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Technical Paper

Turbocharging a Bi-Fuel Engine for Performance Equivalent to Gasoline

1994-10-01
942003
A bi-fuel engine capable of operating either on compressed natural gas (CNG) or gasoline is being developed for the transition to alternative fuel usage. A Saturn 1.9 liter 4-cylinder engine was selected as a base powerplant. A control system that allows closed-loop optimization of both fuel delivery and spark timing was developed. Stock performance and emissions of the engine, as well as performance and emissions with the new controller on gasoline and CNG, have been documented. CNG operation in an engine designed for gasoline results in power loss because of the lower volumetric efficiency with gaseous fuel use, yet such an engine does not take advantage of the higher knock resistance of CNG. It is the goal of this research to use the knock resistance of CNG to recover the associated power loss. The two methods considered for this include turbocharging with a variable boost wastegate and raising the compression ratio while employing variable valve timing.
Technical Paper

A Controller for a Spark Ignition Engine with Bi-Fuel Capability

1994-10-01
942004
A bi-fuel engine with the ability to run optimally on both compressed natural gas (CNG) and gasoline is being developed. Such bi-fuel automotive engines are necessary to bridge the gap between gasoline and natural gas as an alternative fuel while natural gas fueling stations are not yet common enough to make a dedicated natural gas vehicle practical. As an example of modern progressive engine design, a Saturn 1.9 liter 4-cylinder dual overhead cam (DOHC) engine has been selected as a base powerplant for this development. Many previous natural gas conversions have made compromises in engine control strategies, including mapped open-loop methods, or resorting to translating the signals to or from the original controller. The engine control system described here, however, employs adaptive closed-loop control, optimizing fuel delivery and spark timing for both fuels.
Technical Paper

Performance of a High Speed Engine with Dual Fuel Capability

1994-03-01
940517
Concern over dwindling oil supplies has led to the adoption of alternate fuels to power fleet vehicles. However, during the interim period when alternate fuel supply stations are few and far between, dual fuel engines prove a necessity. In the light duty arena, these engines are typically gasoline engines modified to accommodate compressed natural gas (CNG) as an alternate fuel, but they are seldom optimized with both fuels in mind. A Saturn 1.9 liter 4 cylinder dual overhead cam engine was selected as a base for developing an optimized gasoline/CNG powerplant. Baseline data on power and steady state emissions (CO2, CO, NOx, HC) were found using the standard Saturn controller. In addition to monitoring standard sensor measurements, real-time pressure traces were taken for up to 256 cycles using a modified head with embedded PCB piezoelectric pressure transducers.
Technical Paper

Measurement Delays and Modal Analysis for a Heavy Duty Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory

1995-02-01
950218
Concern over atmospheric pollution has led to the development of testing procedures to evaluate the hydrocarbon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen emissions from internal combustion engines. In order to perform emissions testing on vehicles, a chassis dynamometer capable of simulating expected driving conditions must be employed. West Virginia University has developed a Heavy Duty Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory to perform chassis testing on trucks and buses. Emissions from the vehicle are monitored and recorded over the duration of a testing schedule. Usually the vehicle emissions from the whole test are reported as mass of emissions per unit distance driven. However, there is interest in relating the instantaneous emissions to the immediate conditions at specific points in the test, and in determining the emissions for discrete segments of the test (modal analysis).
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emissions and Combustion Stability in a Bi-Fuel Spark Ignition Engine

1995-02-01
950468
A Saturn 1.9 liter engine has been converted for operation on either compressed natural gas or gasoline. A bi-fuel controller (BFC) that uses closed-loop control methods for both fuel delivery and spark advance has been developed. The performance and emissions during operation on each fuel have been investigated with the BFC, as well as the performance and emissions with the stock original equipment manufacturer (OEM) controller using gasoline. In-cylinder pressure was measured at a rate of 1024 points per revolution with piezoelectric pressure transducers flush-mounted in the cylinder head. The in-cylinder pressure was used in real time for ignition timing control purposes, and was stored by a data acquisition system for the investigation of engine stability and differences in the combustion properties of the fuels.
Technical Paper

Use of the West Virginia University Truck Test Cycle to Evaluate Emissions from Class 8 Trucks

