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Technical Paper

Interior Aircraft Noise Computations due to TBL Excitation using the Energy Finite Element Analysis

2009-05-19
2009-01-2248
The Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) has been developed for evaluating the vibro-acoustic behavior of complex systems. In the past EFEA results have been compared successfully to measured data for Naval, automotive, and aircraft systems. The main objective of this paper is to present information about the process of developing EFEA models for two configurations of a business jet, performing analysis for computing the vibration and the interior noise induced from exterior turbulent boundary layer excitation, and discussing the correlation between test data and simulation results. The structural EFEA model is generated from an existing finite element model used for stress analysis during the aircraft design process. Structural elements used in the finite element model for representing the complete complex aircraft structure become part of the EFEA structural model.
Technical Paper

Probabilistic Computations for the Main Bearings of an Operating Engine Due to Variability in Bearing Properties

2004-03-08
2004-01-1143
This paper presents the development of surrogate models (metamodels) for evaluating the bearing performance in an internal combustion engine. The metamodels are employed for performing probabilistic analyses for the engine bearings. The metamodels are developed based on results from a simulation solver computed at a limited number of sample points, which sample the design space. An integrated system-level engine simulation model, consisting of a flexible crankshaft dynamics model and a flexible engine block model connected by a detailed hydrodynamic lubrication model, is employed in this paper for generating information necessary to construct the metamodels. An optimal symmetric latin hypercube algorithm is utilized for identifying the sampling points based on the number and the range of the variables that are considered to vary in the design space.
Technical Paper

Structure-borne Vehicle Analysis using a Hybrid Finite Element Method

2009-05-19
2009-01-2196
The hybrid FEA method combines the conventional FEA method with the energy FEA (EFEA) for computing the structural vibration in vehicle structures when the excitation is applied on the load bearing stiff structural members. Conventional FEA models are employed for modeling the behavior of the stiff members in the vehicle. In order to account for the effect of the flexible members in the FEA analysis, appropriate damping and spring/mass elements are introduced at the connections between stiff and flexible members. Computing properly the values of these damping and spring/mass elements is important for the overall accuracy of the computations. Utilizing in these computations the analytical solutions for the driving point impedance of infinite or semi-infinite members introduces significant approximations.
Technical Paper

Engaging Energy Based Structural-Acoustic Simulations in Multi-Discipline Design

2009-05-19
2009-01-2198
In order to be effective and maximize the weight and cost savings when designing for noise and vibration attributes, the structural-acoustics design effort must be concurrent with the efforts of other engineering disciplines (i.e. durability, crashworthiness, etc.). In this manner, it will be possible to account for the effects of structural changes across disciplines and improve the NVH performance while the structure is being configured rather than attempting to improve NVH characteristics after the structural design has been completed.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Airborne Noise Analysis Using the Energy Finite Element Method

2013-05-13
2013-01-1998
The Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) has been developed for computing the structural vibration and the interior noise level of complex structural-acoustic systems by solving numerically governing differential equations with energy densities as primary variables. In this paper a complete simulation process for evaluating airborne noise in an automotive vehicle is presented and validated through extensive comparison to test data. The theoretical elements associated with the important paths of the noise transfer from the exterior of the vehicle to the interior acoustic space are discussed. The steps required for developing an EFEA model for a vehicle are presented. The model is developed based on the physical construction of the vehicle system and no test measurements are utilized for adjusting the numerical model.
Journal Article

Hybrid Finite Element Analysis of a Rotorcraft

2013-05-13
2013-01-1995
The Hybrid FEA method is based on combining conventional Finite Element Analysis (FEA) with Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) for mid-frequency computations. The difficulty in using conventional FEA at higher frequencies originates from requiring a very large number of elements in order to capture the flexible wavelength of the panel members which are present in a structure. In the Hybrid FEA the conventional FEA model is modified by de-activating the bending behavior of the flexible panels in the FEA computations and introducing instead a large number of dynamic impedance elements for representing the omitted bending behavior. The excitation is considered to be applied on the conventional FEA model and the vibration analysis is conducted. The power flow through the dynamic impedance elements is computed and applied as excitation to the EFEA model of the flexible panels. The EFEA analysis computes the vibration of the flexible panels.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Stiffened Panels Using the Energy Finite Element Analysis

2011-05-17
2011-01-1696
Stiffened panels are encountered in many engineering systems since the stiffeners comprise the mechanism which provides support and rigidity to the panel's skin. Either a mechanical excitation or an acoustic load can be applied on a stiffened panel creating vibration that is transmitted in all panel components. Mechanical excitation tends to be localized in nature, originating from operating machinery mounted on the panel, while the acoustic excitation tends to be distributed over the entire panel, since it typically originates from an external acoustic source which creates an acoustic field impinging on the entire panel. In the Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) various degrees of fidelity are possible when modeling the response of a stiffened panel. In this paper, the theoretical background and the corresponding implications associated with each alternative modeling approach are presented first.
Technical Paper

