. In the experiment, the premixed ratio (PR), injection timing and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate were varied with the pressure rise rate below 10 bar/crank angle. The experimental results showed that higher PR and earlier injection timing resulted in advanced combustion phasing and improved thermal efficiency, while the pressure rise rates and NOx emissions increased. Besides, a lowest ISFC of 176 g/kWh (corresponding to IMEP =7.24 bar) was obtained, and the soot emissions could be controlled below 0.6 FSN. Despite that NOx emission was effectively reduced with the increase of EGR, HC and CO emissions were high. However, it showed that GCI combustion of this work was sensitive to EGR, which may restrict its future practical application.
Technical Paper

A Theoretical Investigation of the Combustion of PRF90 under the Flexible Cylinder Engine Mode

2017-03-28
2017-01-1027
On-board fuel reforming offers a prospective clean combustion mode for the engines. The flexible cylinder engine strategy (FCE) is a new kind of such mode. In this paper, the combustion of the primary reference fuel of PRF90 was theoretically investigated in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine to validate the FCE mode, mainly focusing on the ignition delay time, the flame speed, and the emissions. The simulations were performed by using the CHEMKIN2.0 package to demonstrate the fuel reforming process in the flexible cylinder, the cooling effect on the reformed products, and the combustions of the mixture of the fresh fuel and the reformed products in the normal cylinders. It was found that the FCE mode decreased the ignition delay time of the fuel by about 35 crank angles at a typical engine condition.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Knock Intensity and Knock-Limited Thermal Efficiency of Different Combustion Chambers in Stoichiometric Operation LNG Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-1137
Liquefied natural gas (LNG) engine could provide both reduced operating cost and reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Stoichiometric operation with EGR and the three-way catalyst has become a potential approach for commercial LNG engines to meet the Euro VI emissions legislation. In the current study, numerical investigations on the knocking tendency of several combustion chambers with different geometries and corresponding performances were conducted using CONVERGE CFD code with G-equation flame propagation model coupled with a reduced natural gas chemical kinetic mechanism. The results showed that the CFD modeling approach could predict the knock phenomenon in LNG engines reasonably well under different thermodynamic and flow field conditions.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Effects of Injection Timing on Thermo-Atmosphere Combustion of Methanol

2007-04-16
2007-01-0197
The effects of various injection timing of methanol on thermo-atmosphere combustion of methanol by port injection of dimethyl ether (DME) and direct injection of methanol were experimentally investigated. The experiment results show that, as injection timing is at 6 degree before TDC, the combustion process comprises three stages: low temperature heat release of DME, high temperature heat release of DME and diffusion combustion of methanol. As injection timing increases, premixed combustion proportion of methanol is increased and diffusion combustion proportion is decreased. As injection timing increases to 126 degree before TDC, diffusion combustion of methanol disappears. At this time, the combustion process shows typical two stages heat release of HCCI combustion. As injection timing increases, required DME rate is increased, combustion efficiency and indicated thermal efficiency all first increase and then decrease.
Technical Paper

An Investigation on the Effects of Fuel Chemistry and Engine Operating Conditions on HCCI Engine

2008-06-23
2008-01-1660
A HCCI engine has been run at different operating boundaries conditions with fuels of different RON and MON and different chemistries. The fuels include gasoline, PRF and the mixture of PRF and ethanol. Six operating boundaries conditions are considered, including different intake temperature (Tin), intake pressure (Pin) and engine speed. The experimental results show that, fuel chemistries have different effect on the combustion process at different operating conditions. It is found that CA50 (crank angle at 50% completion of heat release) shows no correlation with either RON or MON at some operating boundaries conditions, but correlates well with the Octane Index (OI) at all conditions. The higher the OI, the more the resistance to auto-ignition and the later is the heat release in the HCCI engine. The operating range is also correlation with the OI. The higher the OI, the higher IMEP can reach.
Technical Paper

