Refine Your Search

Search Results

Technical Paper

High Spatial Resolution Visualization and Spectroscopic Investigation of the Flame Front Propagation in the Combustion Chamber of a Scooter Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0351
The match between the increasing performance demands and stringent requirements of emissions and fuel consumption reduction needs a strong evolution in the 2-wheel vehicle technology. In particular many steps forward should be taken for the optimization of modern small motorcycle and scooter at low engine speeds and low temperature start. To this aim, the detailed understandings of thermal and fluid-dynamic phenomena that occur in the combustion chamber are fundamental. In this work, experimental activities were realized in the combustion chamber of a single-cylinder 4-stroke optical engine. The engine was equipped with a four-valve head of a commercial scooter engine. High spatial resolution imaging was used to follow the flame kernel growth and flame front propagation. Moreover, the effects of an abnormal combustion due to firing of fuel deposition near the intake valves and on the piston surface were investigated.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection Effect on In-cylinder Formation and Exhaust Emission of Particulate from a 4-Stroke Engine for 2-Wheel Vehicles

2010-04-12
2010-01-0354
The small engine for two-wheel vehicles has generally high possibility to be optimized at low speeds and high loads. In these conditions fuel consumption and pollutants emission should be reduced maintaining the performance levels. This optimization can be realized only improving the basic knowledge of the thermo-fluid dynamic phenomena occurring during the combustion process. It is known that, during the fuel injection phase in PFI SI engines, thin films of liquid fuel can form on the valves surface and on the cylinder walls. Successively the fuel films interact with the intake manifold and the combustion chamber gas flow. During the normal combustion process, it is possible to achieve gas temperature and mixture strength conditions that lead to fuel film ignition. This phenomenon can create diffusion-controlled flames that can persist well after the normal combustion event. These flames induce the emission of soot and unburned hydrocarbons.
Technical Paper

Use of Renewable Oxygenated Fuels in Order to Reduce Particle Emissions from a GDI High Performance Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-0628
The use of oxygenated and renewable fuels is nowadays a widespread means to reduce regulated pollutant emissions produced by internal combustion engines, as well as to reduce the greenhouse impact of transportation. Besides PM, NOx and HC emissions, also the size distribution of particles emitted at the engine exhaust represent meaningful information, considering its adverse effects on the environment and human health. In this work, the results of a comprehensive investigation on the combustion characteristics and the exhaust emissions of a GDI high performance engine, fuelled with pure bio-ethanol and European gasoline, are shown. The engine is a 4-cylinder, 4-stroke, 1750 cm₃ displacement, and turbocharged. The engine was operated at different speed/load conditions and two fuel injection strategies were investigated: homogeneous charge mode and stratified charge mode.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of a Methane-Gasoline Dual-Fuel Combustion in a Small Displacement Optical Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0046
In this paper the methane-gasoline dual fuel combustion was investigated. Gasoline was injected in the intake manifold (PFI fuel), while methane was injected in the combustion chamber (DI fuel), in order to reproduce a stratified combustion. The combustion process and the related engine performance and pollutant emissions were analyzed. The measurements were carried out in an optically accessible small single-cylinder four-stroke engine. It was equipped with the cylinder head of a commercial 250 cc engine representative of the most popular two-wheel vehicles in Europe. Optical measurements were performed to analyze the combustion process with high spatial and temporal resolution. In particular, optical techniques based on 2D-digital imaging were used to follow the flame front propagation and the soot and temperature concentration in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Particle Formation and Emissions in an Optical Small Displacement SI Engine Dual Fueled with CNG DI and Gasoline PFI