Design of Rotorcraft Gearbox Foundation for Reduced Vibration and Increased Crashworthiness Characteristics

2011-05-17
2011-01-1704
Vehicle design is a complex process requiring interactions and exchange of information among multiple disciplines such as fatigue, strength, noise, safety, etc. Simulation models are employed for assessing and potentially improving a vehicle's performance in individual technical areas. Challenges arise when designing a vehicle for improving mutually competing objectives, satisfying constraints from multiple engineering disciplines, and determining a single set of values for the vehicle's characteristics. It is of interest to engage simulation models from the various engineering disciplines in an organized and coordinated manner for determining a design configuration that provides the best possible performance in all disciplines. The multi-discipline design process becomes streamlined when the simulation methods integrate well with finite element or computer aided design models.
Technical Paper

Energy Finite Element Analysis of the NASA Aluminum Testbed Cylinder

2005-05-16
2005-01-2372
An energy finite element analysis (EFEA) formulation is developed for predicting high frequency vibration response of cylindrical shells with periodically axial and circumferential stiffeners. In this method, the structure is modeled using EFEA method. The power transfer coefficients, employed in the joint matrices of the EFEA formulation at the location of the periodic stiffeners are computed based on Periodic Structure (PS) theory. Results from the new simulation method are compared to experimental data for the vibration response of a periodically circumferentially and axially stiffened cylinder (NASA aluminum testbed cylinder). The observed good correlation indicates that the new EFEA formulation captures properly the periodic characteristics for both the axial stringers and ring stiffeners.
Technical Paper

Application of a Hybrid Finite Element Formulation for Analyzing the Structure-Borne Noise in a Body-In-White

2005-05-16
2005-01-2421
A hybrid finite element formulation for analyzing flexible plates connected to stiff frame was developed. The excitation was considered to be applied on the stiff members. Conventional FEA models were employed for modeling the behavior of the stiff members in a system. Appropriate damping elements were introduced in the connections between stiff and flexible members in order to capture the presence of the flexible members during the analyses of the stiff ones. Once the vibration of the stiff members and the amount of power dissipated at the damping elements was identified, an EFEA analysis was performed in order to determine the amount of vibrational energy in the flexible members. The hybrid FEA is applied to a Body-In-White (BIW). The results of the hybrid FEA are compared with results from very dense conventional finite element analyses.
Technical Paper

Simulations Under Uncertainty for Occupant Safety for a Vehicle Subjected to a Blast Load

2006-04-03
2006-01-0762
One of the main threats to military vehicles originates from landmine blasts. In order to improve the survivability of the occupants it is important to design a military vehicle for increased occupant safety. Simulation technology that combines modeling of the blast loads from the landmine explosion, the response of the vehicle to the blast load, and the loads developed on the members of an occupant are important factors in this effort. Uncertainties from the soil properties can influence the blast loads and thus the occupants' safety. In this paper, principal component analysis along with metamodel theory are employed for developing fast running models for the response functions of interest. The response functions of interest are the time domain loads which are developed on an occupant's members due to the blast. The fast running models allow assessing the probability level associated with injury for an occupant.
Technical Paper

Blast Event Simulation for a Structure Subjected to a Landmine Explosion

2006-04-03
2006-01-0931
One of the main threats to military vehicles originates from landmine blasts. In order to improve the survivability of the occupants it is important to design a military vehicle for increased occupant safety. Simulation technology that combines modeling of the blast loads from the landmine explosion, the response of the vehicle to the blast load, and the loads developed on the members of an occupant are important factors in this effort. The ability to simulate the landmine explosion is validated first by comparing simulation results to test data collected by gages placed in the ground and above the ground. Combined simulations predicting the damage to a target structure due to a landmine explosion are also compared to test data for further validation. Principal component analysis and metamodel theory is employed for generating fast running models in order to adjust the soil parameters in the simulation models during the correlation effort.
Technical Paper

A Hybrid Finite Element Formulation for Computing Structure-Borne Vibration in a Body-In-White

2006-04-03
2006-01-1224
A new development in the area of the hybrid Finite Element Analysis (hybrid FEA) is presented. The hybrid FEA method combines the conventional FEA method with energy FEA (EFEA) for analysis of systems that contain both flexible and stiff members, and is suitable for mid-frequency computations. A formulation for analyzing flexible plates spot-welded to stiff beams when the excitation is applied on the stiff members is developed. Conventional FEA models are employed for modeling the behavior of the stiff members in a system. Appropriate damping elements are introduced in the connections between stiff and flexible members in order to capture the presence of the flexible members during the analyses of the stiff ones.
Technical Paper

