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Technical Paper

An Investigation of Combustion Control Using EGR for Small and Light HCCI Engine Fuelled with DME

2007-07-23
2007-01-1876
The HCCI engine could offer low NOx, PM emissions and high efficiency. However the operation region of the HCCI combustion is limited because of the knocking at high load and the misfire at low load. Moreover the HCCI principle lacks direct combustion control and needs a system to control the combustion phasing with high accuracy. Today there exists various ways to control the HCCI combustion, such as Variable Valve Train, Variable Compression Ratio, Inlet Air Heating and Dual Fuels. However such variable mechanisms and Inlet Air Heating tend to be heavy and complex. Dual Fuels method needs two types of fuels and has a challenge in infrastructure. In this study, in order to develop a small and light HCCI engine, a simple HCCI combustion control system is proposed. DME (Di-methyl Ether) is used as the fuel to keep the structure small and light. In this system, the mixing ratio of three gases: stoichiometric pre-mixture, hot EGR gas and cold EGR gas is changed by only throttles.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Effect of Thermal Stratification on HCCI Combustion by using Rapid Compression Machine

2007-07-23
2007-01-1870
A significant drawback to HCCI engines is the knocking caused by rapid increases in pressure. Such knocking limits the capacity for high-load operation. To solve this problem, thermal stratification in the combustion chamber has been suggested as possible solution. Thermal stratification has the potential to reduce the maximum value of the rate of pressure increase combustion by affecting the local combustion start time and extending the duration of combustion. The purpose of this study was to experimentally obtain fundamental knowledge about the effect of thermal stratification on the HCCI combustion process. Experiments were conducted in a rapid compression machine (RCM) equipped with a quartz window to provide optical access to the combustion chamber. The machine was fueled with DME, n-Butane, n-Heptane and iso-Octane, all of which are currently being investigated as alternative fuels and have different low temperature characteristics.
Technical Paper

Effect of Nozzle Diameter and EGR Ratio on the Flame Temperature and Soot Formation for Various Fuels

2001-05-07
2001-01-1939
In this study, effects of nozzle hole diameter and EGR ratio on flame temperature (indication of NO formation) and KL value (indication of soot formation) were investigated. Combustion of a single diesel fuel spray in the cylinder of a rapid compression machine (RCM) was analyzed. Three nozzles with different hole diameter were used corresponding to present, near term and long term heavy duty diesel engine specifications. EGR was simulated through 2%vol. CO2 addition to the inlet air and by increase of in-cylinder surrounding gas temperature. Various types of fuels were used in this. The ignition and combustion processes of diesel fuel spray were observed by a high-speed direct photography and by indicated pressure diagrams. Flame temperature and KL factor were analyzed by a two-color method. With larger nozzle hole diameters there are larger high temperature areas. With smaller nozzle hole diameters there is more soot formed. Introduction of 2% vol.
Technical Paper

Effects of Aromatics Content and 90% Distillation Temperature of Diesel Fuels on Flame Temperature and Soot Formation

2001-05-07
2001-01-1940
In this study, the effects of fuel properties, aromatics content and 90% distillation temperature T90, on flame temperature and soot formation were studied using a rapid compression machine (RCM). Aromatics content and T90 distillation temperature were parameters isolated from influence of each other, and from cetane number. A fuel spray was injected in the RCM combustion chamber by a single nozzle hole. The ignition and combustion processes of diesel spray were observed by a high-speed direct photography. Flame temperature and KL factor (which indicates the soot concentration), were analyzed by the two-color method. The rate of heat release was analyzed from indicated diagrams. The fuels with aromatics content showed higher flame temperature. The fuel with highest T90 distillation temperature showed highest flame temperature.
Technical Paper

Development of On-Board System to Measure Running Condition and Actual NOx Emissions from Freight Vehicle

2002-03-04
2002-01-0613
It is necessary to clarify the influence on NOx emissions by driver's operation for analyzing of NOx pollution mechanism at roadside. Simple on-board measurement system for vehicle running condition and actual NOx emissions was developed to evaluate local NOx pollution caused by vehicles. The measurement system was installed in a freight vehicle whose payload is two tons, and actual driving test was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the system. The tests on chassis dynamometer including steady state and transient mode indicated enough accuracy to evaluate NOx emissions from a vehicle at local roadsides.
Technical Paper