2017-09-04
2017-24-0092
Fuel depletion as well as the growing concerns on environmental issues prompt to the use of more eco-friendly fuels. The compressed natural gas (CNG) is considered one of the most promising alternative fuel for engine applications because of the lower emissions. Nevertheless, recent studies highlighted the presence of ultrafine particle emissions at the exhaust of CNG engines. The present study aims to investigate the effect of CNG on particle formation and emissions when it was direct injected and when it was dual fueled with gasoline. In this latter case, the CNG was direct injected and the gasoline port fuel injected. The study was carried out on a transparent single cylinder SI engine in order to investigate the in-cylinder process by real time non-intrusive diagnostics. In-cylinder 2D chemiluminescence measurements from UV to visible were carried out.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigations on the Sources of Particulate Emission within a Natural Gas Spark-Ignition Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0141
The aim of the present work is to provide further guidance into better understanding the production mechanisms of soot emissions in Spark-Ignition SI engines fueled with compressed natural gas. In particular, extensive experimental investigations were designed with the aim to isolate the contribution of the fuel from that of lubricant oil to particle emissions. This because the common thought is that particulate emerging from the engine derives mainly from fuel, otherwise the contribute of lubricant oil cannot be neglected or underestimated, especially when the fuel itself produces low levels of soot emissions, such as in the case of premixed natural gas. The fuel-derived contribution was studied by analyzing the influence that natural gas composition has on soot emitted from a single cylinder Spark-Ignition (SI) engine. To achieve this purpose, methane/propane mixtures were realized and injected into the intake manifold of a Single-Cylinder SI engine.
Technical Paper

Quasi-Dimensional Simulation of Downsizing and Inverter Application for Efficient Part Load Operation of Spark Ignition Engine Driven Micro-Cogeneration Systems

2018-10-30
2018-32-0061
Within the context of distributed power generation, small size systems driven by spark ignition engines represent a valid and user-friendly choice, that ensures good fuel flexibility. One issue is that such applications are run at part load for extensive periods, thus lowering fuel economy. Employing an inverter (fitted between the generator and load) allows engine operation within a wide range of crankshaft rotational velocity, therefore improving efficiency. For the purpose of evaluating the benefits of this technology within a co-generation framework, two configurations were modeled by using the GT-Power simulation software. After model calibration based on measurements on a small size engine for two-wheel applications, the downsized version was compared to a larger power unit operated at constant engine speed for a scenario that featured up to 10 kW rated power.
Technical Paper

Influence of Combustion Efficiency on the Operation of Spark Ignition Engines Fueled with Methane and Hydrogen Investigated in a Quasi-Dimensional Simulation Framework

2018-05-30
2018-37-0012
Within the context of widening application of numerical simulations for shortening engine development times, the present work covers the issue of quasi-dimensional simulation of spark ignition engines. Multi-fuel operation was the main goal of the study, with the analysis of methane and its blends with hydrogen; gasoline was also considered as a reference case. Data recorded on two engines with practically the same geometry, was used for calibrating the model. The first power unit was of commercial derivation for small applications, while the second one featured optical accessibility through the piston crown. The relative difference between the two engines allowed the top-land region crevice to be identified as the major contributor to overall combustion evolution, especially during its late stages.
Journal Article

Non-Intrusive Investigation in a Small GDI Optical Engine Fuelled with Gasoline and Ethanol

2011-04-12
2011-01-0140
The aim of this paper is the experimental investigation of the effect of direct fuel injection on the combustion process and pollutant formation in a spark ignition (SI) two-wheel engine. The engine is a 250cc single cylinder, four-stroke spark-ignition firstly equipped with a four-valve PFI head and then with GDI one operating with European commercial gasoline and Bio-ethanol. It is equipped with a wide sapphire window in the bottom of the chamber and quartz cylinder. In the combustion chamber, optical techniques based on 2D-digital imaging were used to follow the injection and flame propagation and spectroscopic measurements were carried out in order to evaluate the main radical species. Radical species such as OH and CH were detected and used to follow the chemical phenomena related to the fuel quality. Measurements were carried out at different engine speeds and combustion strategies based on different injection pressures.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Soot Formation and Exhaust Particle Emissions in a Small Displacement Spark Ignition Engine Operating with Ethanol Mixed and Dual Fueled with Gasoline

