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Technical Paper

DFSS for Robust Tooling Design with Concurrent Virtual Dimensional Analysis (CVDA) Methods

2009-04-20
2009-01-0987
Dimensional variation analysis is a critical step of the dimensional management process for understanding the predicted dimensional variation from manufacturing process. Through analysis, product and process capabilities were evaluated, and the variation can be predicted and documented at each step of the build. The objective to develop the concurrent virtual dimensional analytical (CVDA) methods was to concurrently design a product and manufacturing process insensitive to part and process variations by integrating various analytical tools in literatures and in industry practice. The allowable variation targets of the product that meet the functional requirements are defined with the geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T) drawings. If at all possible, each part’s datum features defined on the drawing are required to be coordinated with the locating features of production tools.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Different Ported Fuel Injection Strategies and Thermal Stratification in HCCI Engines Using Chemiluminescence Imaging

2010-04-12
2010-01-0163
The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of the effects of port fuel injection strategies and thermal stratification on the HCCI combustion processes. Experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder HCCI engine modified with windows in the combustion chamber for optical access. Two-dimensional images of the chemiluminescence were captured using an intensified CCD camera in order to understand the spatial distribution of the combustion. N-heptane was used as the test fuel. The experimental data consisting of the in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate, chemiluminescence images all indicate that the different port fuel injection strategies result in different charge distributions in the combustion chamber, and thus affect the auto-ignition timing, chemiluminescence intensity, and combustion processes. Under higher intake temperature conditions, the injection strategies have less effect on the combustion processes due to improved mixing.
Journal Article

Applying Virtual Statistical Modeling for Vehicle Dynamics

2010-04-12
2010-01-0019
Dimensional variation simulation is a computer aided engineering (CAE) method that analyzes the statistical efforts of the component variation to the quality of the final assembly. The traditional tolerance analysis method and commercial CAE software are often based on the assumptions of the rigid part assembly. However, the vehicle functional attributes, such as, ride and handling, NVH, durability and reliability, require understanding the assembly quality under various dynamic conditions while achieving vehicle dimensional clearance targets. This paper presents the methods in evaluating and analyzing the impacts of the assembly variations for the vehicle dynamic performance. Basic linear tolerance stack method and advanced study that applies various CAE tools for the virtual quality analysis in the product and process design will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Probabilistic Prediction and Validation of Vehicle Dynamic Performance by Concurrent Modeling Approach

2016-04-05
2016-01-0482
This paper presents the latest development of using an integrated modeling approach to estimate the statistical ranges of key vehicle dynamics performance in the early design phase. The virtual analytical tools predict the statistical confidence interval for specified ride and handling (R&H) metrics to enable a robust design by concurrently simulating the dimensional tolerance of the structural parts as well as the compliance variation. The compliance variation can be defined as load deflection properties of bushings as well as vehicle weight effects on preload. The model can then be used to better represent real world customer experience, allowing prediction of performance ranges relative to targets. In order to better predict these targets, measurements of physical vehicles were made and compared to the model to reveal the actual interactions relative to the theoretical.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Modelling Investigations of the Gasoline Compression Ignition Combustion in Diesel Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0741
In this work the gasoline compression ignition (GCI) combustion characterized by both premixed gasoline port injection and gasoline direct injection in a single-cylinder diesel engine was investigated experimentally and computationally. In the experiment, the premixed ratio (PR), injection timing and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate were varied with the pressure rise rate below 10 bar/crank angle. The experimental results showed that higher PR and earlier injection timing resulted in advanced combustion phasing and improved thermal efficiency, while the pressure rise rates and NOx emissions increased. Besides, a lowest ISFC of 176 g/kWh (corresponding to IMEP =7.24 bar) was obtained, and the soot emissions could be controlled below 0.6 FSN. Despite that NOx emission was effectively reduced with the increase of EGR, HC and CO emissions were high. However, it showed that GCI combustion of this work was sensitive to EGR, which may restrict its future practical application.
Technical Paper

