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Technical Paper

Highly Homogeneous Compression Ignition in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine Fuelled with Diesel and Biodiesel

Highly homogeneous compression ignition is difficult to achieve in a direct injection diesel engine. The difficulty of achieving adequate fuel vaporization and the problems of fuel spray wall impingement are the main factors. Limitation of the maximum operating load results from high rates of pressure rise that occur in this combustion regime. The levels of HC and CO emissions are raised substantially when compared with conventional combustion and remain a significant emission factor. In this study, two methods of achieving highly homogeneous combustion in a direct injection diesel engine were investigated, Nissan MK type and early injection. The effects of fuel injection pressure, injection timing, EGR level, EGR cooler efficiency and compression ratio were examined using a conventional 4 cylinder 2.0L common rail diesel engine with 18.4:1 and 14.4:1 compression ratios.
Technical Paper

Investigation into Partially Premixed Combustion in a Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Diesel Engine Fuelled Gasoline and Diesel with a Mixture of

Partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) engines operating with a low temperature highly homogeneous charge have been demonstrated previously using conventional diesel fuel. The short ignition delay of conventional diesel fuel requires high fuel injection pressures to achieve adequate premixing along with high levels of EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) to achieve low NOx emissions. Low load operating regions are typified by substantial emissions of CO and HC and there exists an upper operating load limitation due to very high rates of in-cylinder gas pressure rise. In this study mixtures of gasoline and diesel fuel were investigated using a multi-cylinder light duty diesel engine. It was found that an increased proportion of gasoline fuel reduced smoke emissions at higher operating loads through an increase in charge premixing resulting from an increase in ignition delay and higher fuel volatility.
Technical Paper

Validation of a Cyclic NO Formation Model with Fast NO Measurements

Experimental data was obtained from a Rover K4 optical access engine and analyzed with a combustion analysis package. Cyclic NO values were calculated by mass averaging the measurements obtained by a fast NO analyzer. While the mass averaged results were used as the basis of comparison for the model, results indicate that mass averaging a fast NO signal is not nearly as critical as mass averaging a fast FID signal. A computer simulation (ISIS - Integrated Spark Ignition engine Simulation) was used to model the NO formation on a cyclic basis by means of the extended Zeldovich equations. The model achieves its cyclic variability through the input of experimentally derived burn rates and a completeness of combustion parameter, which is based on the Rassweiler and Withrow method of calculating mass fraction burned and is derived from the pressure-crank angle record of the engine.
Technical Paper

Demonstration of HCCI Using a Single Cylinder Four-stroke SI Engine with Modified Valve Timing

A standard port fuel injected, unthrottled single cylinder four-stroke SI engine, with a compression ratio of 10.3:1, and using standard gasoline fuel, has been adapted to operate in the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) mode, by modifying the valve timing. It has been found that over a speed range of between 1300 and 2000 rpm, and lambda values of between 0.95 and 1.1, stable operation is achieved without spark ignition. The internal EGR rate was estimated to be about 60%, and emissions of NOX were typically 0.25 g/kWh. Practical implementation of this HCCI concept will require variable valve timing, which will also enable reversion to standard SI operation for maximum power.
Technical Paper

A Fast Response Particulate Spectrometer for Combustion Aerosols

Particulate emissions from IC engines associated with transient engine conditions are very important (similar to the legislated gaseous emissions). This is true both during real-world and test cycle driving. This paper describes an instrument for measuring the number of particles, and their spectral weighting, in the 5nm to 1000nm size range, with a time response of 200ms. This is achieved via an electrostatic classification technique, consisting of a diffusion charger followed by a multi-element, constant voltage, classifier. Conversion of the data to other metrics, such as mass, is also described. Results are presented from artificial test aerosols and from light and heavy duty diesel engines on standard test cycles.
Technical Paper

A Semi-Empirical Model of Fuel Transport in Intake Manifolds of SI Engines and Its Application in Transient Conditions

A semi-empirical model of fuel transport in the intake manifold of spark ignition engines, which assumes a fraction of injected fuel deposits onto the port walls and describes the detailed fuel film phenomena, is proposed. The model is applied in the throttle ramp transients during which both the air and the fuel flow change significantly. The predicted air fuel ratio excursions, engine torque etc, are in good agreement with the experimental data. Also simulated is another kind of transience, which has only an air flow jump, i.e. with fuelling rate constant, when the engine jumps between stoichiometric and lean running. The results are again in satisfactory agreement with experiment.
Technical Paper

