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Technical Paper

Evaluation of Performance and Emission Characteristics of an Unmodified Naturally Aspirated Compression Ignition Engine on Blends of Diethyl Ether and Diesel

2013-11-27
2013-01-2888
The world today is majorly dependent upon fossil fuels for power generation, of which diesel forms an integral part. Diesel engines, having the highest thermal efficiency of any regular internal or external combustion engine, are widely used in almost all walks of life and cannot be dispensed with in the near future. However, the limited availability of diesel and the adverse effects of diesel engine emissions like nitrogen oxide (NOx) and soot particles raise serious concerns. Hence, their performance and emission improvement continues to be an avenue of great research activity. In this research work, the effects of blending Diethyl Ether with diesel in various proportions (5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by volume) were evaluated on engine performance and emissions of an industrial internal combustion engine.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on Use of Jatropha Oil Ethyl Easter and Diesel Blends in Small Capacity Diesel Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0172
Biodiesel in has gained great momentum in last few years and has been a subject of vast research all around the globe. Bulk of the research work carried out so far has been confined to production of methyl esters of vegetable oil that is known as biodiesel in the transesterification process. In the present study, jatropha oil ethyl ester (JOEE) was prepared using transesterification process with ethanol and KOH as a catalyst. The evaluation of important physico-chemical properties was carried and the properties were found within acceptable limits of ASTM/EN standards. A small capacity diesel engine was fuelled with different blends of JOEE and diesel and various performances, emission and combustion characteristics were evaluated. The results suggested that brake thermal efficiency was increased and emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and smoke opacity were found lower for JOEE blend confirming better combustion due to the oxygenated fuel and higher cetane rating.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Orange Peel Oil Methyl Ester on Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0171
The rising cost and exponential depletion of crude oil in international market has provided an opportunity for the researchers to evaluate the utilization and suitability of various renewable fuels. Amongst variety of alternative fuels, biofuels have the potential to mitigate the vulnerability and the adverse effects of use of fossil fuels. Vegetable/plant oil is better proposition as alternative fuel for diesel engine having much advantage over other alternative fuels. Orange oil from its peel has a huge potential and can be used as an alternate fuel at the most economical purchase rate. In the present investigation experiments were carried out to evaluate performance and emission characteristics of Orange peel oil methyl ester blends (OPOME) (10%, and 20% by volume) on unmodified diesel engine. The properties of these blends were found to be comparable to diesel and confirming to both the American and European standards.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of Diesel Engine Fueled with Jatropha Oil Blend with Ethanol

2013-09-08
2013-24-0105
Dwindling petroleum reserves and alarming level of air pollution has been an issue of great concern in recent times and researchers across the world are experimenting on variety of renewable fuels for meeting the future energy demands. Within the gamut of alternative fuels, biofuels are the most promising and have the potential to mitigate climate change and lease a new life to existing IC engines. The vegetable oils are having immense potential in this context and have been used either in neat or modified form by large number of researchers. Jatropha curcus is a perennial plant and bears non edible oil. The plant is drought tolerant and has been cultivated all over the arid and semi-arid areas for reforestation. In the present study, blends of jatropha oil and ethanol have been prepared in 5, 10, 15 and 20% (v/v) and evaluation of important properties of blends has been carried. The results show that properties are quite similar to diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Comparative Study of Emissions and Performance of Hythane Boosted SI Engine Powered by Gasoline-Methanol Blend and Gasoline-Ethanol Blend

