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Technical Paper


Over the past several years, there has been increased interest in reformulated and alternative diesel fuel to control emissions and provide energy independence. As public concern about environmental pollution and energy security increases, alternative transportation fuels, such as compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), and bio-fuels are receiving more and more attention. Oil seed plants have been one of the biomass sources of fuel. In this study, use of macro- emulsion of vegetable oil in compression ignition engine as an alternative diesel fuel is carried out. The emphasize in this study is on non- edible vegetable oil as they are not used in house hold purposes. The macro-emulsion of linseed oil and mahua oil with neat diesel and alcohol in varying proportion were prepared and their properties in view of their suitability as a diesel fuel were evaluated. Also their performance and emission characteristics were tested in the C.I. engine.
Technical Paper


As neat crude palm oil is not ideally suitable as a fuel for diesel engines because of its high viscosity; process of transesterification was adopted to develop methyl ester of palm oil that approximate the properties and performance of hydrocarbon-based diesel fuel. Various properties of the methyl ester of palm oil were evaluated and compared in relation with that of neat diesel. The prepared methyl ester of palm oil, blended in different concentrations with neat diesel was then subjected to performance and emission tests in order to evaluate its suitability in diesel engine. The data thus generated were compared with base line data generated from neat diesel. An optimal blend of 10-20% methyl ester of palm oil with neat diesel exhibited best performance and smooth engine operation without any symptoms of undesired combustion phenomenon. This suggests use of 10-20% of biodiesel developed from palm oil in diesel engine with out any difficulty.
Technical Paper

Study of Performance and Emissions Parameters of Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fuelled with Micro Emulsion of Jatropha Oil and Ethanol

The use of alternative fuel has many advantages and the main ones are its renewability, biodegradability with better quality exhaust gas emission, which do not contribute to raise the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The use of non-edible vegetables oils as an alternative fuels for diesel engine is accelerated by the energy crisis due to depletion of resources and increase in environmental problems. In Asian countries like India, great need of edible oil as a food so cannot use these oils as alternative fuels for diesel engine. However there are many issues related to the use of vegetable oils in diesel engine that is high viscosity, low calorific value, high self-ignition temperature etc. Jatropha curcas has been promoted in India as a sustainable substitute to diesel fuel. This research prepared micro emulsions of ethanol and Jatropha vegetable oil in different ratio and find out the physico-chemical parameters to compare with mineral diesel oil.
Technical Paper

Scope of Regenerative (Magnetic) Braking in the Production of Electricity in Automobiles

It is of common knowledge that tapping all the feasible sources of energy and systems which prevent losses is the need of the hour. Currently, many such systems have been developed including “REGENERATIVE BRAKING”. The usual method for regenerative braking includes using a dynamo attached to the crankshaft which gets charged when the wheel rotates during idling. However, this study aims at doing this differently by attaching the regenerative system at the wheels. Considering an example of wastage of energy, a 1000 kg car brakes from 36km/h (10m/s) to 18km/h (5m/s) about 150 times in a liter consumption of diesel. We can safely calculate wastage of 5625 KJ of kinetic energy. This paper aims to explore this immense potential source of energy recovery by producing & storing electricity using magnetic braking on wheels of automobiles.
Technical Paper

Performance Analyses of Diesel Engine at Different Injection Angles Using Water Diesel Emulsion

Globally, transportation is the second largest energy consuming sector after the industrial sector and is completely dependent on petroleum products and alternative technologies. So, fossil fuel consumption for energy requirement is a primary concern and can be addressed with the fuel consumption reduction technologies. Transportation sector is mainly using diesel engines because of production of high thermal efficiency and higher torque at lower RPM. Therefore, diesel consumption should be targeted for future energy security and this can be primarily controlled by the petroleum fuel substitution techniques for existing diesel engines. Some of the fuel, which includes biodiesel, alcohol-diesel emulsions and diesel water emulsions etc. Among which the diesel water emulsion (DWE) is found to be most suitable fuel due to reduction in particulate matter and NOx emission, besides that it also improves the brake thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation and Emission Characteristics of Biodiesel-Alcohol-Diesel Blends Fuelled in VCR Engine

