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Technical Paper

Potential Applications of the Stiller-Smith Mechanism in internal Combustion Engine Designs

1987-11-08
871225
With few exceptions most internal combustion engines use a slider-crank mechanism to convert reciprocating piston motion into a usable rotational output. One such exception is the Stiller-Smith Mechanism which utilizes a kinematic inversion of a Scotch yoke called an elliptic trammel. The device uses rigid connecting rods and a floating/eccentric gear train for motion conversion and force transmission. The mechanism exhibits advantages over the slider-crank for application in internal combustion engines in areas such as balancing, size, thermal efficiency, and low heat rejection. An overview of potential advantages of an engine utilizing the Stiller-Smith Mechanism is presented.
Technical Paper

Comparative Emissions from Diesel and Biodiesel Fueled Buses from 2002 to 2008 Model Years

2010-10-05
2010-01-1967
Fuel economy and regulated emissions were measured from eight forty-foot transit buses operated on petroleum diesel and a “B20” blend of 80% diesel fuel and 20% biodiesel by volume. Use of biodiesel is attractive to displace petroleum fuel and reduce an operation's carbon footprint. Usually it is assumed that biodiesel will also reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions relative to those of petroleum diesel. Model years of the vehicles evaluated were newer 2007-08 Gillig low-floor buses, 2005 Gillig Phantom buses, and a 2002 Gillig Phantom bus. Engine technology represented three different emissions standards, and included buses with OEM diesel particulate filters. Each bus was evaluated using two transient speed-time schedules, the Orange County Transit Authority (OCTA) driving schedule which represents moderate speed urban/suburban operation and the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) which represents a mix of suburban and higher speed on-highway operation.
Technical Paper

Biodiesel Blend Emissions of a 2007 Medium Heavy Duty Diesel Truck

2010-10-05
2010-01-1968
Biodiesel may be derived from either plant or animal sources, and is usually employed as a compression ignition fuel in a blend with petroleum diesel (PD). Emissions differences between vehicles operated on biodiesel blends and on diesel have been published previously, but data do not cover the latest engine technologies. Prior studies have shown that biodiesel offers advantages in reducing particulate matter, with either no advantage or a slight disadvantage for oxides of nitrogen emissions. This paper describes a recent study on the emissions impact of two biodiesel blends B20A, made from 20% animal fat (tallow) biodiesel and 80% PD, and B20B, obtained from 20% soybean biodiesel and 80% PD. These blends used the same PD fuel for blending and were contrasted with the same PD fuel as a reference. The research was conducted on a 2007 medium heavy-duty diesel truck (MHDDT), with an engine equipped with Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) and a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF).
Technical Paper

Continuously Varying Exhaust Outlet Diameter to Improve Efficiency and Emissions of a Small SI Natural Gas Two-Stroke Engine by Internal EGR

2018-04-03
2018-01-0985
With continuously increasing concern for the emissions from two-stroke engines including regulated hydrocarbon (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions, non-road engines are implementing proven technologies from the on-road market. For example, four stroke diesel generators now include additional internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) via an intake/exhaust valve passage. EGR can offer benefits of reduced HC, NOx, and may even improve combustion stability and fuel efficiency. In addition, there is particular interest in use of natural gas as fuel for home power generation. This paper examines exhaust throttling applied to the Helmholtz resonator of a two-stroke, port injected, natural gas engine. The 34 cc engine was air cooled and operated at wide-open throttle (WOT) conditions at an engine speed of 5400 RPM with fueling adjusted to achieve maximum brake torque. Exhaust throttling served as a method to decrease the effective diameter of the outlet of the convergent cone.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Energy Pathways and Gas Exchange of a Small Port Injection SI Two-Stroke Natural Gas Engine Operating on Different Exhaust Configurations

2018-04-03
2018-01-1278
This paper examines the energy pathways of a 29cc air-cooled two-stroke engine operating on natural gas with different exhaust geometries. The engine was operated at wide-open-throttle at a constant speed of 5400 RPM with ignition adjusted to yield maximum brake torque while the fueling was adjusted to examine both rich and lean combustion. The exhaust configurations examined included an off-the-shelf (OTS) model and two other custom models designed on Helmholtz resonance theory. The custom designs included both single and multi-cone features. Out of the three exhaust systems tested, the model with maximum trapping efficiency showed a higher overall efficiency due to lower fuel short-circuiting and heat transfer. The heat transfer rate was shown to be 10% lower on the new designs relative to OTS model.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Windage and Vibrational Losses in Flexure Springs of a One kW Two-Stroke Free Piston Linear Engine Alternator