2016-04-05
2016-01-1281
The continued reliance on fossil fuel energy resources is not sufficient to cater to the current energy demands. The excessive and continuous use of crude oil is now recognized as unviable due to its depleting supplies and elevating environmental degradation by increased emissions from automobile exhaust. There is an urgent need for a renewable and cleaner source of energy to meet the stringent emission norms. Hythane is a mixture of 20% hydrogen and 80% methane. It has benefits of low capital and operating costs and is a cleaner alternative than crude oil. It significantly reduces tailpipe emissions and is the cheapest way to meet new emission standards that is BS-IV. Hythane produces low carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrocarbons (HC) on combustion than crude oil and helps in reduction of greenhouse gases.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of Retarding the Spark Timing in a Hydrogen Enriched Gasoline and Alcohol Blend Powered Spark Ignition Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-1277
Gasoline has been the major fuel in transportation, its good calorific value and high volatility have made it suitable for use in different injection methods. The drastic increase in use of carbon based fuels has led to increase in harmful emissions, thus resulting in implementation of stricter emissions norms. These harmful emissions include carbon monoxide and NOx. To meet the new norms and reduce the harmful emissions, better techniques have to be implemented to achieve better combustion of gasoline and reduce the amount of carbon monoxide in the exhaust. One such way of doing this is by enriching gasoline with hydrogen. Due to its low activation energy and high calorific value, the high energy released from hydrogen can be used to achieve complete combustion of gasoline fuel. However, there are certain drawbacks to the use of hydrogen in spark ignition engine, knocking and overheating of engine parts being the major problems.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Analysis of Biodiesel Production from Mixture of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Oil and Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Oil and its Performance and Emission Testing on a Diesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-1264
Non-edible vegetable oils have a huge potential for biodiesel production and also known as second generation feedstock’s. Biodiesel can be obtained from edible, non-edible, waste cooking oil and from animal fats also. This paper focuses on production of biodiesel obtained from mixture of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) oil and neem (Azadirachta indica) oil which are easily accessible in India and other parts of world. Neem oil has higher FFA content than sesame oil. Biodiesel production from neem oil requires pretreatment neutralization procedure before alkali catalyzed Trans esterification process also it takes large reaction time to achieve biodiesel of feasible yield. Neem oil which has very high FFA and sesame oil which has low FFA content are mixed and this mixture is Trans esterified with no pre-treatment process using molar ratio of 6:1.Fuel properties of methyl ester were close to diesel fuel and satisfied ASTM 6751 and EN 14214 standards.
Technical Paper

Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Performance of an SI Engine Fueled with Methanol-Gasoline and Ethanol-Gasoline Blend with Hydrogen Boosting

2017-03-28
2017-01-1282
Dependency and increase in use of fossil fuels is leading to its depletion and raises serious environmental concerns. There are international obligations to reduce emissions and requirements to strengthen security of fuel supply which is pressuring the automobile industry to use cleaner and more sustainable fuels. Hydrogen fits these criteria as it is not just an abundant alternative but also a clean propellant and Hydrogen engines represent an economic alternative to fuel cells. In the present investigation, EGR has been used on hydrogen boosted SI engine running on gasoline-methanol and ethanol-gasoline blends to determine the additional advantages of the same compared to pure gasoline operation and gasoline-methanol and ethanol-gasoline blends without EGR.
Technical Paper

Design and Simulated Analysis of Regenerative Suspension System with Hydraulic Cylinder, Motor and Dynamo

2017-03-28
2017-01-1284
With the ever increasing number of vehicles on road and the rise of the electric and automated vehicles, it is important to minimize the consumption of energy by each vehicle, regenerative braking is in wide use today, however, the research in the field of regenerative suspension is limited. The regenerative suspension has huge capabilities in power generation especially on third world roads having rather bumpy rides. A huge amounts of energy is wasted in shock absorbers due to friction. This study emphasizes on the implementation of the energy present in the suspension system by replacing the Shock Absorber with a Energy transfer system Involving Hydraulic cylinder, Hydraulic Motor and Dynamo. The energy which is usually lost as heat due to friction in conventional Suspension is used to drive a dynamo through Hydraulic System designed in this paper and electricity is generated.
Technical Paper

Performance Based Optimization of Intake and Injection Parameters of an Advanced Compressed Air Engine Kit

2017-03-28
2017-01-1291
The increment in the application of fossil fuels is leading the world into a catastrophic state both environmentally and economically. Current demand for fuels exceeds its imminent supply and rather sooner than later energy demands will have to shift towards non-conventional fuels to cope with the situation. With constant developments in the automotive sector, several solutions have been found but none have been as good as gasoline to substitute it in the commercial market. One such solution being compressed air might solve this global fuel crisis, which serves a glowing advantage of being cheaper and greener as it produces zero tail-pipe emissions, and can help in decreasing automobile’s contribution to global warming. Though the potential energy stored in the compressed air limits its application to light duty vehicles and still there will be a need for other alternative solutions for the heavy duty vehicles in order to relieve the pressure from the fossil fuels.
Technical Paper