2017-03-28
2017-01-0653
This paper aims to correlate the in-cylinder soot formation and the exhaust particle emissions for different methods of gasoline/ethanol fueling in spark ignition engine. In particular, the engine was fueled with gasoline and ethanol separately and not, in this latter case both blended (E30) and dual fueled (EDF). For E30 the bend was direct injected and for EDF, the ethanol was injected in the combustion chamber and the gasoline into the intake duct. For both the injection configurations, the same percentage of ethanol in gasoline was supplied: 30%v/v. The measurements were carried out at 2000 and 4000 rpm, under full load, and stoichiometric condition, in small single cylinder optical engine. 2D-digital imaging was performed to follow the combustion process with a high spatial and temporal resolution through a full-bore optical piston. The two-color pyrometry was applied for the analysis of the in cylinder soot formation in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Correlation between Simulated Volume Fraction Burned Using a Quasi-Dimensional Model and Flame Area Measured in an Optically Accessible SI Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0545
Multi-fuel operation is one of the main topics of investigative research in the field of internal combustion engines. Spark ignition (SI) power units are relatively easily adaptable to alternative liquid-as well as gaseous-fuels, with mixture preparation being the main modification required. Numerical simulations are used on an ever wider scale in engine research in order to reduce costs associated with experimental investigations. In this sense, quasi-dimensional models provide acceptable accuracy with reduced computational efforts. Within this context, the present study puts under scrutiny the assumption of spherical flame propagation and how calibration of a two-zone combustion simulation is affected when changing fuel type. A quasi-dimensional model was calibrated based on measured in-cylinder pressure, and numerical results related to the two-zone volumes were compared to recorded flame imaging.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Ethanol-Gasoline Dual Fuel Combustion on the Performance and Exhaust Emissions of a Small SI Engine

2014-10-13
2014-01-2620
The growing concerns over the pollutant emissions as well as the depletion of fossil fuel led to the research of advanced combustion mode and alternative fuels for the reduction both of fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. The dual-fuel injection system can be used to improve the engine performance and reduce the fossil fuel consumption performing simultaneously a direct-injection (DI) and a port-fuel-injection (PFI) of different fuels. Ethanol is one of the most promising alternative fuels for SI engines. It offers high anti-knock quality because of the high octane number; moreover, being an oxygenated fuel is very effective in particle emissions reduction. On the other hand, it is characterized by lower energy density mainly because of the low lower heating value (LHV). The aim of the paper is the investigation of the ethanol-gasoline dual fuel combustion on engine performance and emissions.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ethanol and Gasoline Blending and Dual Fueling on Engine Performance and Emissions.

2015-09-06
2015-24-2490
Ethanol is the most promising alternative fuel for spark ignition (SI) engines, that is blended with gasoline, typically. Moreover, in the last years great attention is paid to the dual fueling, ethanol and gasoline are injected simultaneously. This paper aims to analyze the better methods, blending or dual fueling in order to best exploit the potential of ethanol in improving engine performance and reducing pollutant emissions. The experimental activity was carried out in a small displacement single cylinder engine, representative of 2-3 wheel vehicle engines or of 3-4 cylinder small displacement automotive engines. It was equipped with a prototype gasoline direct injection (GDI) head. The tests were carried out at 3000, 4000, and 5000 rpm full load. The investigated engine operating conditions are representative of the European homologation urban driving cycle.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Split Injections on the Performance of a GDI Engine Under Lean Operation

2015-09-06
2015-24-2413
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) allows flexible operation of spark ignition engines for reduced fuel consumption and low pollutants emissions. The choice of the best combination of the different parameters that affect the energy conversion process and the environmental impact of a given engine may either resort to experimental characterizations or to computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Under this perspective, present work is aimed at discussing the assessment of a CFD-optimization (CFD-O) procedure for the highest performance of a GDI engine operated lean under both single and double injection strategies realized during compression. An experimental characterization of a 4-stroke 4-cylinder optically accessible engine, working stratified lean under single injection, is first carried out to collect a set of data necessary for the validation of a properly developed 3D engine model.
Technical Paper

Effect of Octane Number Obtained with Different Oxygenated Components on the Engine Performance and Emissions of a Small GDI Engine

2014-11-11
2014-32-0038
Great efforts have been paid to improve engine efficiency as well as to reduce the pollutant emissions. The direct injection allows to improve the engine efficiency; on the other hand, the GDI combustion produces larger particle emissions. The properties of fuels play an important role both on engine performance and pollutant emissions. In particular, great attention was paid to the octane number. Oxygenated compounds allow increasing gasoline's octane number and play an important role in PM emission reduction. In this study was analyzed the effect of fuels with different RON and with ethanol and ethers content. The analysis was performed on a small GDI engine. Two operating conditions, representative of the typical EUDC cycle, were investigated. Both the engine performance and the exhaust emissions were evaluated. The gaseous emissions and particle concentration were measured at the exhaust by means of conventional instruments.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Combustion Process in a Small Optically Accessible Two Stroke SI Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0131
The improvement in engines efficiency and reduction of emissions is the permanent aim of engine industry in order to meet European standards regulation. To optimize small internal combustion engines it is necessary to improve the basic knowledge of thermo-fluid dynamic phenomena occurring during the combustion. This paper describes the combustion process in an optically accessible two-stroke spark-ignition engine used in a commercial 43 cm3 chainsaw. Two different feeding systems were tested: standard and CWI one. The engine head was modified in order to allow the visualization of the combustion using endoscopic system coupled with a high spatial resolution ICCD camera. Flame front propagation was evaluated through an image processing procedure. The image visualization and chemiluminence allowed to follow the combustion process from the spark ignition to the exhaust phase at high engine speed. All the optical data were correlated with engine parameters and exhaust emissions.
Journal Article