Time Resolved Measurement of Cold Start HC Concentration Using the Fast FID

Understanding mixture formation phenomena during the first few cycles of an engine cold start is extremely important for achieving the minimum engine-out emission levels at the time when the catalytic converter is not yet operational. Of special importance is the structure of the charge (film, droplets and vapour) which enters the cylinder during this time interval as well as its concentration profile. However, direct experimental studies of the fuel behaviour in the inlet port have so far been less than fully successful due to the brevity of the process and lack of a suitable experimental technique. We present measurements of the hydrocarbon (HC) concentration in the manifold and port of a production SI engine using the Fast Response Flame Ionisation Detector (FRFID).
Technical Paper

Fast Response CO2 Sensor for Automotive Exhaust Gas Analysis

A fast response sensor for measuring carbon dioxide concentration has been developed for laboratory research and tested on a spark ignition engine. The sensor uses the well known infra-red absorption technique with a miniaturized detection system and short capillary sampling tubes, giving a time constant of approximately 5 milliseconds; this is sufficiently fast to observe changes in CO2 levels on a cycle-by-cycle basis under normal operating conditions. The sensor is easily located in the exhaust system and operates continuously. The sensor was tested on a standard production four cylinder spark-ignition engine to observe changes in CO2 concentration in exhaust gas under steady state and transient operating conditions. The processed sensor signal was compared to a standard air-to-fuel ratio (AFR) sensor in the exhaust stream and the results are presented here. The high frequency response CO2 measurements give new insights into both engine and catalyst transient operation.
Journal Article

Analysis of In-Cylinder Hydrocarbons in a Multi-Cylinder Gasoline HCCI Engine Using Gas Chromatography

Gasoline Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has been studied widely in the past decade. However, in HCCI engines using negative valve overlap (NVO), there is still uncertainty as to whether the effect of pilot injection during NVO on the start of combustion is primarily due to heat release of the pilot fuel during NVO or whether it is due to pilot fuel reformation. This paper presents data taken on a 4-cylinder gasoline direct injection, spark ignition/HCCI engine with a dual cam system, capable of recompressing residual gas. Engine in-cylinder samples are extracted at various points during the engine cycle through a high-speed sampling system and directly analysed with a gas chromatograph and flame ionisation detector. Engine parameter sweeps are performed for different pilot injection timings and quantities at a medium load point.
Technical Paper

Intake Port Phenomena in a Spark-Ignition Engine at Part Load

The flow and heat transfer phenomena in the intake port of a spark ignition engine with port fuel injection play a significant role in the mixture preparation process, especially at part load. The backflow of the hot burned gas from the cylinder into the intake port when the intake valve is opened breaks up any liquid film around the inlet valve, influences gas and wall temperatures, and has a major effect on the fuel vaporization process. The backflow of in-cylinder mixture with its residual component during the compression stroke prior to inlet valve closing fills part of the port with gas at higher than fresh mixture temperature. To quantify these phenomena, time-resolved measurements of the hydrocarbon concentration profile along the center-line of the intake port were made with a fast-response flame ionization detector, and of the gas temperature with a fine wire resistance thermometer, in a single-cylinder engine running with premixed propane/air mixture.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Measurements of Residual Gas Concentration in a Spark Ignition Engine

The residual gas fraction prior to ignition at the vicinity of the spark plug in a single cylinder, two-valve spark ignition engine was measured with a fast-response flame ionization hydrocarbon detector. The technique in using such an instrument is reported. The measurements were made as a function of the intake manifold pressure, engine speed and intake/exhaust valve-overlap duration. Both the mean level of the residual fraction and the statistics of the cycle-to-cycle variations were obtained.
Technical Paper

Fast Response NO/HC Measurements in the Cylinder and Exhaust Port of a DI Diesel Engine

A novel Fast Response Chemiluminescence Detector and a Fast Flame Ionization detector have been used to examine the instantaneous NO and unburnt hydrocarbon concentration in the cylinder and exhaust port of a DI Diesel engine. The in-cylinder results indicate very high levels of NO in the premixed phase of combustion, followed by generally lower levels during the diffusion burning phase. Hydrocarbon signals also indicate significant detail. The in-cylinder uHC signal is consistent with the probe location being between two of the fuel sprays. Both in-cylinder and exhaust results indicate rather high cyclic variability in the NO levels at steady conditions. Variations in the timing and structure of the exhaust uHC signal during the valve open period with load may give insight into the fuel spray/air motion.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Simulation of AFR Switch of SI Engines