Study on Local Air Pollution Caused by NOx from Diesel Freight Vehicle

2002-03-04
2002-01-0651
An on-board measurement system that simultaneously measures road traffic, vehicle running conditions and exhaust emissions was installed in a diesel freight vehicle with two tons payload. Actual NOx mass emissions were compared with that measured in a typical test mode for urban cities on a chassis dynamometer. The frequency of vehicle accelerations in actual urban cities was found to exceed that of a typical test mode for urban cities on a chassis dynamometer, which resulted in increased NOx from actual running conditions compared with the typical test mode for urban cities. The dynamics of NOx emissions at an actual roadside was also analyzed. It was observed that NOx emission based on distance with an actual city route test was about two times higher than that of a free way route and a typical test mode for urban cities. The reason for high NOx with the city route was explained by the higher frequency of lower gears at which higher NOx is emitted.
Technical Paper

17 Study on Auto-Ignition and Combustion Completion of n-Butane in a Two-stroke Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine

2002-10-29
2002-32-1786
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is good method to be higher efficiency and to reduce NOx emission and particular matter together than conventional SI combustion engine. But HCCI depends on chemical reaction of fuel and air mixture. So controlling of ignition timing is difficult, and HCCI is high THC and CO emissions because temperature can't reach the enough temperature to reduce those. In this study, we investigated factor for auto ignition timing and combustion completion on n-Butane/Air mixture by a two-stroke HCCI engine. Auto Ignition temperature are known to be decided by fuel(1), for n-Butane, the temperature was 1150±30K. And as we researched combustion completion from In-cylinder gas temperature, increasing In-cylinder gas temperature caused high combustion efficiency and low THC, CO emissions.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Instantaneous Heat Flux Flowing Into Metallic and Ceramic Combustion Chamber Walls

2000-06-19
2000-01-1815
Accurate measurements of combustion gas temperature and the coefficient of heat transfer between the gas and the combustion chamber wall of internal combustion engine in cyclic operations are difficult at present. Hence the only method available for determination of states of thermal load and heat loss to the combustion chamber wall in a cycle is to measure the instantaneous temperature on the combustion chamber wall surface accurately and precisely using proper thin-film thermocouples, then to calculate the instantanenous heat flux flowing into the wall surface by means of numerical analysis. However, it is necessary to pay adequate attention to the effects of thermophysical properties of the thermocouple materials on the measured values, since any thermocouple consists of several kinds of materials which are different from those of portions to be measured.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Auto-Ignition and Combustion of n-Butane and Air Mixtures in a 4 Stroke HCCI Engine by Using Elementary Reactions

2000-06-19
2000-01-1834
HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) engine is expected to a new engine to be high efficiency and low emission. But it is difficult to control ignition timing and combustion duration, because ignition and combustion mainly depend on oxidation process of fuel. In this study, the focus is to clear the combustion mechanism of auto-ignition engine. By calculating chemical kinetics of elementary reactions, effects of compression speed, equivalence ratio, initial temperature and compression ratio on auto-ignition were investigated. And also, behaviors of chemical species under auto-ignition process were cleared.
Technical Paper

A Study on Supercharged HCCI Natural Gas Engines

2005-10-12
2005-32-0021
The possibility of turbocharging into a natural gas homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine is investigated experimentally and by simulation. Experiments are performed using a four-cylinder naturally aspirated engine fitted with an external supercharger and a butterfly valve for back pressure control to simulate a turbocharger with efficiency of 0.64. Based on the test results, the performance and emission characteristics are studied in detail through numerical one-dimensional cycle simulations. The results indicate that the thermal efficiency can be improved by raising the engine compression ratio and lowering the turbocharging pressure. At an engine compression ratio of 21 and turbocharging pressure of 1.9 bar, the brake thermal efficiency reaches 0.43, with NOx emissions of only 10 ppm or less.
Technical Paper

