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Technical Paper

Effects of Average Driving Cycle Speed on Lean-Burn Natural Gas Bus Emissions and Fuel Economy

2007-01-23
2007-01-0054
Although diesel engines still power most of the heavy-duty transit buses in the United States, many major cities are also operating fleets where a significant percentage of buses is powered by lean-burn natural gas engines. Emissions from these buses are often expressed in distance-specific units of grams per mile (g/mile) or grams per kilometer (g/km), but the driving cycle or route employed during emissions measurement has a strong influence on the reported results. A driving cycle that demands less energy per unit distance than others results in higher fuel economy and lower distance-specific oxides of nitrogen emissions. In addition to energy per unit distance, the degree to which the driving cycle is transient in nature can also affect emissions.
Technical Paper

Parametric Study of 2007 Standard Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Particulate Matter Sampling System

2007-01-23
2007-01-0060
Heavy-Duty Diesel (HDD) engines' particulate matter (PM) emissions are most often measured quantitatively by weighing filters that collect diluted exhaust samples pre- and post-test. PM sampling systems that dilute exhaust gas and collect PM samples have different effects on measured PM data. Those effects usually contribute to inter-laboratory variance. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s 2007 PM emission measurement regulations for the test of HDD engines should reduce variability, but must also cope with PM mass that is an order of magnitude lower than legacy engine testing. To support the design of a 2007 US standard HDD PM emission sampling system, a parametric study based on a systematic Simulink® model was performed. This model acted as an auxiliary design tool when setting up a new 2007 HDD PM emission sampling system in a heavy-duty test cell at West Virginia University (WVU). It was also designed to provide assistance in post-test data processing.
Technical Paper

Research Approach for Aging and Evaluating Diesel Lean-NOx Catalysts

2001-09-24
2001-01-3620
The goal of the Diesel Emissions Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) program was to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emissions control devices that could lower emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks and buses. West Virginia University (WVU) performed evaluations of lean-NOx catalysts to determine the effects of fuel sulfur content on emissions reduction efficiency and catalyst durability in the first 250 hours of operation. A Cummins ISM370 engine (10.8 liter, 370 horsepower), typical of heavy -duty truck applications, was utilized to evaluate high-temperature lean-NOX catalyst while a Navistar T444E (7.3 liter, 210 horsepower), typical of medium-duty applications, was used to evaluate low-temperature catalyst. Catalysts were evaluated periodically during the first 250 hours of exposure to exhaust from engines operated on 3ppm, 30ppm, 150ppm and 350ppm sulfur content diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Weight Effect on Emissions and Fuel Consumption from Diesel and Lean-Burn Natural Gas Transit Buses

2007-08-05
2007-01-3626
Transit agencies across the United States operate bus fleets primarily powered by diesel, natural gas, and hybrid drive systems. Passenger loading affects the power demanded from the engine, which in turn affects distance-specific emissions and fuel consumption. Analysis shows that the nature of bus activity, taking into account the idle time, tire rolling resistance, wind drag, and acceleration energy, influences the way in which passenger load impacts emissions. Emissions performance and fuel consumption from diesel and natural gas powered buses were characterized by the West Virginia University (WVU) Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory. A comparison matrix for all three bus technologies included three common driving cycles (the Braunschweig Cycle, the OCTA Cycle, and the ADEME-RATP Paris Cycle). Each bus was tested at three different passenger loading conditions (empty weight, half weight, and full weight).
Technical Paper

Speciation of Organic Compounds from the Exhaust of Trucks and Buses: Effect of Fuel and After-Treatment on Vehicle Emission Profiles

2002-10-21
2002-01-2873
A study was performed in the spring of 2001 to chemically characterize exhaust emissions from trucks and buses fueled by various test fuels and operated with and without diesel particle filters. This study was part of a multi-year technology validation program designed to evaluate the emissions impact of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels and passive diesel particle filters (DPF) in several different heavy-duty vehicle fleets operating in Southern California. The overall study of exhaust chemical composition included organic compounds, inorganic ions, individual elements, and particulate matter in various size-cuts. Detailed descriptions of the overall technology validation program and chemical speciation methodology have been provided in previous SAE publications (2002-01-0432 and 2002-01-0433).
Technical Paper

Prediction of Pollutant Concentration Variation Inside a Turbulent Dispersing Plume Using PDF and Gaussian Models

