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Journal Article

Temperature Programmed Oxidation as a Technique for Understanding Diesel Fuel System Deposits

2010-05-05
2010-01-1475
The fuel injection equipment (FIE) has always been paramount to the performance of the Diesel engine. Increasingly stringent emissions regulations have dictated that the FIE becomes more precise and sophisticated. The latest generation FIE is therefore less tolerant to deposit formation than its less finely engineered predecessors. However, the latest emissions regulations make it increasingly difficult for engine manufacturers to comply without the use of exhaust aftertreatment. This aftertreatment often relies on catalytic processes that can be impaired by non-CHON (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen) components within the fuel. Fuel producers have therefore also been obliged to make major changes to try and ensure that with the latest technology engines and aftertreatment systems the fuel is still fit for purpose. However, there has recently been a significant increase in the incidence of reported problems due to deposit build-up within vehicle fuel systems.
Technical Paper

Practical Experience of Fitting DPFs to Buses in Chile

2005-05-11
2005-01-2146
Continuing research into the effect of vehicle emissions is driving legislation, which is increasingly being enacted to encourage the retrofitting of emissions control devices. Of particular concern are emissions of diesel particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. More recently the adverse effects of nitrogen dioxide in particular, have been highlighted. A programme of work is underway in Santiago to demonstrate the suitability of retrofitting diesel particulate filters (DPF) to urban buses. This paper presents data, including regulated and unregulated emissions, from a bus fitted with a DPF that relies on a fuel borne catalyst (FBC) to facilitate regeneration of the DPF.
Technical Paper

The Emerging Market for Biodiesel and the Role of Fuel Additives

2007-07-23
2007-01-2033
With growing concern over greenhouse gases there is increasing emphasis on reducing CO2 emissions. Despite engine efficiency improvements plus increased dieselisation of the fleet, increasing vehicle numbers results in increasing CO2 emissions. To reverse this trend the fuel source must be changed to renewable fuels which are CO2 neutral. A common route towards this goal is to substitute diesel fuel with esterified seed oils, collectively known as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters. However a fundamental change to the fuel chemistry produces new challenges in ensuring compatibility between fuel and engine performance/durability. This paper discusses the global situation and shows how fuel additives can overcome the challenges presented by the use of biodiesel.
Technical Paper

Metal Emissions, NO2 and HC Reduction from a Base Metal Catalysed DPF/FBC System

2006-04-03
2006-01-0420
Due to concerns over NO2 emissions from platinum catalysts a base metal catalysed diesel particulate filter (DPF) has been developed and used in combination with fuel borne catalysts (FBC). Results are presented showing reductions in HC, NOX, NO2, and PAH emissions along with an assessment of the emissions of metals used in the FBC and the catalysed DPF. This data is used to show the likely reduction in overall iron and other metal emissions as a result of using the catalysed DPF/FBC system. A similar system has also been assessed for durability for over 2000 hours when fitted to a bus in regular service in Switzerland.
Technical Paper

The Effect of DI Nozzle Fouling on Fuel Spray Characteristics

1992-10-01
922232
The atomisation characteristics of DI diesel engine fuel injection nozzles have been the subject of intensive study over the last decade. Much of this work has been related to clean, single hole nozzles spraying into quiescent air, at either ambient conditions or elevated pressures and temperatures. Experience shows that fuel injector nozzles may foul very rapidly in field service, and that this might have a significant effect on the performance of the engine particularly with regard to emissions. The build up of material on the injector nozzle can be controlled by the addition of suitable fuel additives. This paper describes test procedures developed to assess deposit build up and to indicate the efficacy of keep clean additives. The paper then goes on to describe high speed photographic techniques for studying the fuel spray characteristics of clean and fouled injectors in a firing engine.
Technical Paper

Operating Experience of Diesel Vehicles Equipped with Particulate Filters and Using Fuel Additive for Regeneration