The diesel engine has for many decades now assumed a leading role in both the medium and medium-large transport sector due to their high efficiency and ability to produce high torque at low RPM. Furthermore, energy diversification and petroleum independence are also required by each country. In response to this, biodiesel is being considered as a promising solution due to its high calorific value and lubricity conventional petroleum diesel. However, commercial use of biodiesel has been limited because of some drawbacks including corrosivity, instability of fuel properties, higher viscosity, etc. Biodiesel are known for lower CO, HC and PM emissions. But, on the flip side they produce higher NOx emissions. The addition of alcohol to biodiesel diesel blend can help in reducing high NOx produced by the biodiesel while improving some physical fuel properties.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emission Analysis of a CI Engine in Dual Mode with CNG and Karanja Oil Methyl Ester

Rapid depletion of fossil fuels is urgently demanding an extensive research work to find out the viable alternative fuel for meeting sustainable energy demand without any environmental impact. In the future, our energy systems will need to be renewable, sustainable, efficient, cost-effective, convenient and safe. Therefore, researchers has shown interest towards alternative fuels like vegetable oils, alcohols, LPG, CNG, Producer gas, biogas in order to substitute conventional fuel i.e. diesel used in compression ignition (CI) engine. However, studies have suggested that trans-esterified vegetable oils retain quite similar physico-chemical properties comparable to diesel. Besides having several advantages, its use is restricted due to higher emissions i.e. NOx, CO, HC and deposits due to improper combustion. Hence, there is a need of cleaner fuel for diesel engines for the forthcoming stringent emissions norms and the fossil depletion.
Technical Paper

Development of a Dedicated Hydrogen Port Injection Kit for Small Engines

The danger posed by climate change and the striving for securities of energy supply are issues high on the political agenda these days. Governments are putting strategic plans in motion to decrease primary energy use, take carbon out of fuels and facilitate modal shifts. Man's energy requirements are touching astronomical heights. The natural resources of the Earth can no longer cope with it as their rate of consumption far outruns their rate of regeneration. The automotive sector is without a doubt a chief contributor to this mayhem as fossil fuel resources are fast depleting. The harmful emissions from vehicles using these fuels are destroying our forests and contaminating our water bodies and even the air that we breathe. The need of the hour is to look not only for new alternative energy resources but also clean energy resources. Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most important fuels in the near future to meet the stringent emission norms.
Technical Paper

Design and Optimization of Composite Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (Hawt) Blade

Wind energy is clean and renewable source of energy that is an attractive alternative to non-conventional sources of energy. Due to rapid increase in global energy requirements, this form of energy is gaining its share of importance. Unlike nuclear power or tar sand oils, wind energy does not leave a long-term toxic legacy. Using MATLAB algorithms, multi-optimization of wind turbine design can be achieved. Therefore, an aerodynamic mathematical model is developed to obtain the optimal chord length and twist angle distribution along the blade span. Further, a promising generic blade design is used to initialize a detailed structure optimization wherein leading edge panel (LEP), Spar cap, Shear web, Trailing edge panel (TEP) reinforcement are sized using composite laminates so that the blade is according to the intended design standard. Initially blade airfoils are analyzed on 2D platform and then the results are used to construct 3D model of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) blade.
Technical Paper

Utilization of Blends of Biodiesel and Higher Alcohols in a Small Capacity Diesel Engine

Diesel engine widely uses in India in farming, transportation, and industrial sectors due to higher thermal efficiency, robust construction and heavy load carrying capacity. However, diesel engine emits a large number of gaseous emissions and particulate matter which caused serious detrimental environmental consequences and health hazards. The use of biofuel has shown a positive impact in resolving these issues of environmental degradation. India is also a net importer of petroleum-derived fuels and a substantial amount in precious foreign exchange is spent for this. In the last three decades in India, a lot of research work on renewable diesel-like fuels have been carried out, and the most promising of them is biodiesel. However,Biodiesel suffers from the drawback of relatively higher kinematic viscosity. But higher alcohols such as n-butanol and n-octanol could be blended with the biodiesel to bring its properties similar to diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Study of Performance and Emission Characteristics of Propan-2-ol and Gasoline Fuel Blends in an Unmodified Spark Ignition Engine