Effects of Dual Loop EGR on Performance and Emissions of a Diesel Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0873
An experimental study is carried out to compare the effects of high-pressure-loop, low-pressure-loop and dual-loop exhaust gas recirculation systems (HPL-EGR, LPL-EGR and DL-EGR) on the combustion characteristics, thermal efficiency and emissions of a diesel engine. The tests are conducted on a six-cylinder turbocharged heavy-duty diesel engine under various operating conditions. The low-pressure-loop portion (LPL-Portion) of DL-EGR is swept from 0% to 100% at several constant EGR rates, and the DL-EGR is optimized based on fuel efficiency. The results show that the LPL-EGR can attain the highest gross indicated thermal efficiency (ITEg) in the three EGR systems under all the tested conditions. At a middle load of 0.95 BMEP, 1660 r/min, the pumping losses of LPL-EGR lead to the lowest BTE among the EGR systems. The HPL-EGR can achieve the best brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and emissions within the EGR rate of 22.5% mainly due to the reduced pumping losses.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Modeling Study of Biodiesel Surrogates Combustion in a CI Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1130
This work concerns the oxidation of biodiesel surrogates in a CI engine. An experimental study has been carried out in a single-cylinder common-rail CI engine with soybean biodiesel and two biodiesel surrogates containing neat methyl decanoate and methyl decanoate/n-heptane blends. Tests have been conducted with various intake oxygen concentrations ranging from 21% to approximately 9% at intake temperatures of 25°C and 50°C. The results showed that the ignition delay and smoke emissions of neat methyl decanoate were closer to that of soybean biodiesel as compared with methyl decanoate/n-heptane blends. A reduced chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of methyl decanoate has been developed and applied to model internal combustion engines. A KIVA code, coupled with the Chemkin chemistry solver, was used as the computational platforms. The effects of various intake oxygen concentrations on the in-cylinder emissions of OH and soot were discussed.
Technical Paper

Natural Flame Luminosity and Emission Spectra of Diesel Spray Flame under Oxygen-Enriched Condition in an Optical Constant Volume Vessel

2018-09-10
2018-01-1781
The application of oxygen-enriched or oxy-fuel combustion coupled with carbon capture and storage technology has zero carbon dioxide emission potential in the boiler and gas turbine of the power plant. However, the oxygen-enriched combustion with high oxygen level has few studies in internal combustion engines. The fundamental issues and challenges of high oxygen level are the great differences in the physical properties and chemical effects compared with the combustion in air condition. As a consequence, the diesel spray combustion characteristics at high oxygen level were investigated in an optical constant volume vessel. The oxygen volume fraction of tested gas was from 21% to 70%, buffered with argon. The high-speed color camera was used to record the natural flame luminosity.
Technical Paper

Effects of Dual Loop EGR and Variable Geometry Turbocharger on Performance and Emissions of a Diesel Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2340
An experimental study is carried out to investigate the coupling between dual loop EGR (DL-EGR) and variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) on a heavy-duty commercial diesel engine under different operating conditions and inlet conditions. The effects of VGT rack position and high-pressure (HP) proportion in DL-EGR on engine performance and emissions are studied. The boosting system is a series 2-stage turbocharger with a VGT as the HP-stage. The HP-Proportion in DL-EGR is swept from 0% to 100% while several intake pressure values and EGR rates are fixed by adjusting the VGT position. Results demonstrate that the VGT and HP EGR both have great influence on the exhaust enthalpy and turbocharger efficiency. The exhaust enthalpy and the intake demand have great influence on the DL-EGR split strategy.
Technical Paper

Effects of Different Turbocharging Systems on Performance in a HD Diesel Engine with Different Emission Control Technical Routes

2016-10-17
2016-01-2185
In this work, both the ‘SCR-only’ and ‘EGR+SCR’ technical routes are compared and evaluated after the optimizations of both injection strategy and turbocharging system over the World Harmonized Stationary Cycle (WHSC) in a heavy duty diesel engine. The exhaust emissions and fuel economy performance of different turbocharging systems, including wastegate turbocharger (WGT), variable geometry turbocharger (VGT), two-stage fixed geometry turbocharger (WGT+FGT) and two-stage variable geometry turbocharger (VGT+FGT), are investigated over a wide EGR range. The NOx reduction methods and EGR introduction strategies for different turbocharger systems are proposed to improve the fuel economy. The requirement on turbocharging system and their potential to meet future stringent NOx and soot emission regulations are also discussed in this paper.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study on Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Marine Engine through Miller Cycle Coupled with EGR and Water Emulsified Fuel