Component Tests Based on Vehicle Modeling and Virtual Testing

2017-03-28
2017-01-0384
ADAMS, SIMULINK, and ADAMS-SIMULINK co-simulation models of component test systems, Multi-Axis-Simulation-Table (MAST) systems, and spindle-coupled vehicle testing system (MTS 329) were created. In the ADAMS models, the mechanical parts, joints, and bushings were modeled. Hydraulic and control elements were absent. The SIMULINK models modeled control and hydraulic elements including actuator dynamics, servo valve dynamics, closed loop control, three-variable control, matrix control, and coordinate transformation. However, the specimen had to be simplified due to the limitation of SIMULINK software. The ADAMS-SIMULINK co-simulation models considered hydraulic and control components in the SIMULINK portion and mechanical components in ADAMS portion. The interaction between the ADAMS and SIMULINK portions was achieved using ADAMS/Control.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Knock Intensity and Knock-Limited Thermal Efficiency of Different Combustion Chambers in Stoichiometric Operation LNG Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-1137
Liquefied natural gas (LNG) engine could provide both reduced operating cost and reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Stoichiometric operation with EGR and the three-way catalyst has become a potential approach for commercial LNG engines to meet the Euro VI emissions legislation. In the current study, numerical investigations on the knocking tendency of several combustion chambers with different geometries and corresponding performances were conducted using CONVERGE CFD code with G-equation flame propagation model coupled with a reduced natural gas chemical kinetic mechanism. The results showed that the CFD modeling approach could predict the knock phenomenon in LNG engines reasonably well under different thermodynamic and flow field conditions.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Effects of Injection Timing on Thermo-Atmosphere Combustion of Methanol

2007-04-16
2007-01-0197
The effects of various injection timing of methanol on thermo-atmosphere combustion of methanol by port injection of dimethyl ether (DME) and direct injection of methanol were experimentally investigated. The experiment results show that, as injection timing is at 6 degree before TDC, the combustion process comprises three stages: low temperature heat release of DME, high temperature heat release of DME and diffusion combustion of methanol. As injection timing increases, premixed combustion proportion of methanol is increased and diffusion combustion proportion is decreased. As injection timing increases to 126 degree before TDC, diffusion combustion of methanol disappears. At this time, the combustion process shows typical two stages heat release of HCCI combustion. As injection timing increases, required DME rate is increased, combustion efficiency and indicated thermal efficiency all first increase and then decrease.
Technical Paper

Integrated Dimensional Variation Analysis Method for Robust Process Design

2006-04-03
2006-01-0161
Manufacturing variation effects on the fit and function of a finished product, e.g., a vehicle, can be analyzed into designs using 3D dimensional simulation method. In an effort to reduce the predicted process variation for improving the dimensional quality during design phase, an integrated analytical approach is presented using robust design and variation simulation method that leads to select the optimal product datum and locating schemes for the process design. The Taguchi’s robust design and ANOVA (analysis of variance) are used in the algorithm to generate meaningful information about the effects of several processes simultaneously on the variability of the measured products. The application of the proposed method in process control with the dynamic factor, such as powertrain roll, is also discussed.
Technical Paper

An Investigation on the Effects of Fuel Chemistry and Engine Operating Conditions on HCCI Engine

2008-06-23
2008-01-1660
A HCCI engine has been run at different operating boundaries conditions with fuels of different RON and MON and different chemistries. The fuels include gasoline, PRF and the mixture of PRF and ethanol. Six operating boundaries conditions are considered, including different intake temperature (Tin), intake pressure (Pin) and engine speed. The experimental results show that, fuel chemistries have different effect on the combustion process at different operating conditions. It is found that CA50 (crank angle at 50% completion of heat release) shows no correlation with either RON or MON at some operating boundaries conditions, but correlates well with the Octane Index (OI) at all conditions. The higher the OI, the more the resistance to auto-ignition and the later is the heat release in the HCCI engine. The operating range is also correlation with the OI. The higher the OI, the higher IMEP can reach.
Technical Paper

A Framework of DFSS Application in Flexible Inspection System (FIS)