1995-02-01
951016
Emissions from light duty vehicles have traditionally been measured using a chassis dynamometer, while heavy duty testing has been based on engine dynamometers. However, the need for in-use vehicle emissions data has led to the development of two transportable heavy duty chassis dynamometers capable of testing buses and heavy trucks. A test cycle has been developed for Class 8 trucks, which typically have unsyncronized transmissions. This test cycle has five peaks, each consisting of an acceleration, cruise period, and deceleration, with speeds and acceleration requirements that can be met by virtually all vehicles in common service. Termed the “WVU 5 peak truck test”, this 8 km (5 mile) cycle has been used to evaluate the emissions from diesel and ethanol powered over-the-road tractors and from diesel and ethanol powered snow plows, all with Detroit Diesel 6V92 engines.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Heavy-Duty Truck Diesel Particulate Matter Measurement:TEOM and Traditional Filter

2005-05-11
2005-01-2153
The Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) measures captured particle mass continuously on a small filter held on an oscillating element. In addition to traditional filter-based particulate matter (PM) measurement, a TEOM was used to characterize PM from the dilute exhaust of trucks examined in two phases (Phase 1.5 and Phase 2) of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions Inventory Project E-55/E-59. Test schedules employed were the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) test schedule that consists of four modes (Idle, Creep, Transient and Cruise), the HHDDT Short (HHDDT_S) which represents high-speed freeway operation, and the Heavy-Duty Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS). TEOM results were on average 6% lower than those from traditional particulate filter weighing. Data (in units of g/cycle) were examined by plotting cycle-averaged TEOM mass against filter mass. Regression (R2) values for these plots were from 0.88 to 0.99.
Technical Paper

NOX Decomposition in Natural Gas, Diesel and Gasoline Engines for Selective NOX Recirculation

2005-05-11
2005-01-2144
Selective NOX Recirculation (SNR) involves three main steps in NOX reduction. The first step adsorbs NOX from the exhaust stream, followed by periodic desorption from the aftertreatment medium. The final step passes the desorbed NOX gas into the intake air stream and feeds into the engine. A percentage of the NOX is expected to be decomposed during the combustion process. The motivation for this research was to clarify the reduction of NOX from large stationary engines. The objective of this paper is to report the NOX decomposition phenomenon during the combustion process from three test engines. The results will be used to develop an optimal system for the conversion of NOX with a NOX adsorbtion system. A 1993 Cummins L10G natural gas engine, a 1992 Detroit Diesel series 60 engine and a 13hp Honda gasoline engine were used in the experiments. Commercially available nitric oxide (NO) was injected into the engine intake to mimic the NOX stream from the desorption process.
Technical Paper

Impact of Vehicle Weight on Truck Behavior and Emissions, using On-Board Measurement

2005-10-24
2005-01-3788
On-board emissions measurement for heavy-duty vehicles has taken on greater significance because new standards now address in-use emissions levels in the USA. Emissions compliance must be shown in a “Not-to-exceed” (NTE) zone that excludes engine operation at low power. An over-the-road 1996 Peterbilt tractor was instrumented with the West Virginia University Mobile Emissions Measurement System (MEMS). The researchers determined how often the truck entered the NTE, and the emissions from the vehicle, as it was driven over different routes and at different test weights (20,740 lb, 34,640 lb, 61,520 lb, and 79,700 lb) The MEMS interfaced with the truck ECU, while also measuring exhaust flowrate, and concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) in the exhaust. The four test routes that were employed included varying terrain types in order to simulate a wide range of on-road driving conditions. One route (called the Bruceton route) included a sustained hill climb.
Technical Paper

Transient Response in a Dynamometer Power Absorption System

1992-02-01
920252
In order to obtain meaningful analyses of exhaust gas emissions and fuel economy for a heavy duty vehicle from a chassis dynamometer, the accurate simulation of road load characteristics is crucial. The adjusted amount of power to be absorbed by the chassis dynamometer during road driving of the tested vehicle needs to be calculated. In this paper, the performance of the chassis dynamometer under transient load cycle operations is discussed and the transient response of the power absorption system is presented. In addition, the design criteria of the chassis dynamometer used to test heavy duty vehicles under steady and transient load is described.
Technical Paper