2000-03-06
2000-01-0474
Work was carried out on three passenger cars and a light truck. The test vehicles were chosen to cover a range of engine technologies. Different DPF technologies were also employed. The programme showed that an improved fuel additive based on the combination of iron and strontium compounds would allow all four vehicles to be successfully operated under a wide range of conditions. The three passenger cars were driven over the road for considerable distances. Regeneration of the DPF was successfully achieved under normal operating conditions in all the vehicles without recourse to use of additional heaters, fuel injection or other technique to assist regeneration. Fuel additive treat rate was low, suggesting that long-term operation without significant ash accumulation in the DPF could be achieved.
Technical Paper

Experience of Fitting London Black Cabs with Fuel Borne Catalyst Assisted Diesel Particulate Filters - Part 2 Non-Regulated Emissions Measurements

2002-10-21
2002-01-2785
Forthcoming emissions legislation is driving the passenger car manufacturers towards the fitting of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) as original equipment. In areas with a particular problem such as heavily congested city centres, retrospective legislation has also been introduced, for example in Hong Kong and Tokyo. Legislation mandating the retrofitting of DPFs obviously has an immediate effect on particulate emissions. Other authorities are thus investigating the efficacy of such measures. However with the increasing use of DPF technology concerns are now being raised over some currently unregulated emissions such as ultra fine particulate and NO2, although total particulate mass and oxides of nitrogen are regulated. To add to the data base for such issues a programme of work was run using London Black Cabs. Four cars were fitted with a DPF, an on-board dosing system to meter a fuel borne catalyst (FBC) into the fuel and a data logger to monitor the DPF performance.
Technical Paper

Experience of Fitting London Black Cabs with Fuel Borne Catalyst Assisted Diesel Particulate Filters - Part 1 Regulated Emissions and Regeneration Performance

2002-10-21
2002-01-2784
Forthcoming emissions legislation is driving the passenger car manufacturers towards the fitting of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) as original equipment. However such initiatives are not retrospective and due to the replacement rate of the vehicle fleet, there is a time lag before the full benefit of the new measures are fully realised. To overcome this drawback, in areas with a particular problem such as heavily congested city centres, retrospective legislation has been introduced, for example in Hong Kong and Tokyo. Legislation mandating the retrofitting of DPFs obviously has an immediate effect on particulate emissions. Other authorities are thus investigating the efficacy of such measures. To add to the data base for such assessments Octel is running a demonstration programme using London Black Cabs. Four cars have been fitted with a DPF, an on-board dosing system to meter a fuel borne catalyst (FBC) into the fuel and a data logger to monitor the DPF performance.
Technical Paper

Preliminary Results from a Six Vehicle, Heavy Duty Truck Trial, Using Additive Regenerated DPFs

2002-03-04
2002-01-0431
Impending legislation will make it almost inevitable that heavy-duty trucks will have to be fitted with some form of particulate removal after-treatment device. The challenge is to provide a system that is not only environmentally acceptable and cost effective but also durable enough to meet the demands of the trucking industry. Diesel particulate filters (DPF), in conjunction with fuel borne catalysts to facilitate regeneration, are now a recognised technology for meeting future passenger car emissions limits. Retrofitting of such systems to older technology vehicles, where specific environmental concerns exist, has demonstrated the possibility of applying this technology to the heavy-duty vehicle sector. Most of these retrofit applications tend to be to vehicles with a relatively low duty cycle. Whereas this type of duty cycle poses the greatest challenge to the successful regeneration of the filters it is not necessarily the most arduous test of the durability of the system.
Technical Paper

Retrofitting TRU-Diesel Engines with DPF-Systems Using FBC and Intake Throttling for Active Regeneration