Development of the Control System Using EGR for the HCCI Engine Running on DME

2005-10-12
2005-32-0062
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine attracts much attention because of its high thermal efficiency and low NOx, PM emissions. On the other hand, Di-Methyl Ether (DME) is expected as one of alternative fuel for the internal combustion engines. In this study, four-stroke HCCI engine running on DME is developed to make it realistic application in production engines. This paper shows construction of the control method using both internal EGR at high temperature and external EGR at low temperature and estimates the performance of developed HCCI engine. Besides combustion characteristics of DME and the effects of EGR are researched with experiment and numerical calculation with elementary reactions. As a result, developed HCCI engine got comparable high thermal efficiency to conventional diesel engine but much lower Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) than that. Meanwhile it can be said that DME is suitable fuel for the HCCI engines in combustion characteristics.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Effect of Charge Inhomogeneity on HCCI Combustion by Chemiluminescence Measurement

2004-06-08
2004-01-1902
In the HCCI Engine, inhomogeneity in fuel distribution and temperature in the pre-mixture exists microscopically, and has the possibility of affecting the ignition and combustion process. In this study, the effect of charge inhomogeneity in fuel distribution on the HCCI combustion process was investigated. Two-dimensional images of the chemiluminescence were captured by using a framing camera with an optically accessible engine in order to understand the spatial distribution of the combustion. DME was used as a test fuel. By changing a device for mixing air and fuel in the intake manifold, inhomogeneity in fuel distribution in the pre-mixture was varied. The result shows that luminescence is observed in a very short time in a large part of the combustion chamber under the homogeneous condition, while luminescence appears locally with considerable time differences under the inhomogeneous condition.
Technical Paper

A Study of High Combustion Efficiency and Low CO Emission in a Natural Gas HCCI Engine

2004-06-08
2004-01-1974
The operating range is restricted by knocking and misfiring in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. In an HCCI engine, the autoignition does not always mean the high combustion efficiency because the operating range to achieve high combustion efficiency is very narrowly restricted by knocking and high THC, CO emissions. In this study, we have investigated the operating conditions to achieve high combustion efficiency and low CO emission in a four-stroke HCCI engine using experimental analysis and elementary reactions calculation. It is shown that the combustion efficiency reaches higher than 90%, and the CO emission can be reduced considerably when the in-cylinder maximum gas temperature is over 1600K.
Technical Paper

Transient NOx Characteristics of Freight Vehicles with EGR System in Real Traffic Conditions

2005-04-11
2005-01-1619
In order to clarify the reason why NOx emissions factor becomes higher at vehicle acceleration at intersections etc, two freight vehicles, that have EGR system for the reduction of NOx, were tested by an on-board NOx measurement system. Higher NOx emissions factor was observed in operations in lower-gear operation for each vehicle. Since the engine speed change was higher in the operation of lower gears, NOx emissions characteristics were analyzed in view of engine torque, NOx mass emissions and EGR rate, considering engine speed change. It was found that lower-gear operations made the engine speed change higher and the EGR rate lower. This seems to be one of the factors to engender the intensive NOx pollution at roadsides.
Technical Paper

Two–Dimensional Imaging of Formaldehyde Formed During the Ignition Process of a Diesel Fuel Spray

2000-03-06
2000-01-0236
The time of, and location where ignition first occurs in a diesel fuel spray were investigated in a rapid compression machine (RCM) using the two–dimensional techniques of silicone oil particle scattering imaging (SSI), and the planar laser induced fluorescence (LIF) of formaldehyde. Formaldehyde has been hypothesized to be one of the stable intermediate species marking the start of oxidation reactions in a transient spray under compression ignition conditions. In this study, the LIF images of the formaldehyde formed in a diesel fuel spray during ignition process have been successfully obtained for the first time by exciting formaldehyde with the 3rd harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser. SSI images of the vaporizing spray, and the LIF images of formaldehyde were obtained together with the corresponding time record of combustion chamber pressures at initial ambient temperatures ranging from 580 K to 790 K.
Technical Paper

The Research about Engine Optimization and Emission Characteristic of Dual Fuel Engine Fueled with Natural Gas and Diesel