2016-10-17
2016-01-2187
The combustion in low-speed two-stroke marine diesel engines can be characterized as large spatial and temporal scales combustion. One of the most effective measures to reduce NOx emissions is to reduce the local maximum combustion temperature. In the current study, multi-dimensional numerical simulations have been conducted to explore the potential of Miller cycle, high compression ratio coupled with EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) and WEF (water emulsified fuel) to improve the trade-off relationship of NOx-ISFC (indicated specific fuel consumption) in a low-speed two-stroke marine engine. The results show that the EGR ratio could be reduced combined with WEF to meet the Tier III emission regulation. The penalty on fuel consumption with EGR and WEF could be offset by Miller cycle and high geometric compression ratio.
Technical Paper

Simulating the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Process Using a Detailed Kinetic Model for Dimethyl Ether (DME) and Methane Dual Fuel

2004-10-25
2004-01-2951
With a zero-dimensional detailed chemical kinetic model, a numerical study was carried out to investigate the chemical reaction phenomena encountered in the homogenous charge compression ignition process of dimethyl ether (DME) and methane dual fuel. The results show that the DME/methane dual fuel elementary reactions affect each other. The low temperature reaction (LTR) of DME is inhibited, the second molecular oxygen addition of DME is restrained, and β -scission plays a dominant role in DME oxidation. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is controlled by DME oxidation and almost has no correlation with methane oxidation. The rich H2O2 concentration makes methane oxidation occurs at low initial temperature. Most of the formaldehyde (CH2O) is produced from H-abstraction of methoxy (CH3O) rather than from LTR of the DME. However, the heat release of methane oxidation promotes the hot flame reactions of DME which make the reactions with high activation energy occur.
Technical Paper

The Effect of PRF Fuel Octane Number on HCCI Operation

2004-10-25
2004-01-2992
By mixing iso-octane with octane number 100 and normal heptane with octane number 0, it was possible to obtain a PRF fuel with octane rating between 0 and 100. The influence of PRF fuel’s octane number on the combustion characteristics, performance and emissions character of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine was investigated. The experiments were carried out in a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine. The test results show that, with the increase of the octane number, the ignition timing delayed, the combustion rate decreased, and the cylinder pressure decreased. The HCCI combustion can be controlled and then extending the HCCI operating range by burning different octane number fuel at different engine mode, which engine burns low octane number fuel at low load mode and large octane number fuel at large load mode. There exists an optimum octane number that achieves the highest indicated thermal efficiency at different engine load.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on HCCI Combustion of Dimethyl Ether(DME)/Methanol Dual Fuel

2004-10-25
2004-01-2993
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is considered as a high efficient and clean combustion technology for I.C. engines. Methanol is a potential fuel for HCCI combustion. In this research, a single cylinder diesel engine was applied to HCCI operation. Methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) were fueled to the engine by fuel injection system with an electric controlled port in dual fuel mode. The results show that the stable HCCI operation of DME/methanol can be obtained over a quite broad speed and load region. And compared with higher speeds, the load region is even wider at low engine speed. E.g., at the engine speed of 1000 r/min, the maximum indicated mean effective pressure(IMEP) can reach 0.77 MPa, while at 2000r/min it is 0.53 MPa. Both DME and methanol influence HCCI combustion strongly, and by regulating DME/methanol proportions the HCCI combustion process could be controlled effectively.
Technical Paper

Turbocharged diesel/CNG Dual-fuel Engines with Intercooler: Combustion, Emissions and Performance

2003-10-27
2003-01-3082
A yc6112ZLQ turbocharged 6 cylinder engine with intercooler was converted to operate in dual fuel mode with compressed natural gas (CNG) and pilot diesel. The influence of the CNG ratio, pilot diesel injection advance (ADC) and intake temperature after intercooler on the combustion process, emissions and engine performance was investigated. The results show that the combustion process of dual-fuel engines is faster than diesel engine. Both the ignition timing of the pilot fuel and the excess air ratio of total fuel λ dominate the combustion characteristics of duel-fuel engines. With the increase of CNG ratio, the pressure and temperature in cylinder decrease at rated mode, but increase at torque and low speed modes. With advanced the pilot injection timing or increased the intake temperature, the cylinder pressure and temperature increase.
X