2005-04-11
2005-01-0662
Transport Refrigeration Units (TRU) powered by small diesel engines emit high PM and cause locally high PM levels. The concomitant health risks spurred efforts to devise a cost-effective curtailment of these emissions. Diesel particulate filters (DPF) of ceramic honeycomb construction very efficiently trap PM emissions, even ultrafines in the lung penetrating size range of below 300 nm. A fuel borne catalyst (FBC) can facilitate trap regeneration, by lowering the exhaust temperature requirements, but cannot alone guarantee reliable regeneration under all operating conditions of the TRU. A Swiss development team together with industrial partners therefore developed a fully automatic active regeneration system for the California Air Resources Board.
Technical Paper

DPF Technology for Older Vehicles and High Sulphur Fuel

2005-01-19
2005-26-020
The most cost-effective way to reduce the level of diesel particulate emissions is to retrofit exhaust aftertreatment devices. While diesel oxidation catalysts will reduce the mass of particles emitted, they will not significantly reduce the number of ultrafine particles, that are considered the most harmful to health. Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) are therefore considered the most effective retrofit devices. One obstacle to the widespread adoption of DPFs is that many DPF technologies require low sulphur fuel. Using a Fuel Borne Catalyst (FBC) to facilitate regeneration of the DPF allows a sulphur tolerant DPF system to be produced.
Technical Paper

A Cost Effective Solution to Reduce Particulate Emissions

2003-01-18
2003-26-0006
Growing concern over the health effects of airborne particles and a desire to reduce the associated cost has resulted in legislation, regulations and other measures, in the industrialised world to severely restrict particulate emissions from diesel-fuelled automotive transport. Developing countries are also introducing initiatives to try and reduce emissions, an example is the legislation in India to replace diesel engines with gas fuelled engines in some major conurbations. Such measures are expensive, both in terms of replacing the engines of the vehicles and of implementing the required infrastructure. There is still also debate over whether such measures reduce the number of ultra-fine particulates. A well-proven alternative is to fit diesel engines with Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs), either as original equipment or as a retrofit system. Regenerating DPFs has in the past been an obstacle to their widespread application.
Technical Paper

Assessment of the Performance of Diesel Particulate Filter Systems with Fuel Additives for Enhanced Regeneration Characteristics

1999-03-01
1999-01-0112
Diesel particulate filter (DPF) are well known as a developing form of exhaust after-treatment for compression ignition engines. Subjected to extensive testing in experimental form, DPFs have yet to achieve widespread application in regular use on production road vehicles, despite their potential for delivering reductions of typically 90% in diesel exhaust particulate emissions. Tests have shown that different additives are effective in enhancing performance in a range of DPF types, and on engines of different configurations. Efforts have been made to correlate performance with engine operating regime, by linking soot particulate condition to the frequency of regeneration. A performance index has been developed to try to predict regeneration characteristics with additive treated fuel. The work has shown that there are engine operating conditions producing soot which is less likely to burn off in the DPF.
Technical Paper

Fouling of Two Stage Injectors - An Investigation into Some Causes and Effects

1997-05-01
971619
In the quest for improved fuel efficiency and reduced CO2 emissions, motor manufacturers are increasingly turning to the High Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) diesel engine for passenger car use. To achieve acceptable levels of noise and emissions at low loads two stage injection is being utilised. Such injection systems are prone to nozzle coking due to the small fuel metering holes, low opening pressures and low fuel flow rates under part load operation. This coking leads to a rapid deterioration of emissions performance. This paper describes work done to investigate conditions leading to this phenomena and the possible mechanisms involved.
Technical Paper

Emissions Characteristics of Diesel Vehicles Equipped With Particulate Filters and Using Fuel Additive For Regeneration

2000-06-19
2000-01-1925
Four vehicles were chosen to cover a range of engine technologies. These vehicles were fitted with diesel particulate filters (DPFs) of differing technology. Three of the vehicles have been driven on the road using an additised fuel to demonstrate totally passive operation of the DPF. As part of this programme all three vehicles underwent regulated emissions testing to demonstrate that there was no deterioration in emissions during the programme. Additionally a light commercial vehicle was tested to demonstrate the effect on emissions of the combination of additised fuel and the DPF. The performance of the DPFs during on-road use has already been reported; this paper therefore concentrates on discussion of the results of the emissions testing.
Technical Paper