Determination of Heavy-Duty Vehicle Energy Consumption by a Chassis Dynamometer

1992-11-01
922435
The federal emission standards for heavy duty vehicle engines require the exhaust emissions to be measured and calculated in unit form as grams per break horse-power-hour (g/bhp-hr). Correct emission results not only depend on the precise emission measurement but also rely on the correct determination of vehicle energy consumption. A Transportable Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emission Testing Laboratory (THDVETL) designed and constructed at West Virginia University provides accurate vehicle emissions measurements in grams over a test cycle. This paper contributes a method for measuring the energy consumption (bhp-hr) over the test cycle by a chassis dynamometer. Comparisons of analytical and experimental results show that an acceptable agreement is reached and that the THDVETL provides accurate responses as the vehicle is operated under transient loads and speeds. This testing laboratory will have particular value in comparing the behavior of vehicles operating on alternative fuels.
Technical Paper

Diesel and CNG Transit Bus Emissions Characterization by Two Chassis Dynamometer Laboratories: Results and Issues

1999-05-03
1999-01-1469
Emissions of six 32 passenger transit buses were characterized using one of the West Virginia University (WVU) Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratories, and the fixed base chassis dynamometer at the Colorado Institute for Fuels and High Altitude Engine Research (CIFER). Three of the buses were powered with 1997 ISB 5.9 liter Cummins diesel engines, and three were powered with the 1997 5.9 liter Cummins natural gas (NG) counterpart. The NG engines were LEV certified. Objectives were to contrast the emissions performance of the diesel and NG units, and to compare results from the two laboratories. Both laboratories found that oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter (PM) emissions were substantially lower for the natural gas buses than for the diesel buses. It was observed that by varying the rapidity of pedal movement during accelerations in the Central Business District cycle (CBD), CO and PM emissions from the diesel buses could be varied by a factor of three or more.
Technical Paper

Emissions from Buses with DDC 6V92 Engines Using Synthetic Diesel Fuel

1999-05-03
1999-01-1512
Synthetic diesel fuel can be made from a variety of feedstocks, including coal, natural gas and biomass. Synthetic diesel fuels can have very low sulfur and aromatic content, and excellent autoignition characteristics. Moreover, synthetic diesel fuels may also be economically competitive with California diesel fuel if produced in large volumes. Previous engine laboratory and field tests using a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer indicate that synthetic diesel fuel made using the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalytic conversion process is a promising alternative fuel because it can be used in unmodified diesel engines, and can reduce exhaust emissions substantially. The objective of this study was a preliminary assessment of the emissions from older model transit operated on Mossgas synthetic diesel fuel. The study compared emissions from transit buses operating on Federal no. 2 Diesel fuel, Mossgas synthetic diesel (MGSD), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels.
Technical Paper

Application of the New City-Suburban Heavy Vehicle Route (CSHVR) to Truck Emissions Characterization

1999-05-03
1999-01-1467
Speed-time and video data were logged for tractor-trailers performing local deliveries in Akron, OH. and Richmond, VA. in order to develop an emissions test schedule that represented real truck use. The data bank developed using these logging techniques was used to create a Yard cycle, a Freeway cycle and a City-Suburban cycle by the concatenation of microtrips. The City-Suburban driving cycle was converted to a driving route, in which the truck under test would perform at maximum acceleration during certain portions of the test schedule. This new route was used to characterize the emissions of a 1982 Ford tractor with a Cummins 14 liter, 350 hp engine and a 1998 International tractor with a Cummins 14 liter, 435 hp engine. Emissions levels were found to be repeatable with one driver and the driver-to-driver variation of NOx was under 4%, although the driver-to-driver variations of CO and PM were higher.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of Natural Gas versus Diesel in Medium-Duty Buses

2000-10-16
2000-01-2822
Significant numbers of transit buses now operate on natural gas. With support of the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has evaluated the cost, performance, and emissions of alternative fuel buses around the country. In this study, three natural gas and three closely matched diesel buses were compared. The buses, built by World Trans, were 26′5″long and used 1997 Cummins B-series engines. Particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen emissions from the natural gas buses were significantly lower than those from the diesel buses. However, the diesel buses had lower operating costs and higher fuel efficiency than the natural gas buses.
Technical Paper