2008-04-14
2008-01-0366
Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) is a product improvement process based on statistical problem solving capabilities which is typically followed IDDOV approach - Identify, Define, Develop, Optimize, and Verify the design. Flexible inspection system (FIS) is defined as one where the inspection routines are not fixed but are determined just prior to performing the inspection [1]. In FIS the inspection stations have the capacity of performing different inspection routines according to a global inspection strategy. In this paper, the IDDOV steps, as well as some DFSS variation analysis techniques, are applied with the FIS to provide an analytical framework for an optimized strategy of real time inspection allocations.
Technical Paper

Development of Advanced Dimensional Control Method for Design for Six Sigma (DFSS)

2007-04-16
2007-01-0536
The concept of design for six sigma (DFSS) offers a framework to design a product and process right the first time. In general, Taguchi's robust design method has been widely adapted in design optimization, which is a critical phase in any DFSS projects. The objective of the paper is to develop an advanced strategy in selecting an optimized product design and manufacturing process that should be insensitive to various multivariate variation patterns of the multi-stage manufacturing system. A Monte Carlo variation simulation based method is presented that integrates Mohalanobis Distance (MD) method, a discriminant analysis technique, to analyze the manufacturing variation patterns detected by using the multivariate statistical tool, such as principal component analysis (PCA). The proposed method will be explained with an example of an automotive assembly.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Investigation on Effects of Charge Stratification on HCCI Combustion

2007-10-29
2007-01-4132
A fully coupled multi-dimensional CFD and reduced chemical kinetics model is adopted to investigate the effects of charge stratification on HCCI combustion and emissions. Seven different kinds of imposed stratification have been introduced according to the position of the maximal local fuel/air equivalence ratio in the cylinder at intake valve close. The results show that: The charge stratification results in stratification of the in-cylinder temperature. The former four kinds of stratification, whose maximal local equivalence ratios at intake valve close locate between the cylinder center and half of the cylinder radius, advance ignition timing, reduce the pressure-rise rate, and retard combustion-phasing. But the following three kinds of stratification, whose maximal local equivalence ratios at intake valve close appear between half of the cylinder radius and the cylinder wall, have little effect on the cylinder pressure.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Boost Pressure and Fuel Chemistry on Combustion and Performance of a HCCI Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-0051
The influence of boost pressure (Pin) and fuel chemistry on combustion characteristics and performance of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine was experimentally investigated. The tests were carried out in a modified four-cylinder direct injection diesel engine. Four fuels were used during the experiments: 90-octane, 93-octane and 97-octane primary reference fuel (PRF) blend and a commercial gasoline. The boost pressure conditions were set to give 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2MPa of absolute pressure. The results indicate that, with the increase of boost pressure, the start of combustion (SOC) advances, and the cylinder pressure increases. The effects of PRF octane number on SOC are weakened as the boost pressure increased. But the difference of SOC between gasoline and PRF is enlarged with the increase of boost pressure. The successful HCCI operating range is extended to the upper and lower load as the boost pressure increased.
Technical Paper

Spray and Combustion Characteristics of n-Butanol in a Constant Volume Combustion Chamber at Different Oxygen Concentrations

2011-04-12
2011-01-1190
A very competitive alcohol for use in diesel engines is butanol. Butanol is of particular interest as a renewable bio-fuel, as it is less hydrophilic and it possesses higher heating value, higher cetane number, lower vapor pressure, and higher miscibility than ethanol or methanol. These properties make butanol preferable to ethanol or methanol for blending with conventional diesel or gasoline fuel. In this paper, the spray and combustion characteristics of pure n-butanol fuel was experimentally investigated in a constant volume combustion chamber. The ambient temperatures were set to 1000 K, and three different oxygen concentrations were set to 21%, 16%, and 10.5%. The results indicate that the penetration length reduces with the increase of ambient oxygen concentration. The combustion pressure and heat release rate demonstrate the auto-ignition delay becomes longer with decreasing of oxygen concentrations.
Technical Paper

Effect of EGR on HCCI Combustion fuelled with Dimethyl Ether (DME) and Methanol Dual-Fuels