Design and Modelling of Single Cylinder 4 Stroke Gasoline Engine Crankshaft

2019-04-02
2019-01-0767
The crankshaft translates the reciprocatory motion of the piston into rotary motion. A flywheel is generally connected to the crankshaft to reduce the vibrating characteristic of four stroke cycle. Counterweights are added for each reciprocating piston to provide engine balance while operating. Gasoline engines have curtailed compression ratio therefore shorter stoke length as a deduction have higher RPM in comparison to diesel counterpart. A crankshaft is subjected to enormous stresses, potentially equivalent of several tones of force. Failure of the crankshaft is predominantly due to violent vibrations, insufficient lubrication, excessively pressurized cylinder. This research aims to examine the stress subjected to acute points on a crankshaft. Three dimension model of 4 stroke single cylinder engine crankshaft is modeled using SolidWorks v18. End conditions were applied taking into consideration the engine mountings of the crankshaft.
Technical Paper

Effect of Using Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on the Emission Characteristics of the CI Engine Fuelled by Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) Diesel Blends

2019-04-02
2019-01-0748
The power generation, agriculture, and transportation sectors are dominated by diesel engines due to better thermal efficiency and durability. Diesel engines are also a major contributor to the air pollutants such as NOx and particulate matter. Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) is considered a promising alternative fuel as it emits less pollutants compared to conventional fuels. In current work, the ABE used was of the ratio (3:6:1) and four samples were prepared for engine trial ABE (10%90%diesel), ABE (20%80%diesel), ABE (30%70%diesel) and ABE (40%60%diesel). Their physio-chemical properties like kinematic viscosity, density, specific gravity and calorific value were checked and tested on compression ignition engine at different operating parameters. The experimental work was conducted upon Kirloskar 4-stroke single cylinder, vertical, air-cooled 661cc compression ignition engine at different speeds and loads.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigations of Metal Oxide Nano-Additives on Working Characteristics of CI Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0794
Biodiesel is a potential substitute for diesel and extensive research is carried in India on production and utilization of biodiesel from a variety of edible/non-edible, animal fat and waste oils. However, issues like stability, clogging, increased NOx, and high consumption rate etc. are some of the critical issues which are associated with long-term use of these alternative fuels in a diesel engine. The recent developments in science and technology may have concreted a method to create nano measure vigorous resources that have incredible benefits to micron sized constituents. Nano liquids may be a fresh period of compact-fluid complex constituents comprising of nano sized concrete elements disseminated into a base liquid. The present study investigates the effect of doping metal oxides nanoparticles with waste fish oil-based biodiesel. For the present study, the blends of fuel are prepared by using 30ppm each of titanium dioxide and alumina nanoparticles respectively.
Technical Paper

Some Experimental Studies on the Use of Tyre Pyrolysis Oil (TPO) in an Agricultural Diesel Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0796
Globally, the demand for energy is increasing due to both increase in population and enhancement in the lifestyle of people. Most of the energy demand at present is met from fossil fuels, which are not only exhaustible but also a threat to the environment. Various routes of sustainable energy resources are being explored to address the above-mentioned issues and fuel made from used tyre may be one of the promising options. India is one of the fastest growing economies and every year 10 million new vehicles are registered. Due to poor road conditions, nearly fourfold tyres of this number are dumped as waste. This large stock of dumped tyres are non-biodegradable and creates other problems like a breeding site for mosquitos, or source of pollution in case of accidental fire. In order to cope with the large pile-up of used tyres, pyrolysis of these tyres could be a sustainable route.
Technical Paper

Study of Performance and Emission Characteristics of Propan-2-ol and Gasoline Fuel Blends in an Unmodified Spark Ignition Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0793
In view of the rapid depletion, increasing prices and uneven distribution of conventional petroleum fuels; the interest in the use of alternative fuels has increased exponentially. Fuels such as biodiesel & alcohol have been evaluated both at experimental and commercial scale due to improved emission characteristics as compared to conventional fuels. Alcohols are oxygenated and result in improving the engine performance. As a blend with conventional gasoline, the alcohols enhance the premixed and diffusive combustion phase which improves the combustion efficiency. The present investigation evaluates studies on stability and homogeneity along with physicochemical properties like density, viscosity, calorific value, copper-strip corrosion and solubility at room temperature of Propan-2-ol and gasoline blends. Comprehensive engine trials on unmodified petrol engine fuelled with blends of Propan-2-ol and gasoline blends in the proportions of 5, 10, 15 and 20% by volume have been conducted.
Technical Paper