Chassis Test Cycles for Assessing Emissions from Heavy Duty Trucks

1994-10-01
941946
Recent interest in the effect of engine life on vehicle emissions, particularly those from alternately fueled engines, has led to a need to test heavy duty trucks in the field over their lifetime. West Virginia University has constructed two transportable laboratories capable of measuring emissions as a vehicle is driven through a transient test schedule. Although the central business district (CBD) cycle is well accepted for bus testing, no time-based schedule suited to the testing of class 8 trucks with unsynchronized transmissions is available. The Federal Test Procedure for certifying heavy duty engines can be translated with some difficulty into a flat road chassis cycle although original data clearly incorporated unpredictable braking and inclines. Two methods were attempted for this purpose, but only an energy conservation method proved practical.
Technical Paper

Transient Emissions Comparisons of Alternative Compression Ignition Fuels

1999-03-01
1999-01-1117
The effects of fuel composition on emissions levels from compression ignition engines can be profound, and this understanding has led to mandated reductions in both sulfur and aromatic content of automotive diesel fuels. A Navistar T444E (V8, 7.3 liter) engine was installed on an engine dynamometer and subjected to transient emissions measurement using a variety of fuels, namely federal low sulfur pump diesel; California pump diesel; Malaysian Fischer-Tropsch fuel with very low sulfur and aromatic content; various blends of soy-derived biodiesel; a Fischer-Tropsch fuel with very low sulfur and 10% aromatics; and the same Fischer-Tropsch fuel with 10% isobutanol by volume. The biodiesel blends showed their ability to reduce particulate matter, but at the expense of increasing oxides of nitrogen (NOx), following the simple argument that cetane enhancement led to earlier ignition. However, the Fischer-Tropsch fuels showed their ability to reduce all of the regulated emissions.
Technical Paper

Speed and Power Regressions for Quality Control of Heavy Duty Vehicle Chassis Dynamometer Research

1999-03-01
1999-01-0614
When performing a transient test on a heavy-duty engine as outlined in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), defined regression values of engine speed, torque and power must meet specific tolerances for the test to be considered valid. Regression of actual engine feedback data against target points from a schedule defined from an engine map is performed using the method of least squares to determine the slope, intercept, coefficient of regression and standard error of the estimate. To minimize the biasing effects of time lag between actual and schedule data, shifting of the data in the time domain prior to analysis and certain point deletions are permitted. There are presently no regression criteria available for heavy duty chassis testing. This leaves facilities performing these chassis tests with no suitable guidelines to validate individual tests. This study applies the regression analysis used in engine testing to chassis testing and examines the difficulties encountered.
Technical Paper

A Parametric Study of Knock Control Strategies for a Bi-Fuel Engine

1998-02-23
980895
Until a proper fueling infrastructure is established, vehicles powered by natural gas must have bi-fuel capability in order to avoid a limited vehicle range. Although bi-fuel conversions of existing gasoline engines have existed for a number of years, these engines do not fully exploit the combustion and knock properties of both fuels. Much of the power loss resulting from operation of an existing gasoline engine on compressed natural gas (CNG) can be recovered by increasing the compression ratio, thereby exploiting the high knock resistance of natural gas. However, gasoline operation at elevated compression ratios results in severe engine knock. The use of variable intake valve timing in conjunction with ignition timing modulation and electronically controlled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was investigated as a means of controlling knock when operating a bi-fuel engine on gasoline at elevated compression ratios.
Technical Paper

Comparative Emissions from Natural Gas and Diesel Buses

1995-12-01
952746
Data has been gathered using the West Virginia University Heavy Duty Transportable Emissions Laboratories from buses operating on diesel and a variety of alternate fuels in the field. Typically, the transportable chassis dynamo meter is set up at a local transit agency and the selected buses are tested using the fuel in the vehicle at the time of the test. The dynamometer may be set up to operate indoors or outdoors depending on the space available at the site. Samples of the fuels being used at the site are collected and sent to the laboratory for analysis and this information is then sent together with emissions data to the Alternate Fuels Data Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Emissions data are acquired from buses using the Central Business District cycle reported in SAE Standard J1376; this cycle has 14 ramps with 20 mph (32.2 km/h) peaks, separated by idle periods.
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