In view of the rapid depletion, increasing prices and uneven distribution of conventional petroleum fuels; the interest in the use of alternative fuels has increased exponentially. Fuels such as biodiesel & alcohol have been evaluated both at experimental and commercial scale due to improved emission characteristics as compared to conventional fuels. Alcohols are oxygenated and result in improving the engine performance. As a blend with conventional gasoline, the alcohols enhance the premixed and diffusive combustion phase which improves the combustion efficiency. The present investigation evaluates studies on stability and homogeneity along with physicochemical properties like density, viscosity, calorific value, copper-strip corrosion and solubility at room temperature of Propan-2-ol and gasoline blends. Comprehensive engine trials on unmodified petrol engine fuelled with blends of Propan-2-ol and gasoline blends in the proportions of 5, 10, 15 and 20% by volume have been conducted.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigations of Metal Oxide Nano-Additives on Working Characteristics of CI Engine

Biodiesel is a potential substitute for diesel and extensive research is carried in India on production and utilization of biodiesel from a variety of edible/non-edible, animal fat and waste oils. However, issues like stability, clogging, increased NOx, and high consumption rate etc. are some of the critical issues which are associated with long-term use of these alternative fuels in a diesel engine. The recent developments in science and technology may have concreted a method to create nano measure vigorous resources that have incredible benefits to micron sized constituents. Nano liquids may be a fresh period of compact-fluid complex constituents comprising of nano sized concrete elements disseminated into a base liquid. The present study investigates the effect of doping metal oxides nanoparticles with waste fish oil-based biodiesel. For the present study, the blends of fuel are prepared by using 30ppm each of titanium dioxide and alumina nanoparticles respectively.
Technical Paper

Effect of Using Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on the Emission Characteristics of the CI Engine Fuelled by Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) Diesel Blends

The power generation, agriculture, and transportation sectors are dominated by diesel engines due to better thermal efficiency and durability. Diesel engines are also a major contributor to the air pollutants such as NOx and particulate matter. Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) is considered a promising alternative fuel as it emits less pollutants compared to conventional fuels. In current work, the ABE used was of the ratio (3:6:1) and four samples were prepared for engine trial ABE (10%90%diesel), ABE (20%80%diesel), ABE (30%70%diesel) and ABE (40%60%diesel). Their physio-chemical properties like kinematic viscosity, density, specific gravity and calorific value were checked and tested on compression ignition engine at different operating parameters. The experimental work was conducted upon Kirloskar 4-stroke single cylinder, vertical, air-cooled 661cc compression ignition engine at different speeds and loads.
Technical Paper

Comparative Study on Performance and Emission Characteristics of Fish Oil Biodiesel and Mahua Oil Biodiesel Blend with Diesel and Diesel Fuel in a Medium Capacity Compression Ignition Employing Urea-SCR with Cu-ZSM5

The present world scenario faces a serious threat from increasing dependence on fossil fuels. This has triggered the awareness to find alternative energy as their sustainable energy sources. Biodiesel as a cleaner renewable fuel may be considered as a good substitution for diesel fuel due to it being used in any compression ignition engine without any modification. The main advantages of using biodiesel are its renewability and better quality of exhaust gas emissions. In terms of emissions from biodiesel, the cause of concern continues to be the NOx emissions. Therefore, to compliment the functioning of biodiesels, Urea-SCR over Cu-ZSM5 catalyst is an effective option due to its ability to convert NOx into nitrogen and water. There has been increasing concerns that biodiesel feedstock may compete with food supply in the long term. The recent paper focuses on use of two non-edible oils mahua oil and fish oil (processed from waste produced by fish).
Technical Paper

Studying Synthesis of Thermally and Chemically Modified Plant Oil and their Tribological Evaluation for Use as a Base Stock for Environmentally Friendly Bio-Lubricant

The world today is facing severe oil crisis and environmental pollution, thus there is a great urgency of developing and applying bio based products as a substitute to mineral oil based products. Rapid industrialization and automation in the last decade has increased the demand of mineral oil based lubricant that will get exhausted in the years to come. Also in addition to the above fact, the biodegradability of mineral-oil based lubricants is around 25% maximum. About 50% of all lubricants sold worldwide end up in the Environment. Due to extensive use of mineral oil based lubricants, several environmental issues such as surface water and groundwater contamination, Air pollution, soil contamination, agricultural product and food contamination are emerging very rapidly. This has led the researchers to look for plant oil based bio- lubricant as an alternative to mineral oil based lubricant.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Application of Turbo Expansion in Light Duty Gasoline and Diesel Engines: A Review