Utilization of Blends of Biodiesel and Higher Alcohols in a Small Capacity Diesel Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0580
Diesel engine widely uses in India in farming, transportation, and industrial sectors due to higher thermal efficiency, robust construction and heavy load carrying capacity. However, diesel engine emits a large number of gaseous emissions and particulate matter which caused serious detrimental environmental consequences and health hazards. The use of biofuel has shown a positive impact in resolving these issues of environmental degradation. India is also a net importer of petroleum-derived fuels and a substantial amount in precious foreign exchange is spent for this. In the last three decades in India, a lot of research work on renewable diesel-like fuels have been carried out, and the most promising of them is biodiesel. However,Biodiesel suffers from the drawback of relatively higher kinematic viscosity. But higher alcohols such as n-butanol and n-octanol could be blended with the biodiesel to bring its properties similar to diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Blending of Higher Alcohols with Vegetable Oil Based Fuels for Use in Compression Ignition Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0958
Concerns about long term availability of petroleum based fuels and stringent environmental norms have been a subject for deliberations around the globe. The vegetable oil based fuels and alcohols are very promising alternative fuels for substitution of diesel, reduce exhaust emissions and to improve combustion in diesel engines which is mainly possible due to oxygenated nature of these fuels. Jatropha oil is important non-edible oil in India which is either used in neat or modified form as diesel fuel. Furthermore n-butanol is renewable higher alcohol having properties quite similar to diesel fuel. In the present study, n-butanol was blended in Jatropha Oil (JO) and Jatropha Oil Methyl Ester (JME) on volumetric basis (10 and 20%). The blends were homogeneous and stable and there was no phase separation. The different physicochemical properties of blends were evaluated as per relevant standards.
Technical Paper

Optimization Analysis of Injection Angle and Injector Nozzle of an Advanced Compressed Air Engine Kit

2015-04-14
2015-01-1678
Increased demand and use of fossil fuels in transportation sector accompanied by the global oil crisis does not support sustainable development for the future generations to come. Not only that, today's on-road vehicles produce over one third of the CO and NOX present in our atmosphere and over twenty per cent of the global warming pollution. This air pollution carries significant risks for human health and the environment. Through clean vehicle and fuel technologies, it is possible to significantly reduce air pollution from our vehicles. In such a grim situation, Compressed Air Vehicles (CAV) powered by pressurized air stored in high pressure storage tanks seem to be one of the practical solutions available for tackling the fuel crisis and environment related issues.
Technical Paper

Comparative Study of Emissions and Performance of Hydrogen Boosted SI Engine Powered by Gasoline Methanol Blend and Gasoline Ethanol Blend

2015-04-14
2015-01-1677
Increased dependency on fossil fuels has led to its depletion as well as affected the environment adversely. Moreover, increasing crude oil prices is pressurizing vehicle manufacturers to invent new technology so as to increase fuel economy and at the same time to keep emissions under control. Hydrogen has gained popularity not just in terms of being an abundant alternative but also due to being a very clean propellant. In the present investigation, hydrogen boosting has been performed on an SI engine running on gasoline-methanol and ethanol-gasoline blends to determine the additional advantages of the same compared to pure gasoline operation. The engine selected for experimental analysis is a single cylinder, air cooled spark ignition engine that has been modified for hydrogen injection in the intake manifold prior to the port with the injection timing being held constant throughout the experiment.
Technical Paper

Development of a Dedicated Hydrogen Port Injection Kit for Small Engines

2015-09-29
2015-01-2881
The danger posed by climate change and the striving for securities of energy supply are issues high on the political agenda these days. Governments are putting strategic plans in motion to decrease primary energy use, take carbon out of fuels and facilitate modal shifts. Man's energy requirements are touching astronomical heights. The natural resources of the Earth can no longer cope with it as their rate of consumption far outruns their rate of regeneration. The automotive sector is without a doubt a chief contributor to this mayhem as fossil fuel resources are fast depleting. The harmful emissions from vehicles using these fuels are destroying our forests and contaminating our water bodies and even the air that we breathe. The need of the hour is to look not only for new alternative energy resources but also clean energy resources. Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most important fuels in the near future to meet the stringent emission norms.
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