Simulation for the Response of a Structure Subjected to a Load from an Explosion

2008-04-14
2008-01-0781
Utilizing simulation technology is important for designing a structure with increased survivability to a load from an explosion. The pressure wave from the blast and the fragments hitting the structure must be simulated in such an analysis. Commercial software can be utilized through the development of appropriate interfaces for performing such computations. In this paper an approach is presented for combining commercially available Eulerian and Lagrangian solvers for performing blast event simulations. A capability has been developed for automatically creating the Eulerian finite element given the finite element model for the structure. The effect of moisture in the soil properties is considered during the generation of the soil - explosive - air model used by the Eulerian solver. Tracers are defined in the Eulerian model for all structural finite elements which are on the outer part of the structure and are subjected to the load from the blast.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Computational Process for Pass-By Noise Simulation

2001-04-30
2001-01-1561
The Indirect Boundary Element Analysis is employed for developing a computational pass-by noise simulation capability. An inverse analysis algorithm is developed in order to generate the definition of the main noise sources in the numerical model. The individual source models are combined for developing a system model for pass-by noise simulation. The developed numerical techniques are validated through comparison between numerical results and test data for component level and system level analyses. Specifically, the source definition capability is validated by comparing the actual and the computationally reconstructed acoustic field for an engine intake manifold. The overall pass-by noise simulation capability is validated by computing the maximum overall sound pressure level for a vehicle under two separate driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Mid-Frequency Vibration Analysis of Systems Containing One Type of Energy Based on a Hybrid Finite Element Formulation

2001-04-30
2001-01-1620
A hybrid finite element method (hybrid FEA) for computing mid-frequency vibrations for systems that contain one energy type is presented. In the mid-frequency range a system is comprised of both long and short members. Long members contain several wavelengths and they are modeled by the Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA). Short members contain a small number of wavelengths and they are modeled by the Finite Element Analysis (FEA). External excitation can be applied on long and/or on short members. Systems are analyzed by both the hybrid FEA method and an analytical solution in order to validate the hybrid FEA developments. The interaction among long and short members is defined by a set of equations between the EFEA and the FEA primary variables at the interfaces between long and short members. The numerical systems of equations for the long and the short members, and the interface equations are solved simultaneously.
Technical Paper

Validation of the EFEA Method through Correlation with Conventional FEA and SEA Results

2001-04-30
2001-01-1618
The Energy Finite Element Analysis(EFEA) is a recent development for high frequency vibro-acoustic analysis, and constitutes an evolution in the area of high frequency computations. The EFEA is a wave based approach, while the SEA is a modal based approach. In this paper the similarities in the theoretical development of the two methods are outlined. The main scope of this paper is to establish the validity of the EFEA by analyzing several complex structural-acoustic systems. The EFEA solutions are compared successfully to SEA results and to solutions obtained from extremely dense conventional FEA models.
Technical Paper

Accounting for Manufacturing Variability in Interior Noise Computations

2001-04-30
2001-01-1527
A formulation that accounts for manufacturing variability in the analysis of structural/acoustic systems is presented. The methodology incorporates the concept of fast probability integration with finite element (FEA) and boundary element analysis (BEA) for producing the probabilistic acoustic response of a structural/acoustic system. The advanced mean value method is used for integrating the system probability density function. FEA and BEA are combined for producing the acoustic response that constitutes the performance function. The probabilistic acoustic response is calculated in terms of a cumulative distribution function. The new methodology is used to illustrate the difference between the results from a probabilistic analysis that accounts for manufacturing uncertainty, and an equivalent deterministic simulation through applications. The probabilistic computations are validated by comparison to Monte Carlo simulations.
Technical Paper

Coupling of Finite Element and Energy Finite Element Solutions for Calculating the Vibration of Co-linear Beams in the Mid-Frequency Range

1999-05-19
1999-01-1793
The theoretical development of a hybrid finite element method is presented. It combines conventional Finite Element Analysis (FEA) with Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) in order to achieve a numerical solution to mid-frequency vibrations. In the mid-frequency range a system is comprised by some members that contain several wavelengths and some members that contain a small number of wavelengths. The former are considered long members and they are modeled by the EFEA. The latter are considered short and they are modeled by the FEA. The new formulation is based on deriving appropriate interface conditions at the joints between sections modeled by the EFEA and the FEA methods. Since the work presented in this paper constitutes a fundamental step in the development of a hybrid method for mid-frequency analysis, the formulation for one flexural degree of freedom in co-linear beams is presented.
Technical Paper

Integration of Finite Element and Boundary Element Methods for Simulating the Noise Radiated From a Flexible Panel Subjected to Boundary Layer Excitation

1999-05-17
1999-01-1795
In this paper an algorithm is developed for combining finite element analysis and boundary element techniques in order to compute the noise radiated from a panel subjected to boundary layer loading. The excitation is presented in terms of the auto and cross power spectral densities of the fluctuating wall pressure. The structural finite element model for the panel is divided into a number of sub-panels. A uniform fluctuating pressure is applied as excitation on each sub-panel separately. The corresponding vibration is computed, and is utilized as excitation for an acoustic boundary element analysis. The acoustic response is computed at any data recovery point of interest. The relationships between the acoustic response and the pressure excitation applied at each particular sub-panel constitute a set of transfer functions.
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