2005-10-24
2005-01-3730
The effects of cooled EGR on combustion and emission characteristics in HCCI operation region was investigated on a single-cylinder diesel engine, which is fitted with port injection of DME and methanol. The results indicate that EGR rate can enlarge controlled HCCI operating region, but it has little effect on the maximum load of HCCI engine fuelled with DME/methanol dual-fuels. With the increase of EGR rate, the main combustion ignition timing (MCIT) delays, the main combustion duration (MCD) prolongs, and the peak cylinder pressure and the peak rate of heat release decreases. Compared with EGR, DME percentage has an opposite effect on HCCI combustion characteristics. The increase of indicated thermal efficiency is a combined effect of EGR rate and DME percentage. Both HC and CO emissions ascend with EGR rate increasing, and decrease with DME percentage increasing. In normal combustion, NOX emissions are near zero.
Technical Paper

Simulating the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Process Using a Detailed Kinetic Model for Dimethyl Ether (DME) and Methane Dual Fuel

2004-10-25
2004-01-2951
With a zero-dimensional detailed chemical kinetic model, a numerical study was carried out to investigate the chemical reaction phenomena encountered in the homogenous charge compression ignition process of dimethyl ether (DME) and methane dual fuel. The results show that the DME/methane dual fuel elementary reactions affect each other. The low temperature reaction (LTR) of DME is inhibited, the second molecular oxygen addition of DME is restrained, and β -scission plays a dominant role in DME oxidation. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is controlled by DME oxidation and almost has no correlation with methane oxidation. The rich H2O2 concentration makes methane oxidation occurs at low initial temperature. Most of the formaldehyde (CH2O) is produced from H-abstraction of methoxy (CH3O) rather than from LTR of the DME. However, the heat release of methane oxidation promotes the hot flame reactions of DME which make the reactions with high activation energy occur.
Technical Paper

The Effect of PRF Fuel Octane Number on HCCI Operation

2004-10-25
2004-01-2992
By mixing iso-octane with octane number 100 and normal heptane with octane number 0, it was possible to obtain a PRF fuel with octane rating between 0 and 100. The influence of PRF fuel’s octane number on the combustion characteristics, performance and emissions character of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine was investigated. The experiments were carried out in a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine. The test results show that, with the increase of the octane number, the ignition timing delayed, the combustion rate decreased, and the cylinder pressure decreased. The HCCI combustion can be controlled and then extending the HCCI operating range by burning different octane number fuel at different engine mode, which engine burns low octane number fuel at low load mode and large octane number fuel at large load mode. There exists an optimum octane number that achieves the highest indicated thermal efficiency at different engine load.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on HCCI Combustion of Dimethyl Ether(DME)/Methanol Dual Fuel

2004-10-25
2004-01-2993
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is considered as a high efficient and clean combustion technology for I.C. engines. Methanol is a potential fuel for HCCI combustion. In this research, a single cylinder diesel engine was applied to HCCI operation. Methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) were fueled to the engine by fuel injection system with an electric controlled port in dual fuel mode. The results show that the stable HCCI operation of DME/methanol can be obtained over a quite broad speed and load region. And compared with higher speeds, the load region is even wider at low engine speed. E.g., at the engine speed of 1000 r/min, the maximum indicated mean effective pressure(IMEP) can reach 0.77 MPa, while at 2000r/min it is 0.53 MPa. Both DME and methanol influence HCCI combustion strongly, and by regulating DME/methanol proportions the HCCI combustion process could be controlled effectively.
Technical Paper

Turbocharged diesel/CNG Dual-fuel Engines with Intercooler: Combustion, Emissions and Performance

2003-10-27
2003-01-3082
A yc6112ZLQ turbocharged 6 cylinder engine with intercooler was converted to operate in dual fuel mode with compressed natural gas (CNG) and pilot diesel. The influence of the CNG ratio, pilot diesel injection advance (ADC) and intake temperature after intercooler on the combustion process, emissions and engine performance was investigated. The results show that the combustion process of dual-fuel engines is faster than diesel engine. Both the ignition timing of the pilot fuel and the excess air ratio of total fuel λ dominate the combustion characteristics of duel-fuel engines. With the increase of CNG ratio, the pressure and temperature in cylinder decrease at rated mode, but increase at torque and low speed modes. With advanced the pilot injection timing or increased the intake temperature, the cylinder pressure and temperature increase.
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