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Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Effect of Thermal Stratification on HCCI Combustion by using Rapid Compression Machine

2007-07-23
2007-01-1870
A significant drawback to HCCI engines is the knocking caused by rapid increases in pressure. Such knocking limits the capacity for high-load operation. To solve this problem, thermal stratification in the combustion chamber has been suggested as possible solution. Thermal stratification has the potential to reduce the maximum value of the rate of pressure increase combustion by affecting the local combustion start time and extending the duration of combustion. The purpose of this study was to experimentally obtain fundamental knowledge about the effect of thermal stratification on the HCCI combustion process. Experiments were conducted in a rapid compression machine (RCM) equipped with a quartz window to provide optical access to the combustion chamber. The machine was fueled with DME, n-Butane, n-Heptane and iso-Octane, all of which are currently being investigated as alternative fuels and have different low temperature characteristics.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Combustion Control Using EGR for Small and Light HCCI Engine Fuelled with DME

2007-07-23
2007-01-1876
The HCCI engine could offer low NOx, PM emissions and high efficiency. However the operation region of the HCCI combustion is limited because of the knocking at high load and the misfire at low load. Moreover the HCCI principle lacks direct combustion control and needs a system to control the combustion phasing with high accuracy. Today there exists various ways to control the HCCI combustion, such as Variable Valve Train, Variable Compression Ratio, Inlet Air Heating and Dual Fuels. However such variable mechanisms and Inlet Air Heating tend to be heavy and complex. Dual Fuels method needs two types of fuels and has a challenge in infrastructure. In this study, in order to develop a small and light HCCI engine, a simple HCCI combustion control system is proposed. DME (Di-methyl Ether) is used as the fuel to keep the structure small and light. In this system, the mixing ratio of three gases: stoichiometric pre-mixture, hot EGR gas and cold EGR gas is changed by only throttles.
Technical Paper

Mechanism of Road Side NOx Pollution Exhausted by On-Road Driving Diesel Vehicle - Comparison between Vehicle Adopted for New Long Term Regulation and Vehicle Adopted for Long Term Regulation Using On-board Measurement System

2010-10-25
2010-01-2277
Nitrogen oxides, collectively called NOx, from diesel vehicles are considered to be accumulated by particular area of roadsides, so-called "Hot-spot," and result in harmful influence to pedestrians and residents by roadsides. Japanese regulations over emissions of diesel vehicles have been tightened year by year and adopting regulations, emissions in mode test on chassis dynamometer or engine dynamometer have reduced. In this research, it was investigated the effect of introduce of transient mode test, Japanese JE05 mode, to NOx emission in real world and to roadside NOx pollution by road test using on-board measurement system. As test vehicles, 2 ton diesel vehicle which is adopted for Long Term Regulation (steady-state mode test, Diesel 31 mode test, 1998) and 3 ton diesel vehicle adopted for New Long Term Regulation (transient mode test, Japanese JE05 mode, 2005) with on-board measurement system was used.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Effects of Fuel Inhomogeneity on the Pressure Rise Rate in HCCI engine using Chemiluminescence Imaging

2010-09-28
2010-32-0097
Theoretically, homogeneous charge compression engines (HCCI) are able to grant a high thermal efficiency, as well as a low NOx and particulate emissions. This ability is mainly due to the combustion process, which, contrary to both Diesel and Gasoline engine, is homogeneous in time and space within the combustion chamber. But despite these advantages, the engine operating condition is limited by the narrow boundaries of misfire at low load and knocking at high load. For that matter, one of the numerous ways of overcoming knocking is to deliberately create fuel inhomogeneities within the combustion chamber, since it has proved to lengthen combustion duration and to drastically reduce maximum pressure rise rate (PRR). Nevertheless, though the global effects of fuel inhomogeneities on PRR have been studied, we lack information that explains this phenomenon.
Technical Paper

Combined Effects of Spark Discharge Pattern and Tumble Level on Cycle-to-Cycle Variations of Combustion at Lean Limits of SI Engine Operation

