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Technical Paper

Possible Influence of High Injection Pressure on Diesel Fuel Stability: A Review and Preliminary Study

2009-06-15
2009-01-1878
Recent developments in diesel engines and fuel injection equipment combined with the change to ULSD and bio-blends have resulted in increased reports regarding deposits within injectors and filters. A review of known fuel degradation mechanisms and other relevant chemistries suggests the effects of high pressure and high shear environments should be examined as the most probable causes of increasing deposit formation. Existing fuel quality tests do not correlate with reported fouling propensity. Analytical studies have shown that there are only subtle chemical changes for the materials within the standard diesel boiling range. The implications for further scientific study are discussed.
Technical Paper

Insights into Deposit Formation in High Pressure Diesel Fuel Injection Equipment

2010-10-25
2010-01-2243
The need to meet the US 2007 emissions legislation has necessitated a change in Diesel engine technology, particularly to the fuel injection equipment (FIE). At the same time as these engine technology changes, legislation has dictated a reduction in fuel sulphur levels and there has also been increased use of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) or biodiesel as a fuel blending component. The combination of changes to the engine and the fuel has apparently led to a sharp rise in the number of reports of field problems resulting from deposits within the FIE. The problem is usually manifested as a significant loss of power or the engine failing to start. These symptoms are often due to deposits to be found within the fuel injectors or to severe fouling of the fuel filter. The characteristics of the deposits found within different parts of the fuel system can be noticeably different.
Journal Article

Temperature Programmed Oxidation as a Technique for Understanding Diesel Fuel System Deposits

2010-05-05
2010-01-1475
The fuel injection equipment (FIE) has always been paramount to the performance of the Diesel engine. Increasingly stringent emissions regulations have dictated that the FIE becomes more precise and sophisticated. The latest generation FIE is therefore less tolerant to deposit formation than its less finely engineered predecessors. However, the latest emissions regulations make it increasingly difficult for engine manufacturers to comply without the use of exhaust aftertreatment. This aftertreatment often relies on catalytic processes that can be impaired by non-CHON (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen) components within the fuel. Fuel producers have therefore also been obliged to make major changes to try and ensure that with the latest technology engines and aftertreatment systems the fuel is still fit for purpose. However, there has recently been a significant increase in the incidence of reported problems due to deposit build-up within vehicle fuel systems.
Technical Paper

Practical Experience of Fitting DPFs to Buses in Chile

2005-05-11
2005-01-2146
Continuing research into the effect of vehicle emissions is driving legislation, which is increasingly being enacted to encourage the retrofitting of emissions control devices. Of particular concern are emissions of diesel particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. More recently the adverse effects of nitrogen dioxide in particular, have been highlighted. A programme of work is underway in Santiago to demonstrate the suitability of retrofitting diesel particulate filters (DPF) to urban buses. This paper presents data, including regulated and unregulated emissions, from a bus fitted with a DPF that relies on a fuel borne catalyst (FBC) to facilitate regeneration of the DPF.
Technical Paper

The Effect of DI Nozzle Fouling on Fuel Spray Characteristics

1992-10-01
922232
The atomisation characteristics of DI diesel engine fuel injection nozzles have been the subject of intensive study over the last decade. Much of this work has been related to clean, single hole nozzles spraying into quiescent air, at either ambient conditions or elevated pressures and temperatures. Experience shows that fuel injector nozzles may foul very rapidly in field service, and that this might have a significant effect on the performance of the engine particularly with regard to emissions. The build up of material on the injector nozzle can be controlled by the addition of suitable fuel additives. This paper describes test procedures developed to assess deposit build up and to indicate the efficacy of keep clean additives. The paper then goes on to describe high speed photographic techniques for studying the fuel spray characteristics of clean and fouled injectors in a firing engine.
Technical Paper

Operating Experience of Diesel Vehicles Equipped with Particulate Filters and Using Fuel Additive for Regeneration