2002-03-04
2002-01-0654
In order to evaluate the impact of emission of pollutants on the environment, it has become increasingly important that the dispersion of pollutants be predicted accurately. Recently, USEPA has proposed stringent guidelines for regulating the diesel exhaust emissions, specifically, NOx, COx, SOx, and particulate matter (PM) due to green house effect, and ozone depletion. Modeling pollutant transport in the atmospheric environment is complicated by the fact that there are many turbulent mixing time scales and spatial scales present which directly influence the dispersion of the plume. The traditional approach to predicting pollutant dispersion in the atmosphere is the use of Gaussian plume models. The Gaussian models are based on a steady state assumption, and they require the flow to be in a homogeneous and stationary turbulence state.
Technical Paper

Chemical Speciation of Exhaust Emissions from Trucks and Buses Fueled on Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel and CNG

2002-03-04
2002-01-0432
A recently completed program was developed to evaluate ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels and passive diesel particle filters (DPF) in several different truck and bus fleets operating in Southern California. The primary test fuels, ECD and ECD-1, are produced by ARCO, a BP company, and have less than 15 ppm sulfur content. A test fleet comprised of heavy-duty trucks and buses were retrofitted with one of two types of catalyzed diesel particle filters, and operated for one year. As part of this program, a chemical characterization study was performed in the spring of 2001 to compare the exhaust emissions using the test fuels with and without aftertreatment. A detailed speciation of volatile organic hydrocarbons (VOC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitro-PAH, carbonyls, polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorodibenzo-p-furans (PCDF), inorganic ions, elements, PM10, and PM2.5 in diesel exhaust was performed for a select set of vehicles.
Technical Paper

Emission Reductions and Operational Experiences With Heavy Duty Diesel Fleet Vehicles Retrofitted with Continuously Regenerated Diesel Particulate Filters in Southern California

2001-03-05
2001-01-0512
Particulate emission control from diesel engines is one of the major concerns in the urban areas in California. Recently, regulations have been proposed for stringent PM emission requirements from both existing and new diesel engines. As a result, particulate emission control from urban diesel engines using advanced particulate filter technology is being evaluated at several locations in California. Although ceramic based particle filters are well known for high PM reductions, the lack of effective and durable regeneration system has limited their applications. The continuously regenerated diesel particulate filter (CRDPF) technology discussed in this presentation, solves this problem by catalytically oxidizing NO present in the diesel exhaust to NO2 which is utilized to continuously combust the engine soot under the typical diesel engine operating condition.
Technical Paper

Class 8 Trucks Operating On Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel With Particulate Filter Systems: Regulated Emissions

2000-10-16
2000-01-2815
Emissions from heavy-duty vehicles may be reduced through the introduction of clean diesel formulations, and through the use of catalyzed particulate matter filters that can enjoy increased longevity and performance if ultra-low sulfur diesel is used. Twenty over-the-road tractors with Detroit Diesel Series 60 engines were selected for this study. Five trucks were operated on California (CA) specification diesel (CARB), five were operated on ARCO (now BP Amoco) EC diesel (ECD), five were operated on ARCO ECD with a Johnson-Matthey Continuously Regenerating Technology (CRT) filter and five were operated on ARCO ECD with an Engelhard Diesel Particulate Filter (DPX). The truck emissions were characterized using a transportable chassis dynamometer, full-scale dilution tunnel, research grade gas analyzers and filters for particulate matter (PM) mass collection. Two test schedules, the 5 mile route and the city-suburban (heavy vehicle) route (CSR), were employed.
Technical Paper

Class 8 Trucks Operating On Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel With Particulate Filter Systems: A Fleet Start-Up Experience

2000-10-16
2000-01-2821
Previous studies have shown that regenerating particulate filters are very effective at reducing particulate matter emissions from diesel engines. Some particulate filters are passive devices that can be installed in place of the muffler on both new and older model diesel engines. These passive devices could potentially be used to retrofit large numbers of trucks and buses already in service, to substantially reduce particulate matter emissions. Catalyst-type particulate filters must be used with diesel fuels having low sulfur content to avoid poisoning the catalyst. A project has been launched to evaluate a truck fleet retrofitted with two types of passive particulate filter systems and operating on diesel fuel having ultra-low sulfur content. The objective of this project is to evaluate new particulate filter and fuel technology in service, using a fleet of twenty Class 8 grocery store trucks. This paper summarizes the truck fleet start-up experience.
Technical Paper