2019-04-02
2019-01-0816
Methods to quantify the energy losses within linear motion devices that included flexural springs as the main suspension component were investigated. The methods were applied to a two-stroke free-piston linear engine alternator (LEA) as a case study that incorporated flexure springs to add stiffness to the mass-spring system. Use of flexure springs is an enabling mechanism for improving the efficiency and lifespan in linear applications e.g. linear engines and generators, cryocoolers, and linear Stirling engines. The energy loss due to vibrations and windage effects of flexure springs in a free piston LEA was investigated to quantify possible energy losses. A transient finite element solver was used to determine the effects of higher modes of vibration frequencies of the flexure arms at an operational frequency of 65 Hz. Also, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver was used to determine the effects of drag force on the moving surfaces of flexures at high frequencies.
Technical Paper

A Configuration for a Continuously Variable Power-Split Transmission in Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Applications

2004-03-08
2004-01-0571
Continuously variable transmissions (CVTs) are usually used in small vehicles due to power limitations on the variable elements. Continuously variable power-split transmissions (CVPST) were developed in order to reduce the fraction of power passing through the variable elements [1,2]. The configuration presented in this paper includes a planetary gear train (PGT), which in combination with the CVT allows the power to be split and therefore increase the power envelope of the system. The PGT also provides a branch that can be used in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) operation through an electric motor. A conceptual design of a CVPST for a HEV is presented in this paper. The objectives are to show the different operational modes, with diagrams, perform a power analysis, develop the velocity and force equations and finally show the performance of the system with an example application.
Technical Paper

Effects of Average Driving Cycle Speed on Lean-Burn Natural Gas Bus Emissions and Fuel Economy

2007-01-23
2007-01-0054
Although diesel engines still power most of the heavy-duty transit buses in the United States, many major cities are also operating fleets where a significant percentage of buses is powered by lean-burn natural gas engines. Emissions from these buses are often expressed in distance-specific units of grams per mile (g/mile) or grams per kilometer (g/km), but the driving cycle or route employed during emissions measurement has a strong influence on the reported results. A driving cycle that demands less energy per unit distance than others results in higher fuel economy and lower distance-specific oxides of nitrogen emissions. In addition to energy per unit distance, the degree to which the driving cycle is transient in nature can also affect emissions.
Technical Paper

Parametric Study of 2007 Standard Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Particulate Matter Sampling System

2007-01-23
2007-01-0060
Heavy-Duty Diesel (HDD) engines' particulate matter (PM) emissions are most often measured quantitatively by weighing filters that collect diluted exhaust samples pre- and post-test. PM sampling systems that dilute exhaust gas and collect PM samples have different effects on measured PM data. Those effects usually contribute to inter-laboratory variance. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s 2007 PM emission measurement regulations for the test of HDD engines should reduce variability, but must also cope with PM mass that is an order of magnitude lower than legacy engine testing. To support the design of a 2007 US standard HDD PM emission sampling system, a parametric study based on a systematic Simulink® model was performed. This model acted as an auxiliary design tool when setting up a new 2007 HDD PM emission sampling system in a heavy-duty test cell at West Virginia University (WVU). It was also designed to provide assistance in post-test data processing.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Error Analysis Investigation into Dilution Factor Equations

2007-04-16
2007-01-0310
As emission regulations become increasingly strict, the need for more accurate sampling systems becomes essential. When calculating emissions from a dilution system, a correction is made to remove the effects of contaminants in the dilution air. The dilution air correction was explored to determine why this correction is needed, when this correction is important, and what methods are available for calculating the dilution factor (DF). An experimental and error analysis investigation into the standard and recently proposed methods for calculating the DF was conducted. Five steady state modes were run on a 1992 Detroit Diesel engine series 60 and the DF from eleven different equations were investigated. The effects of an inaccurate dilution air correction on calculated fuel flow from a carbon balance and the mass emissions was analyzed. The dilution air correction was shown to be important only for hydrocarbons, particulate matter (PM), and CO2.
Technical Paper

Initial Investigations of a Novel Engine Concept for Use with a Wide Range of Fuel Types