2000-03-06
2000-01-0474
Work was carried out on three passenger cars and a light truck. The test vehicles were chosen to cover a range of engine technologies. Different DPF technologies were also employed. The programme showed that an improved fuel additive based on the combination of iron and strontium compounds would allow all four vehicles to be successfully operated under a wide range of conditions. The three passenger cars were driven over the road for considerable distances. Regeneration of the DPF was successfully achieved under normal operating conditions in all the vehicles without recourse to use of additional heaters, fuel injection or other technique to assist regeneration. Fuel additive treat rate was low, suggesting that long-term operation without significant ash accumulation in the DPF could be achieved.
Technical Paper

Experience of Fitting London Black Cabs with Fuel Borne Catalyst Assisted Diesel Particulate Filters - Part 2 Non-Regulated Emissions Measurements

2002-10-21
2002-01-2785
Forthcoming emissions legislation is driving the passenger car manufacturers towards the fitting of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) as original equipment. In areas with a particular problem such as heavily congested city centres, retrospective legislation has also been introduced, for example in Hong Kong and Tokyo. Legislation mandating the retrofitting of DPFs obviously has an immediate effect on particulate emissions. Other authorities are thus investigating the efficacy of such measures. However with the increasing use of DPF technology concerns are now being raised over some currently unregulated emissions such as ultra fine particulate and NO2, although total particulate mass and oxides of nitrogen are regulated. To add to the data base for such issues a programme of work was run using London Black Cabs. Four cars were fitted with a DPF, an on-board dosing system to meter a fuel borne catalyst (FBC) into the fuel and a data logger to monitor the DPF performance.
Technical Paper

Experience of Fitting London Black Cabs with Fuel Borne Catalyst Assisted Diesel Particulate Filters - Part 1 Regulated Emissions and Regeneration Performance

2002-10-21
2002-01-2784
Forthcoming emissions legislation is driving the passenger car manufacturers towards the fitting of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) as original equipment. However such initiatives are not retrospective and due to the replacement rate of the vehicle fleet, there is a time lag before the full benefit of the new measures are fully realised. To overcome this drawback, in areas with a particular problem such as heavily congested city centres, retrospective legislation has been introduced, for example in Hong Kong and Tokyo. Legislation mandating the retrofitting of DPFs obviously has an immediate effect on particulate emissions. Other authorities are thus investigating the efficacy of such measures. To add to the data base for such assessments Octel is running a demonstration programme using London Black Cabs. Four cars have been fitted with a DPF, an on-board dosing system to meter a fuel borne catalyst (FBC) into the fuel and a data logger to monitor the DPF performance.
Technical Paper

Retrofitting TRU-Diesel Engines with DPF-Systems Using FBC and Intake Throttling for Active Regeneration

2005-04-11
2005-01-0662
Transport Refrigeration Units (TRU) powered by small diesel engines emit high PM and cause locally high PM levels. The concomitant health risks spurred efforts to devise a cost-effective curtailment of these emissions. Diesel particulate filters (DPF) of ceramic honeycomb construction very efficiently trap PM emissions, even ultrafines in the lung penetrating size range of below 300 nm. A fuel borne catalyst (FBC) can facilitate trap regeneration, by lowering the exhaust temperature requirements, but cannot alone guarantee reliable regeneration under all operating conditions of the TRU. A Swiss development team together with industrial partners therefore developed a fully automatic active regeneration system for the California Air Resources Board.
Technical Paper

DPF Technology for Older Vehicles and High Sulphur Fuel

2005-01-19
2005-26-020
The most cost-effective way to reduce the level of diesel particulate emissions is to retrofit exhaust aftertreatment devices. While diesel oxidation catalysts will reduce the mass of particles emitted, they will not significantly reduce the number of ultrafine particles, that are considered the most harmful to health. Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) are therefore considered the most effective retrofit devices. One obstacle to the widespread adoption of DPFs is that many DPF technologies require low sulphur fuel. Using a Fuel Borne Catalyst (FBC) to facilitate regeneration of the DPF allows a sulphur tolerant DPF system to be produced.
Technical Paper