Regulated Emissions from Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks Operating in the South Coast Air Basin

2006-10-16
2006-01-3395
Heavy duty diesel vehicle (HDDV) emissions are known to affect air quality, but few studies have quantified the real-world contribution to the inventory. The objective of this study was to provide data that may enable ambient emissions investigators to m,odel the air quality more accurately. The 25 vehicles reported in this paper are from the first phase of a program to determine representative regulated emissions from Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks (HHDDT) operating in Southern California. Emissions data were gathered using a chassis dynamometer, full flow dilution tunnel, and research grade analyzers. The subject program employed two truck test weights and four new test modes (one was idle operation), in addition to the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS), and the AC50/80 cycle. The reason for such a broad test cycle scope was to determine thoroughly how HHDDT emissions are influenced by operating cycle to improve accuracy of models.
Technical Paper

Influences of Real-World Conditions on In-Use Emission from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

2006-10-16
2006-01-3393
The 1998 Consent Decrees between the settling heavy-duty diesel engine manufacturers and the United States Government require the engine manufacturer to perform in-use emissions testing to evaluate their engine designs and emissions when the vehicle is placed into service. This additional requirement will oblige the manufacturer to account for real-world conditions when designing engines and engine control algorithms and include driving conditions, ambient conditions, and fuel properties in addition to the engine certification test procedures. Engine operation and ambient conditions can be designed into the engine control algorithm. However, there will most likely be no on-board determination of fuel properties or composition in the near future. Therefore, the engine manufacturer will need to account for varying fuel properties when developing the engine control algorithm for when in-use testing is performed.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Heavy-Duty Truck Diesel Particulate Matter Measurement:TEOM and Traditional Filter

2005-05-11
2005-01-2153
The Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) measures captured particle mass continuously on a small filter held on an oscillating element. In addition to traditional filter-based particulate matter (PM) measurement, a TEOM was used to characterize PM from the dilute exhaust of trucks examined in two phases (Phase 1.5 and Phase 2) of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions Inventory Project E-55/E-59. Test schedules employed were the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) test schedule that consists of four modes (Idle, Creep, Transient and Cruise), the HHDDT Short (HHDDT_S) which represents high-speed freeway operation, and the Heavy-Duty Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS). TEOM results were on average 6% lower than those from traditional particulate filter weighing. Data (in units of g/cycle) were examined by plotting cycle-averaged TEOM mass against filter mass. Regression (R2) values for these plots were from 0.88 to 0.99.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a Portable Micro-Dilution Tunnel Particulate Measurement System

2005-10-24
2005-01-3789
The Federal Test Procedure (FTP) for heavy-duty engines requires the use of a full-flow tunnel based constant volume sampler (CVS) which is costly to build and maintain, and requires a large workspace. A portable micro-dilution system that could be used for measuring on-board, in use emissions from heavy duty vehicles would be an inexpensive alternative compared to a full-flow CVS tunnel, as well as requiring significantly less workspace. This paper evaluates such a portable particulate matter measuring system. This micro-dilution tunnel operates on the same principle as a full-flow tunnel, however dilution ratios can be more easily controlled with the micro dilution system. The dilution ratios for the micro-dilution system were maintained at least four to one, as per ISO 8178 requirements, by measuring the mass flow rates of the dilution air and dilute exhaust.
Technical Paper

Impact of Vehicle Weight on Truck Behavior and Emissions, using On-Board Measurement

2005-10-24
2005-01-3788
On-board emissions measurement for heavy-duty vehicles has taken on greater significance because new standards now address in-use emissions levels in the USA. Emissions compliance must be shown in a “Not-to-exceed” (NTE) zone that excludes engine operation at low power. An over-the-road 1996 Peterbilt tractor was instrumented with the West Virginia University Mobile Emissions Measurement System (MEMS). The researchers determined how often the truck entered the NTE, and the emissions from the vehicle, as it was driven over different routes and at different test weights (20,740 lb, 34,640 lb, 61,520 lb, and 79,700 lb) The MEMS interfaced with the truck ECU, while also measuring exhaust flowrate, and concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) in the exhaust. The four test routes that were employed included varying terrain types in order to simulate a wide range of on-road driving conditions. One route (called the Bruceton route) included a sustained hill climb.
Technical Paper