1992-02-01
920057
The recent oil crisis has once again emphasized the need to develop both fuel efficient engines and alternately fueled engines, particularly for automotive applications. Engines which burn coal or coal pyrolysis products are attractive, but ignition delay and metal erosion problems continue to limit high speed operation of such engines. Further, the throttled spark ignition engine often used with methanol and natural gas does not prove an efficient or tolerant device for the combustion of a wide range of fuel. Therefore, an novel approach must be taken in order to achieve the efficient and flexible operation of such an engine. A novel design of a fuel tolerant engine suitable for burning coal fuels separates the combustion from the piston in order to have more careful flame control and to exclude the particulate matter from the engine's piston rings.
Technical Paper

Emissions from a Legacy Diesel Engine Exercised through the ACES Engine Test Schedule

2008-06-23
2008-01-1679
Most transient heavy duty diesel emissions data in the USA have been acquired using the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), a heavy-duty diesel engine transient test schedule described in the US Code of Federal Regulations. The FTP includes both urban and freeway operation and does not provide data separated by driving mode (such as rural, urban, freeway). Recently, a four-mode engine test schedule was created for use in the Advanced Collaborative Emission Study (ACES), and was demonstrated on a 2004 engine equipped with cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). In the present work, the authors examined emissions using these ACES modes (Creep, Cruise, Transient and High-speed Cruise) and the FTP from a Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) Series 60 1992 12.7 liter pre-EGR engine. The engine emissions were measured using full exhaust dilution, continuous measurement of gaseous species, and filter-based Particulate Matter (PM) measurement.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Heat Release Rate in a Sinusoidal Spark Ignition Engine

1989-02-01
890778
Compression and power stroke cycles for a 4 stroke cycle spark ignition engine modified by extending the connecting rod to simulate purely sinusoidal piston motion are analyzed over a range of operating speeds and are compared with those of a similar conventional engine. Heat release rate is estimated for both engines using a simple Wiebe function with the functional parameters found via a simplex curve fitting method used in conjunction with experimental pressure curves. It is shown that the functional parameters which represent the combustion and the duration of fuel burn are slightly larger over the range of operation in the sinusoidal engine while the shape factor remains largely the same. However, the pressure-crank angle curves are sufficiently similar such that conventional slider-crank curves can be used to model sinusoidal engines, which was the motivation behind this research.
Technical Paper

Diesel and CNG Transit Bus Emissions Characterization by Two Chassis Dynamometer Laboratories: Results and Issues

1999-05-03
1999-01-1469
Emissions of six 32 passenger transit buses were characterized using one of the West Virginia University (WVU) Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratories, and the fixed base chassis dynamometer at the Colorado Institute for Fuels and High Altitude Engine Research (CIFER). Three of the buses were powered with 1997 ISB 5.9 liter Cummins diesel engines, and three were powered with the 1997 5.9 liter Cummins natural gas (NG) counterpart. The NG engines were LEV certified. Objectives were to contrast the emissions performance of the diesel and NG units, and to compare results from the two laboratories. Both laboratories found that oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter (PM) emissions were substantially lower for the natural gas buses than for the diesel buses. It was observed that by varying the rapidity of pedal movement during accelerations in the Central Business District cycle (CBD), CO and PM emissions from the diesel buses could be varied by a factor of three or more.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Combustion Pressure Characteristics of Fischer-Tropsch and Conventional Diesel Fuels in a Heavy Duty CI Engine

1999-05-03
1999-01-1472
The emissions reduction benefits of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel fuel have been shown in several recent published studies in both engine testing and in-use vehicle testing. FT diesel fuel shows significant advantages in reducing regulated engine emissions over conventional diesel fuel primarily to: its zero sulfur specification, implying reduced particulate matter (PM) emissions, its relatively lower aromaticity, and its relatively high cetane rating. However, the actual effect of FT diesel formulation on the in-cylinder combustion characteristics of unmodified modern heavy-duty diesel engines is not well documented. As a result, a Navistar T444E (V8, 7.3 liter) engine, instrumented for in-cylinder pressure measurement, was installed on an engine dynamometer and subjected to steady-state emissions measurement using both conventional Federal low sulfur pump diesel and a natural gas-derived FT fuel.
Technical Paper