A novel mechanical method of achieving a rapid switch between stoichiometric and lean conditions for SI engines is explored. Two and three throttle configurations, a switch strategy which employs a standard intake manifold and an assembly of pipes and throttle(s), are investigated numerically by using a one-dimensional engine simulation program based on the method of characteristics. The results indicate that it is possible to achieve rapid AFR switch without a torque jump, i.e. unperceptible to the driver.
Technical Paper

Unburnt Hydrocarbon Measurement by Means of a Surface Ionisation Detector

Recent studies in the USA have revealed that the catalysts (which are universally fitted to gasoline automobiles) are failing in service to an unacceptable extent. Although the reasons for the failures are not completely clear, it seems that misfiring, leading to highly exothermic reaction in the catalyst, may be responsible for the damage. Legislation is to be enacted later in this decade to address this problem by requiring on board diagnostic (OBD) systems which can measure misfire, as well as catalyst hydrocarbon (HC) conversion efficiency. Although some ideas have been suggested for the OBD requirements, no fully satisfactory sensor technology has yet appeared. This paper describes a novel hydrocarbon sensor based on a surface catalysis principle. The fundamental studies reported here have been made with the automobile application in mind. A catalytic chemi-ionisation model is proposed in order to enhance our understanding of this surface ionisation.
Technical Paper

Length Scale and Turbulence Intensity Measurements in a Motored Internal Combustion Engine

An advanced high speed hydraulic system consisting of a special ram and hardware digital controller is described with which a hot wire anemometer has been flown across the bore of a motored spark ignition engine. The only access to the engine was a single 3mm diameter hole and thus the engine modifications required for this measurement technique ate minimised. The velocity imposed by the ram system enabled the spatial turbulent structure to be measured with the advantage of an imposed ‘mean flow’, which makes confident analysis of the data possible. Using a novel learning procedure, the required hot wire trajectories can be followed with great accuracy and repeatability. Some results are presented from the engine as well as a simple method for reliable hot wire calibration.
Technical Paper

Real Time In-Cylinder and Exhaust NO Measurements in a Production SI Engine

A new fast response NO detector, based on the chemiluminescence (CLD) method has been used to measure continuous, real time levels of NO in the cylinder, and simultaneously in the exhaust port of a virtually unmodified production SI engine. The real time NO concentration data show a great deal of information. Simultaneous NO measurements taken in-cylinder at sample points a few millimetres apart show substantial differences. Exhaust and in-cylinder levels from the same cycle show even greater differences, though the levels on average are well correlated.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Smoke Sensor for Diesel Engines

This paper describes a system for real-time smoke detection in diesel engines. Preliminary results are presented from a very simple sensor which detects the net charge level on smoke particles. There appears to be a useful correlation between the peak charge level and the Bosch smoke number. The mechanism by which the particulates is discussed, though no firm conclusions are reached.
Technical Paper

Origin of the Response of Electrostatic Particle Probes

This paper describes an examination of the origin of the response of a real-time exhaust particle sensor. The sensor works by detecting the net electrical charge carried by diesel exhaust particles emitted during exhaust blow-down. The distribution of charge on these particles has been measured using an electrical mobility analysis system. The results show that the exhaust particles are highly charged and that their charge distributions are nearly symmetrical. The sensor signal results from a slight departure from this symmetry. The results suggest that most of the charge on the exhaust particles results from bipolar charging by flame ions during combustion, but that the net charge detected by the sensor results from surface interactions which some of the larger particles undergo during exhaust blowdown.
Technical Paper

A Fast Detailed-Chemistry Modelling Approach for Simulating the SI-HCCI Transition

An established Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) is used to simulate the transition from Spark Ignition (SI) to Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion mode in a four-cylinder in-line four-stroke naturally aspirated direct injection SI engine with cam profile switching. The SRM is coupled with GT-Power, a one-dimensional engine simulation tool used for modeling engine breathing during the open valve portion of the engine cycle, enabling multi-cycle simulations. The mode change is achieved by switching the cam profiles and phasing, resulting in a Negative Valve Overlap (NVO), opening the throttle, advancing the spark timing and reducing the fuel mass as well as using a pilot injection. A proven technique for tabulating the model is used to create look-up tables in both SI and HCCI modes. In HCCI mode several tables are required, including tables for the first NVO, transient valve timing NVO, transient valve timing HCCI and steady valve timing HCCI and NVO.