Characterization of CH4 and CH4/H2 Mixtures Combustion in a Small Displacement Optical Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-0852
In the last years, even more attention was paid to the alternative fuels which can allow both reducing the fuel consumption and the pollutant emissions. Among gaseous fuels, methane is considered one of the most interesting in terms of engine application. It represents an immediate advantage over other hydrocarbon fuels leading to lower CO₂ emissions; if compared to gasoline, CH₄ has wider flammable limits and better anti-knock properties, but lower flame speed. The addition of H₂ to CH₄ can improve the already good qualities of methane and compensate its weak points. In this paper a comparison was carried out between CH₄ and different CH₄/H₂ mixtures. The measurements were carried out in an optically accessible small single-cylinder, Port Fuel Injection spark ignition (PFI SI), four-stroke engine. It was equipped with the cylinder head of a commercial 250 cc motorcycle engine representative of the most popular two-wheel vehicles in Europe.
Technical Paper

Experimental Characterization of an Ethanol DI - Gasoline PFI and Gasoline DI - Gasoline PFI Dual Fuel Small Displacement SI Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0848
The aim of the paper is the comparison of the performance, gaseous and particle emissions from different injection configurations and fuels. The engine was operated in port fuel injection (PFI), direct injection (DI) and dual fuel (DF). For DF, ethanol DI-gasoline PFI and gasoline DI-gasoline PFI strategies were performed to discern the effect of injection strategy from the effect of the fuel. The experimental activity was carried out in a small displacement single cylinder engine, representative of 2-3 wheel vehicle engines or of 3-4 cylinder small displacement automotive engines. It was equipped with a prototype gasoline direct injection (GDI) head. The tests were carried out at 3000 rpm, 4000 rpm and 5000 rpm full load. The investigated engine operating conditions are representative of the homologation urban driving cycle. The gaseous and particle emissions were measured at the exhaust by means of a gas analyzer and a smoke meter.
Technical Paper

Ethanol Addition Influence on Backfire Phenomena during Kickback in a Spark-Ignition Transparent Small Engine

2014-11-11
2014-32-0093
This paper investigates abnormal combustion during the cranking phase of spark-ignition small engines, specifically the occurrence of backfire at the release of the starter motor during kickback. The research focusses on the influence of fuel composition, mainly in terms of ethanol percentage, on backfire occurrence. Interest in this abnormal combustion is growing due to the increased use of fuels with different chemical-physical properties with respect to gasoline. Moreover, this issue will become even more topical due to the implementation of simple control and fuel supply systems on low cost-engines, which are widely used in developing countries. Experimentation was carried out in an optically accessible engine derived from a 4-stroke spark ignition engine for two-wheel vehicles. The test bench was instrumented and adapted in order to simulate the engine conditions that lead to anomalous ignition in the intake duct (backfire) during the reverse rotation of the engine (kickback).
Technical Paper

Optical Characterization of Methane Combustion in a Four Stroke Engine for Two Wheel Application

2012-04-16
2012-01-1150
In the urban area the internal combustion engines are the main source of CO₂, NO and particulate matter (PM) emissions. The reduction of these emissions is no more an option, but a necessity highlighted by the even stricter emission standards. In the last years, even more attention was paid to the alternative fuels. They allow both reducing the fuel consumption and the pollutant emissions. With regards to the gaseous fuels, methane is considered one of the most interesting in terms of engine application. It represents an immediate advantage over other hydrocarbon fuels because of the lower C/H ratio. In this paper the effect of the methane on the combustion process, the pollutant emissions and the engine performance was analyzed. The measurements were carried out in an optically accessible single-cylinder, Port Fuel Injection, four-stroke SI engine equipped with the cylinder head of a commercial 250 cc motorcycles engine and fuelled both with gasoline and methane.
X