A Cost Effective Solution to Reduce Particulate Emissions

2003-01-18
2003-26-0006
Growing concern over the health effects of airborne particles and a desire to reduce the associated cost has resulted in legislation, regulations and other measures, in the industrialised world to severely restrict particulate emissions from diesel-fuelled automotive transport. Developing countries are also introducing initiatives to try and reduce emissions, an example is the legislation in India to replace diesel engines with gas fuelled engines in some major conurbations. Such measures are expensive, both in terms of replacing the engines of the vehicles and of implementing the required infrastructure. There is still also debate over whether such measures reduce the number of ultra-fine particulates. A well-proven alternative is to fit diesel engines with Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs), either as original equipment or as a retrofit system. Regenerating DPFs has in the past been an obstacle to their widespread application.
Technical Paper

Assessment of the Performance of Diesel Particulate Filter Systems with Fuel Additives for Enhanced Regeneration Characteristics

1999-03-01
1999-01-0112
Diesel particulate filter (DPF) are well known as a developing form of exhaust after-treatment for compression ignition engines. Subjected to extensive testing in experimental form, DPFs have yet to achieve widespread application in regular use on production road vehicles, despite their potential for delivering reductions of typically 90% in diesel exhaust particulate emissions. Tests have shown that different additives are effective in enhancing performance in a range of DPF types, and on engines of different configurations. Efforts have been made to correlate performance with engine operating regime, by linking soot particulate condition to the frequency of regeneration. A performance index has been developed to try to predict regeneration characteristics with additive treated fuel. The work has shown that there are engine operating conditions producing soot which is less likely to burn off in the DPF.
Technical Paper

Novel Additive for Particulate Trap Regeneration

1995-10-01
952355
One of the most promising ways to insure the periodic regeneration of a particulate trap, consists of additising the fuel with organo-metallic compounds. The present paper deals with a novel alkali product, able to promote natural regenerations, for exhaust temperatures as low as 200 °C, and treatment rates as low as 5 ppm metal. Tests have been carried out on a soot reactor and on an engine bench, with various trap locations in the exhaust, showing that the regeneration occurrence depends on temperature, soot mass loaded inside the porous structure and engine conditions. A complete trap cleaning still needs gas temperatures up to 400 °C, which can be encountered for high load conditions of the engine.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Parameters Ensuring Reliable Regeneration of a Sintered Metal Particulate Filter using a Fuel Borne Catalyst

2008-10-06
2008-01-2485
The operating cycle of many vehicles fitted with diesel particulate filters is such that soot accumulates within the filter and must periodically be oxidised. Work was carried out on a passenger car engine to elucidate how fuel borne catalyst (FBC) to soot ratio, oxygen mass flow rate, temperature and soot loading influence the oxidation rate of soot accumulated in a sintered metal filter (SMF). Results show that soot loading had a major influence; increased soot loading increased the oxidation rate. The other parameter had a smaller influence with increasing oxygen flow rate and FBC/soot ratio each increasing the oxidation rate.
Technical Paper

Improved Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration Performance Using Fuel Soluble Additives

1999-10-25
1999-01-3562
Interest has been growing in many countries in the potential use of diesel particulate filters (DPF). This type of after treatment technology has been shown to make very significant reductions in both the mass of particulate emitted in diesel exhaust gas, and also in the number of fine particulates, which have been linked in recent years with concerns for human health. Work carried out during a development programme investigating the capability of fuel soluble metallic additives to assist DPF regeneration, indicated superior performance from a novel combination of metals in fuel soluble form. Earlier work showed that a fuel soluble combination of organo-metallic additives based on sodium and strontium gave very effective regeneration characteristics, and was capable of burning out carbon at temperatures from about 160°C.
Technical Paper

Fuel Additive Performance Evaluation for Volume Production Application of a Diesel Particulate Filter