Turboexpansion is a concept which is aimed at reducing the fuel consumption of pressure-charged combustion engines by providing over-cooled air to the engine prior to its induction in the combustion chamber. The performance of the engine is dependent on intake charge density which is preferred to be high at reduced charge air temperature. This becomes achievable through a cooling system known as a turbo expander which expands a high-pressure gas to produce work that is usually employed to drive a compressor. Though, initially used for the purpose of refrigeration in industries, for the past few decades various researches have proved its efficiency in internal combustion engines. In gasoline engines, it is usually employed to extend the knock limit and reduce carbon emissions. Also, an extension to the knock limit allows several improvements in parameters such as increased specific output, an increase in compression ratio and a reduction in the fuel consumption of the engine.
Technical Paper

Optimization Techniques to Improve the Efficiency of Regenerative (Magnetic) Braking Systems

At present, vast numbers of problems are triggered due to growing global energy crisis and rising energy costs. Since, on-road vehicles constitute the majority share of transportation; any energy losses in them will have a direct effect on the overall global energy scenario. Most of the energy lost is dissipated from the exhaust, cooling, and lubrication systems, and, most importantly, in the braking system. About 6% of the total energy produced is lost with the airstream in form of heat energy when brakes are applied. Thus, various technological systems need to be developed to conserve energy by minimize energy losses while application of brakes. Regenerative Braking is one such system or an energy recovery mechanism causing the vehicle to decelerate by converting its kinetic energy into another form (usually electricity), which further can be used either immediately or stored until needed.
Journal Article

Synthesis of Linseed oil Biodiesel using a Non-Catalytic Supercritical Transesterification Process

Due to high energy demand and limited availability of fossil fuels, the energy necessity becomes a point of apprehension as it results in hike of fuel prices. It is essential to develop renewable energy resources while considering the impact on environment. In the last decade, demand of alternative fuels has increased a lot. Therefore, researchers have already started working on the aim of developing a green fuel to overcome the future energy demand. And as we know that the biodiesel is generally prepared from the non-edible and renewable resources thus, it can be among the competitive alternative future fuels. Besides that, it does not require any prior engine modifications for its usual advantage among other alternative fuels while using it within certain boundaries. However, the process biodiesel production is in itself time consuming which increases the cost of production while decreasing the yield.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Combustion and Emission Characteristics of an Agricultural Diesel Engine Fuelled with Blends of Diesel and Oxidatively Stabilized Calophyllum Methyl Ester

In the present experimental investigation, performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder diesel engine using diesel-biodiesel blends and antioxidant containing biodiesel test fuels was carried out. The potential suitability of aromatic amine based antioxidants to enhance the oxidation stability of biodiesel on one hand and reduction of tail pipe oxides of nitrogen (NOx) on the other were evaluated. Tertiary Butyl Hydroquinone (TBHQ) was considered as the antioxidant and Calophyllum Inophyllum vegetable oil was taken as the feedstock for biodiesel production. The test fuel samples were neat diesel (D100), 10% and 20% blend of Calophyllum biodiesel with diesel (CB10 and CB20) and 1500 ppm of TBHQ in CB10 and CB20 (CBT10 and CBT20). The results indicated that neat biodiesel blended test fuels (CB10 and CB20) exhibited lower brake thermal efficiency compared to the diesel baseline by a margin of 3% to 10% at full load.
Technical Paper

Potential Utilization of the Blend of Orange Peel Oil Methyl Ester and Isopropyl Alcohol in CI Engine

Diesel engines are employed particularly in the field of heavy transportation and agriculture on account of their higher thermal efficiency and durability. As these engines, are the backbones of contemporary global transportation and accounts a 30% of world's energy consumption, which is second highest after the industrial sector. Therefore, the fossil fuel consumption becomes the prime concern. Following the global energy crisis and the increasingly stringent emission norms, the search for alternative renewable fuels has intensified. Currently, biodiesel (BD) has been identified as the most attractive and practical choice to replace fossil fuel as the main source of energy, due to the similarity in the properties with conventional diesel. However, its development and application have been hindered by the high cost of required feedstock. Therefore, in recent years, researchers have been seeking the alternative sources of non-edible oil which are economical.