2017-03-28
2017-01-0677
Improving the thermal efficiency of spark ignition (SI) engine is strongly required due to its widespread use but considerably less efficiency than that of compression ignition (CI) engine. Although lean SI engine operation can offer substantial improvements of the thermal efficiency relative to that of traditional stoichiometric SI operation, the cycle-to-cycle variations of combustion increases with the level of air dilution, and becomes unacceptable. To improve the stability of lean operation, this study examines the effects of spark discharge pattern and tumble level on cycle-to-cycle variations of combustion at lean limits. The spark discharge pattern was altered by a custom inductive ignition system using ten spark coils and the tumble level was increased by a custom adapter installed in the intake port (tumble adapter).
Technical Paper

Effects of Combustion Chamber Insulation on the Heat Rejection and Thermal Efficiency of Diesel Engines

1992-02-01
920543
Experiments were conducted with 4-cylinder and single-cylinder direct injection diesel engines to examine the effects of combustion chamber insulation on heat rejection and thermal efficiency. The combustion chamber was insulated by using a silicon nitride piston cavity that was shrink-fitted into a titanium alloy crown. The effect of insulation on heat rejection was examined on the basis of heat release calculations made from cylinder pressure time histories. High-speed photography was used to investigate combustion phenomena. The results showed that heat rejection was influenced by the combustion chamber geometry and swirl ratio and that it was reduced by insulating the combustion chamber. However, because combustion deteriorated, it was not possible to obtain an improvement in thermal efficiency equivalent to the reduction in heat rejection.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Transient Gas Jet Impinging on a Wall

1990-02-01
900479
The process of forming mixtures of injected fuels and ambient air has significant effects on the ignition and combustion process in the direct injection engine. In these engines fuel is injected intermittently and fuel jet impinges on a combustion chamber wall. This study deals with a fundamental experiment on the mixing process of the transient gas jet together with the instantaneous concentration measurement and statistical analysis of the transient turbulent mixing process in the jet. Helium or carbon dioxide is injected at constant pressure into quiescent atmosphere through the single shot device. This paper presents a laboratory automation system for measuring the characteristics of transient gas jet and processing the data. A discussion on the process of mixture formation of transient gas jets impinging on a wall is carried out with time- and space- resolved concentration distribution.
Technical Paper

Two–Dimensional Imaging of Formaldehyde Formed During the Ignition Process of a Diesel Fuel Spray

2000-03-06
2000-01-0236
The time of, and location where ignition first occurs in a diesel fuel spray were investigated in a rapid compression machine (RCM) using the two–dimensional techniques of silicone oil particle scattering imaging (SSI), and the planar laser induced fluorescence (LIF) of formaldehyde. Formaldehyde has been hypothesized to be one of the stable intermediate species marking the start of oxidation reactions in a transient spray under compression ignition conditions. In this study, the LIF images of the formaldehyde formed in a diesel fuel spray during ignition process have been successfully obtained for the first time by exciting formaldehyde with the 3rd harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser. SSI images of the vaporizing spray, and the LIF images of formaldehyde were obtained together with the corresponding time record of combustion chamber pressures at initial ambient temperatures ranging from 580 K to 790 K.
Technical Paper

Effects of Aromatics Content and 90% Distillation Temperature of Diesel Fuels on Flame Temperature and Soot Formation

2001-05-07
2001-01-1940
In this study, the effects of fuel properties, aromatics content and 90% distillation temperature T90, on flame temperature and soot formation were studied using a rapid compression machine (RCM). Aromatics content and T90 distillation temperature were parameters isolated from influence of each other, and from cetane number. A fuel spray was injected in the RCM combustion chamber by a single nozzle hole. The ignition and combustion processes of diesel spray were observed by a high-speed direct photography. Flame temperature and KL factor (which indicates the soot concentration), were analyzed by the two-color method. The rate of heat release was analyzed from indicated diagrams. The fuels with aromatics content showed higher flame temperature. The fuel with highest T90 distillation temperature showed highest flame temperature.
Technical Paper

Effect of Nozzle Diameter and EGR Ratio on the Flame Temperature and Soot Formation for Various Fuels

2001-05-07
2001-01-1939
In this study, effects of nozzle hole diameter and EGR ratio on flame temperature (indication of NO formation) and KL value (indication of soot formation) were investigated. Combustion of a single diesel fuel spray in the cylinder of a rapid compression machine (RCM) was analyzed. Three nozzles with different hole diameter were used corresponding to present, near term and long term heavy duty diesel engine specifications. EGR was simulated through 2%vol. CO2 addition to the inlet air and by increase of in-cylinder surrounding gas temperature. Various types of fuels were used in this. The ignition and combustion processes of diesel fuel spray were observed by a high-speed direct photography and by indicated pressure diagrams. Flame temperature and KL factor were analyzed by a two-color method. With larger nozzle hole diameters there are larger high temperature areas. With smaller nozzle hole diameters there is more soot formed. Introduction of 2% vol.
Technical Paper