2001-03-05
2001-01-1286
Diesel particulate filter (DPF) technology is becoming increasingly established as a practical method for control of particulate emissions from diesel engines. In the year 2000, production vehicles with DPF systems, using metallic fuel additive to assist regeneration, became available in Europe. These early examples of first generation DPF technology are forerunners of more advanced systems likely to be needed by many light-duty vehicles to meet Euro IV emissions legislation scheduled for 2005. Aspects requiring attention in second generation DPF systems are a compromise between regeneration kinetics and ash accumulation. The DPF regeneration event is activated by fuel injection, either late in the combustion cycle (late injection), or after normal combustion (post injection), leading to increased fuel consumption. Therefore for optimum fuel economy, the duration of regeneration and/or the soot ignition temperature must be minimised.
Technical Paper

Combining Fuel Borne Catalyst, Catalytic Wash Coat and Diesel Particulate Filter

2001-03-05
2001-01-0902
In view of increasing concern over diesel particulates and tightening legislation to control their emission, much work has been done to develop diesel particulate filters (DPFs) and systems to allow them to work reliably. Although a filter will effectively trap solid particles, any material in the vapour phase, such as unburned hydrocarbons, may pass through the filter and subsequently condense. The use of a catalytic wash coat, either on the DPF itself or on a separate substrate, has been proposed to oxidise these hydrocarbons and thus reduce the total material emitted. The use of fuel borne catalysts to aid the regeneration of trapped material within the DPF is also well documented. Such catalyst will also catalyse the oxidation of any hydrocarbons bound up within the particulate. The oxidation of such hydrocarbon occurs at a lower temperature than that of carbon itself, thus allowing lower temperature regeneration of the DPF.
Technical Paper

Diesel Particulate Filters and Fuel Borne Catalysts as a Viable Solution to Reduced Airborne Particulate

2001-11-01
2001-28-0041
There is mounting worldwide concern over the health effects of airborne ultra-fine particles. Of greatest concern are the risks due to the cancer-inducing properties of these particles and the aggravation of existing respiratory diseases by the ultra-fine (i.e. <2.5 micron) fraction. This disquiet has already resulted in legislation, regulations and other measures, either mandated or proposed, in the industrialised world to severely restrict particulate emissions from diesel-fuelled automotive transport. Emissions of particles from both new and existing vehicles have been addressed. With the rapid growth anticipated in some developing countries they to will need to address this problem. This paper outlines some alternative solutions to the problem, ranging from alternative power sources, alternative fuels, alternative engine technologies and after-treatment strategies. It also outlines what is required to implement these different solutions.
Technical Paper

A Computer Controlled Power Tool for Servicing the Hubble Space Telescope

1996-07-01
961531
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was designed to be serviced from the shuttle by astronauts performing extravehicular activities (EVA). During the first HST Servicing Mission (STS-61) two types of power tools were flown, the Power Ratchet Tool (PRT) and the HST Power Tool. Each tool had both benefits and drawbacks. An objective for the second HST servicing mission was to combine the reliability, accuracy, and programmability of the PRT with the pistol grip ergonomics and compactness of the HST Power Tool into a new tool called the EVA Pistol Grip Tool (PGT). The PGT is a self-contained, microprocessor controlled, battery powered, 3/8-inch drive hand-held tool. The PGT may also be used as a non-powered ratchet wrench. Numerous torque, speed, and turn or angle limits can be programmed into the PGT for use during various servicing missions. Batteries Modules are replaceable during ground, Intravehicular Activities (IVA), and EVA operations.
Technical Paper

Field Experience of DPF Systems Retrofitted to Vehicles with Low Duty Operating Cycles

2004-01-16
2004-28-0013
For many years now, epidemiologists have been highlighting the potential damage to health and the associated cost, caused by diesel particulate emissions. There is still debate concerning the crucial characteristics of these particles, however many authorities have concluded that it is their duty to legislate the reduction of such emissions. The most common approach is to legislate that all new vehicles should meet ever stricter emissions limits. This puts the onus and the cost on the engine manufacturers. The emissions limits in developing countries are inevitably less stringent than those in the developed world, this gives the indigenous manufacturers the opportunity to compete and develop. However, vehicle replacement intervals dictate that the effect of legislation controlling new vehicles takes many years to propagate throughout the existent vehicle fleet.
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