Novel Additive for Particulate Trap Regeneration

1995-10-01
952355
One of the most promising ways to insure the periodic regeneration of a particulate trap, consists of additising the fuel with organo-metallic compounds. The present paper deals with a novel alkali product, able to promote natural regenerations, for exhaust temperatures as low as 200 °C, and treatment rates as low as 5 ppm metal. Tests have been carried out on a soot reactor and on an engine bench, with various trap locations in the exhaust, showing that the regeneration occurrence depends on temperature, soot mass loaded inside the porous structure and engine conditions. A complete trap cleaning still needs gas temperatures up to 400 °C, which can be encountered for high load conditions of the engine.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Parameters Ensuring Reliable Regeneration of a Sintered Metal Particulate Filter using a Fuel Borne Catalyst

2008-10-06
2008-01-2485
The operating cycle of many vehicles fitted with diesel particulate filters is such that soot accumulates within the filter and must periodically be oxidised. Work was carried out on a passenger car engine to elucidate how fuel borne catalyst (FBC) to soot ratio, oxygen mass flow rate, temperature and soot loading influence the oxidation rate of soot accumulated in a sintered metal filter (SMF). Results show that soot loading had a major influence; increased soot loading increased the oxidation rate. The other parameter had a smaller influence with increasing oxygen flow rate and FBC/soot ratio each increasing the oxidation rate.
Technical Paper

Retrofitting Urban Buses to Reduce PM and NO2

2004-06-08
2004-01-1939
In an attempt to improve ambient air quality, retrofit programmes have been encouraged; targeting reductions in PM emissions by means of diesel particulate filters (DPFs). However depending on the DPF design and operating conditions increased nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions have been observed, which is causing concern. Previous work showed that retrofitting a DPF system employing a fuel borne catalyst (FBC) to facilitate regeneration, reduced NO2 emissions. This paper outlines the investigation of a base metal coated DPF to enhance the reduction of NO2. Such a DPF system has been fitted to older technology buses and has demonstrated reliable field performance.
Technical Paper

Results From a ¼ Million km, Heavy-Duty Truck Trail, Using FBC Regenerated DPFs

2004-03-08
2004-01-0074
Diesel particulate filters (DPF), in conjunction with fuel borne catalysts (FBC) to facilitate regeneration, are now an accepted technology for passenger car application. Retrofitting of such systems has demonstrated the possibility of applying this technology to heavy-duty vehicles. To demonstrate the efficacy of DPF/FBC systems and to assess their affect on engine durability and economy, five heavy-duty trucks were fitted with DPF/FBC systems. After the completion of over ¼ million kms four trucks underwent a full engine strip-down and rating. This paper briefly reviews the installation of the systems and their effect on the regulated emissions, present details of the mileage accumulation and of the engine strip-downs. The conclusions drawn are that after a ¼ million km of use with the DPF/FBC systems the trucks had not suffered any abnormal deterioration and in fact there was some indication of reduced wear on the engine.
Technical Paper

Improved Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration Performance Using Fuel Soluble Additives

1999-10-25
1999-01-3562
Interest has been growing in many countries in the potential use of diesel particulate filters (DPF). This type of after treatment technology has been shown to make very significant reductions in both the mass of particulate emitted in diesel exhaust gas, and also in the number of fine particulates, which have been linked in recent years with concerns for human health. Work carried out during a development programme investigating the capability of fuel soluble metallic additives to assist DPF regeneration, indicated superior performance from a novel combination of metals in fuel soluble form. Earlier work showed that a fuel soluble combination of organo-metallic additives based on sodium and strontium gave very effective regeneration characteristics, and was capable of burning out carbon at temperatures from about 160°C.
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