Simulation Study of SI-HCCI Transition in a Two-Stroke Free Piston Engine Fuelled with Propane

2014-04-01
2014-01-1104
A simulation study was conducted to examine the transition from SI combustion to HCCI combustion in a two-stroke free piston engine fuelled with propane. Operation of the free piston engine was simulated based on the combination of three mathematical models including a dynamic model, a linear alternator model and a thermodynamic model. The dynamic model included an analysis of the piston motion, based on Newton's second law. The linear alternator model included an analysis of electromagnetic force, which was considered to be a resistance force for the piston motion. The thermodynamic model was used to analysis thermodynamic processes in the engine cycle, including scavenging, compression, combustion, and expansion processes. Therein, the scavenging process was assumed to be a perfect process. These mathematical models were combined and solved by a program written in Fortran.
Technical Paper

A Study of Heat Rejection and Combustion Characteristics of a Low-temperature and Pre-mixed Combustion Concept Based on Measurement of Instantaneous Heat Flux in a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

2000-10-16
2000-01-2792
There have been strong demands recently for reductions in the fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of diesel engines from the standpoints of conserving energy and curbing global warming. A great deal of research is being done on new emission control technologies using direct-injection (DI) diesel engines that provide high thermal efficiency. This work includes dramatic improvements in the combustion process. The authors have developed a new combustion concept called Modulated Kinetics (MK), which reduces smoke and NOx levels simultaneously by reconciling low-temperature combustion with pre-mixed combustion [1, 2]. At present, research is under way on the second generation of MK combustion with the aim of improving emission performance further and achieving higher thermal efficiency [3]. Reducing heat rejection in the combustion chamber is effective in improving the thermal efficiency of DI diesel engines as well as that of MK combustion.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Auto-Ignition and Combustion of n-Butane and Air Mixtures in a 4 Stroke HCCI Engine by Using Elementary Reactions

2000-06-19
2000-01-1834
HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) engine is expected to a new engine to be high efficiency and low emission. But it is difficult to control ignition timing and combustion duration, because ignition and combustion mainly depend on oxidation process of fuel. In this study, the focus is to clear the combustion mechanism of auto-ignition engine. By calculating chemical kinetics of elementary reactions, effects of compression speed, equivalence ratio, initial temperature and compression ratio on auto-ignition were investigated. And also, behaviors of chemical species under auto-ignition process were cleared.
Technical Paper

A Study of Fuel and EGR Stratification to Reduce Pressure-Rise Rates in a HCCI Engine

2013-10-15
2013-32-9070
Problem of HCCI combustion is knocking due to a steep heat release by the ignition that is occurred in each local area at the same time. It is considered that dispersion of auto-ignition timing at each local area in the combustion chamber is necessary to prevent this problem. One of technique of this solution is to make thermal stratification. It could be made by using two-stage ignition fuel, which has large heat release at low temperature reaction. Dispersion of fuel concentration leads to difference of temperature histories while combustion phasing is dispersed at each local area. Also, EGR gas stratification could make difference of temperature histories at each local area because of that of the characteristics. This study examines the effect of mixing stratification by stratifying the charge of fuel and CO2. A single-cylinder engine equipped with optical access was used in experiments, and numerical analysis was executed.
Technical Paper

Potential of Stratification Charge for Reducing Pressure-Rise Rate in HCCI Engines Based on Multi-Zone Modeling and Experiments by using RCM

2013-10-15
2013-32-9083
The charge stratification has been thought as one of the ways to reduce the sharp pressure rises of HCCI combustion. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential of equivalence ratio, initial temperature, and EGR gas stratifications for reducing pressure-rise rate of HCCI combustion. Using rapid compression machine, the stratified pre-mixture is charged, and compressed to analyze the change of in-cylinder gas pressure and temperature traces during compression process. Based on the experiment results, numerical calculations by CHEMKIN are conducted to more specifically analyze the potential of equivalence ratio, initial temperature, and EGR gas stratifications on the reduction of pressure rise rate. Multi-zone model is used to simulate the thermal stratification, fuel stratification and EGR gas stratification of in-cylinder charge as like real engine.
Technical Paper