2012-10-23
2012-32-0008
CNG/diesel dual-fuel engine is using CNG as a main fuel, and injects diesel only a little as an ignition priming. In this study, remodeling an existing diesel engine into dual-fuel engine that can inject diesel with high pressure by CRDI (Common Rail Direct Injection), and injecting CNG at intake port for premixing. The results show that CNG/diesel dual-fuel engine satisfied coordinate torque and power with conventional diesel engine. And CNG alternation rate is over 89% in all operating ranges of CNG/diesel dual-fuel engine. PM emission is lower 94% than diesel engine, but NOx emission is higher than diesel engine. The output of dual fuel mode is 95% by the diesel mode. At this time, amount of CO₂ and PM are decreased while CO, NOx, and THC are increased. In NEDC mode, exhaust gases except NOx are decreased.
Technical Paper

An Investigation on DME HCCI Engine about Combustion Phase Control using EGR Stratification by Numerical Analysis

2012-10-23
2012-32-0077
This work has been investigated the potential of in-cylinder EGR stratification for reducing the pressure rise rate of DME HCCI engines, and the coupling of both thermal stratification and fuel stratification. The numerical analyses were done by using five-zone version of CHEMKIN-II kinetics rate code, and kinetic mechanics for DME. The effects of inert components were used for the presence of EGR in calculation. Three cases of EGR stratification were tested on both thermal stratification and fuel stratification at the fixed initial temperature, pressure and fueling rate at BDC. In order to explore the appropriate stratification of EGR, EGR width was employed from zero to thirty percent. Firstly, EGR homogeneity case which means EGR width zero was examined. Secondly, EGR is located densely in hotter zone for combining with thermal stratification or in richer zone for a combination with fuel stratification. Lastly, the case was judged inversely with the second case.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Effects of Fuel Inhomogeneity on the Pressure Rise Rate in HCCI engine using Chemiluminescence Imaging

2010-09-28
2010-32-0097
Theoretically, homogeneous charge compression engines (HCCI) are able to grant a high thermal efficiency, as well as a low NOx and particulate emissions. This ability is mainly due to the combustion process, which, contrary to both Diesel and Gasoline engine, is homogeneous in time and space within the combustion chamber. But despite these advantages, the engine operating condition is limited by the narrow boundaries of misfire at low load and knocking at high load. For that matter, one of the numerous ways of overcoming knocking is to deliberately create fuel inhomogeneities within the combustion chamber, since it has proved to lengthen combustion duration and to drastically reduce maximum pressure rise rate (PRR). Nevertheless, though the global effects of fuel inhomogeneities on PRR have been studied, we lack information that explains this phenomenon.
Technical Paper

A Cycle-to-Cycle Variation Extraction Method for Flow Field Analysis in SI IC Engines Based on Turbulence Scales

2019-01-15
2019-01-0042
To adhere to stringent environmental regulations, SI (spark ignition) engines are required to achieve higher thermal efficiency. In recent years, EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) systems and lean-burn operation has been recognized as key technologies. Under such operating conditions, reducing CCV (cycle-to-cycle variation) in combustion is critical to the enhancement of overall engine performance. Flow-field CCV is one of the considerable factors affecting combustion in engines. Conventionally, in research on flow fields in SI engines, the ensemble average is used to separate the measured velocity field into a mean component and a fluctuation component, the latter of which contains a CCV component and a turbulent component. To extract the CCV of the flow field, previous studies employed spatial filter, temporal filter, and POD (proper orthogonal decomposition) methods.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel Composition on Ignition Delay and Knocking in Lean Burn SI Engine

2017-11-05
2017-32-0112
Super lean burn technology is conceived as one of methods for improving the thermal efficiency of SI engines[1][2]. For lean burn, reduction of heat loss and the due to decrease in flame temperature can be expected. However, as the premixed gas dilutes, the combustion speed decreases, so the combustion fluctuation between cycles increases. Also, to improve the thermal efficiency, the ignition timing is advanced to advance the combustion phase. However, when the combustion phase is excessively advanced, knocking occurs, which hinders the improvement of thermal efficiency. Knocking is a phenomenon in which unburned gas in a combustion chamber compressed by a piston and combustion gas suffer compression auto-ignition. It is necessary to avoid knocking because the amplitude of the large pressure wave may cause noise and damage to the engine. Also, knocking is not a steady phenomenon but a phenomenon that fluctuates from cycle to cycle.
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