Quality Assurance of Exhaust Emissions Test Data Measured Using Portable Emissions Measurement System

2005-10-24
2005-01-3799
Beginning 2007, heavy-duty engine certification would require that in-use emissions from vehicles be measured under ‘real-world’ operating conditions using on-board measurement devices. An on-board portable emissions measurement system called Mobile Emissions Measurement System (MEMS) was developed at West Virginia University (WVU) to record in-use, continuous and brake-specific emissions from heavy-duty diesel-powered vehicles. The objective of this paper is to present a preliminary development of a test data quality assurance methodology for emissions measured using the any portable emissions measurement system (PEMS). The first stage of the methodology requires ensuring the proper operation of the different sensors and transducers during data collection. The second stage is data synchronization and pre-processing. The next stage is systematic checking of possible errors from transducers and sensors.
Technical Paper

Design of a Portable Micro-Dilution Tunnel Particulate Matter Emissions Measurement System

2005-10-24
2005-01-3795
The Federal Test Procedure (FTP) for heavy-duty engines requires the use of a full-flow tunnel based constant volume sampler (CVS). These are costly to build and maintain, and require a large workspace. A small portable micro-dilution system that could be used on-board, for measuring emissions of in-use, heavy-duty vehicles would be an inexpensive alternative. This paper presents the rationale behind the design of such a portable particulate matter measuring system. The presented micro-dilution tunnel operates on the same principle as a full-flow tunnel, however given the reduced size dilution ratios can be more easily controlled with the micro dilution system. The design targets dilution ratios of at least four to one, in accordance with the ISO 8178 requirements. The unique features of the micro-dilution system are the use of only a single pump and a porous sintered stainless steel tube for mixing dilution air and raw exhaust sample.
Technical Paper

Euro IV and V Diesel Emission Control System Review

2007-11-28
2007-01-2617
Transportation needs and usage have increased with GDP around the world. The emissions of soot, NOx, CO and hydrocarbons from both gasoline and diesel engines that result from the use of transportation has been regulated for some time in North America and Europe. Other parts of the world are following this lead. Many Countries around the world, including Brazil, are adopting European regulations for both emission control and fuel quality. Several combinations of engine management and emission control systems are able to meet these increasingly stringent emission requirements called for in the European Euro IV and V heavy Duty diesel rules. Examples of engine / emission control system combinations as well as the methodology to develop the emission control systems will be discussed. Finally, the performance of several emission control systems will be presented.
Technical Paper

The West Virginia University Heavy Duty Vehicle Emissions Database as a Resource for Inventory and Comparative Studies

2000-10-16
2000-01-2854
Inventory approaches for truck and bus emissions rely heavily on certification data, and no comprehensive results have been published to date. Two transportable chassis dynamometer laboratories developed and operated by West Virginia University (WVU) have been used extensively to gather realistic emission data from heavy-duty vehicles tested in the field, in controlled, simulated driving conditions. By default, a comprehensive database has been assembled, that comprises a wide variety of vehicles, engines, fuels, and driving scenarios. A subset of these data is analyzed in this paper for an illustration of practical utilization of such information, either for inventory assessments, or for comparative and correlation studies. General guidelines for data screening and analysis approaches are provided, along with examples of specific results and discussions for a selected cross-section of samples.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Diesel-Electric Heavy Duty Bus Emissions: Benefits Of Regeneration And Need For State Of Charge Correction

2000-10-16
2000-01-2955
Hybrid diesel electric buses offer the advantage of superior fuel economy through use of regenerative braking and lowered transient emissions by reducing the need of the engine to follow load as closely as in a conventional bus. With the support of the Department of Energy (DOE), five Lockheed Martin-Orion hybrid diesel-electric buses were operated on the West Virginia University Transportable Laboratory in Brooklyn, New York. The buses were exercised through a new cycle, termed the Manhattan cycle, that was representative of today's bus use as well as the accepted Central Business District Cycle and New York Bus Cycle. Emissions data were corrected for the state of charge of the batteries. The emissions can be expressed in units of grams/mile, grams/axle hp-hr and grams/gallon fuel. The role of improved fuel economy in reducing oxides of nitrogen relative to conventional automatic buses is evident in the data.
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