A Study on Supercharged HCCI Natural Gas Engines

2005-10-12
2005-32-0021
The possibility of turbocharging into a natural gas homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine is investigated experimentally and by simulation. Experiments are performed using a four-cylinder naturally aspirated engine fitted with an external supercharger and a butterfly valve for back pressure control to simulate a turbocharger with efficiency of 0.64. Based on the test results, the performance and emission characteristics are studied in detail through numerical one-dimensional cycle simulations. The results indicate that the thermal efficiency can be improved by raising the engine compression ratio and lowering the turbocharging pressure. At an engine compression ratio of 21 and turbocharging pressure of 1.9 bar, the brake thermal efficiency reaches 0.43, with NOx emissions of only 10 ppm or less.
Technical Paper

17 Study on Auto-Ignition and Combustion Completion of n-Butane in a Two-stroke Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine

2002-10-29
2002-32-1786
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is good method to be higher efficiency and to reduce NOx emission and particular matter together than conventional SI combustion engine. But HCCI depends on chemical reaction of fuel and air mixture. So controlling of ignition timing is difficult, and HCCI is high THC and CO emissions because temperature can't reach the enough temperature to reduce those. In this study, we investigated factor for auto ignition timing and combustion completion on n-Butane/Air mixture by a two-stroke HCCI engine. Auto Ignition temperature are known to be decided by fuel(1), for n-Butane, the temperature was 1150±30K. And as we researched combustion completion from In-cylinder gas temperature, increasing In-cylinder gas temperature caused high combustion efficiency and low THC, CO emissions.
Technical Paper

Effects of Spark Discharge Characteristic on Cycle-to-Cycle Variations of Combustion for Lean SI Operation with High Tumble Flow

2017-11-05
2017-32-0111
It has been shown that lean burn is effective for improving the thermal efficiency of gasoline SI engines. This happens because the reduction of heat loss by decrease of flame temperature. On the other hand, the fuel dilution of the premixed gas makes the combustion speed low, and cycle-to-cycle variations of combustion are increased by excessive dilution, it is difficult to increase the thermal efficiency of the gasoline SI engine. Influence of ignition by spark discharge is considered as a factor of combustion variation, and it is necessary to understand the effects of spark discharge characteristics on the lean combustion process. Spark discharge in the SI engines supplies energy to the premixed-gas via a discharge channel in the spark plug gap which ignites the premixed-gas. The discharge channel is elongated by in-cylinder gas flow and its behavior varies in each cycles.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel Composition on Ignition Delay and Knocking in Lean Burn SI Engine

2017-11-05
2017-32-0112
Super lean burn technology is conceived as one of methods for improving the thermal efficiency of SI engines[1][2]. For lean burn, reduction of heat loss and the due to decrease in flame temperature can be expected. However, as the premixed gas dilutes, the combustion speed decreases, so the combustion fluctuation between cycles increases. Also, to improve the thermal efficiency, the ignition timing is advanced to advance the combustion phase. However, when the combustion phase is excessively advanced, knocking occurs, which hinders the improvement of thermal efficiency. Knocking is a phenomenon in which unburned gas in a combustion chamber compressed by a piston and combustion gas suffer compression auto-ignition. It is necessary to avoid knocking because the amplitude of the large pressure wave may cause noise and damage to the engine. Also, knocking is not a steady phenomenon but a phenomenon that fluctuates from cycle to cycle.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional Computation of the Effects of the Swirl Ratio in Direct-Injection Diesel Engines on NOx and Soot Emissions

1996-05-01
961125
Three-dimensional computation has been applied to analyze combustion and emission characteristics in direct-injection diesel engines. A computational code called TurboKIVA was used to investigate the effects of the swirl ratio, one of the fundamental factors related to combustion control, on combustion characteristics and NOx and soot emissions. The code was first modified to calculate soot formation and oxidation and the precise behavior of fuel drops on the combustion chamber wall. As a result of improving calculation accuracy, good agreement was obtained between the measured and predicted pressure, heat release rate and NOx and soot emissions. Using this modified version of TurboKIVA, the effects of the swirl ratio on NOx and soot emissions were investigated. The computational results showed that soot emissions were reduced with a higher swirl ratio. However, a further increase in the swirl ratio produced greater soot emissions.
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