Emissions from Buses with DDC 6V92 Engines Using Synthetic Diesel Fuel

1999-05-03
1999-01-1512
Synthetic diesel fuel can be made from a variety of feedstocks, including coal, natural gas and biomass. Synthetic diesel fuels can have very low sulfur and aromatic content, and excellent autoignition characteristics. Moreover, synthetic diesel fuels may also be economically competitive with California diesel fuel if produced in large volumes. Previous engine laboratory and field tests using a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer indicate that synthetic diesel fuel made using the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalytic conversion process is a promising alternative fuel because it can be used in unmodified diesel engines, and can reduce exhaust emissions substantially. The objective of this study was a preliminary assessment of the emissions from older model transit operated on Mossgas synthetic diesel fuel. The study compared emissions from transit buses operating on Federal no. 2 Diesel fuel, Mossgas synthetic diesel (MGSD), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels.
Technical Paper

On-Road Use of Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Blends

1999-04-27
1999-01-2251
Alternative compression ignition engine fuels are of interest both to reduce emissions and to reduce U.S. petroleum fuel demand. A Malaysian Fischer-Tropsch gas-to-liquid fuel was compared with California #2 diesel by characterizing emissions from over the road Class 8 tractors with Caterpillar 3176 engines, using a chassis dynamometer and full scale dilution tunnel. The 5-Mile route was employed as the test schedule, with a test weight of 42,000 lb. Levels of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) were reduced by an average of 12% and particulate matter (PM) by 25% for the Fischer-Tropsch fuel over the California diesel fuel. Another distillate fuel produced catalytically from Fischer-Tropsch products originally derived from natural gas by Mossgas was also compared with 49-state #2 diesel by characterizing emissions from Detroit Diesel 6V-92 powered transit buses, three of them equipped with catalytic converters and rebuilt engines, and three without.
Technical Paper

Demonstration of Caterpillar C10 Dual Fuel Natural Gas Engines in Commuter Buses

2000-03-06
2000-01-1386
Optimized 1997 model year Caterpillar C10 dual-fuel natural gas engines certified to the California Air Resources Board's Alternative Low NOx 2.5 gram/brake horsepower-hour emission standard were demonstrated in three commuter buses over a 12-month period, in Santa Barbara, California. The project evaluated the retrofit costs and process, performance, reliability, fuel economy, operating costs, and emissions of the three C-10 dual-fuel natural gas engines compared to a standard C-10 diesel engine. Chassis dynamometer tests using the U.S. EPA Urban Dynamometer Drive Schedule, the Central Business District (West Virginia University version) and the 55-mph Steady State cycles were conducted to characterize in-use emissions of the dual-fuel engines for the commuter bus application. During 94,000 combined service miles, performance, reliability and durability of the dual fuel buses were similar to the diesel control.
Technical Paper

An Emission and Performance Comparison of the Natural Gas Cummins Westport Inc. C-Gas Plus Versus Diesel in Heavy-Duty Trucks

2002-10-21
2002-01-2737
Cummins Westport Inc. (CWI) released for production the latest version of its C8.3G natural gas engine, the C Gas Plus, in July 2001. This engine has increased ratings for horsepower and torque, a full-authority engine controller, wide tolerance to natural gas fuel (the minimum methane number is 65), and improved diagnostics capability. The C Gas Plus also meets the California Air Resources Board optional low-NOx (2.0 g/bhp-h) emission standard for automotive and urban buses. Two pre-production C Gas Plus engines were operated in a Viking Freight fleet for 12 months as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuels Utilization Program. In-use exhaust emissions, fuel economy, and fuel cost were collected and compared with similar 1997 Cummins C8.3 diesel tractors. CWI and the West Virginia University developed an ad-hoc test cycle to simulate the Viking Freight fleet duty cycle from in-service data collected with data loggers.
Technical Paper

Weighting of Parameters in Artificial Neural Network Prediction of Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Emissions

2002-10-21
2002-01-2878
The use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) as a predictive tool has been shown to have a broad range of applications. Earlier work by the authors using ANN models to predict carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) from heavy-duty diesel engines and vehicles yielded marginal to excellent results. These ANN models can be a useful tool in inventory prediction, hybrid vehicle design optimization, and incorporated into a feedback loop of an on-board, active fuel injection management system. In this research, the ANN models were trained on continuous engine and emissions data. The engine data were used as inputs to the ANN models and consisted of engine speed, torque, and their respective first and second derivatives over a one, five, and ten second time range. The continuous emissions data were the desired output that the ANN models learned to predict through an iterative training process.
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