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Technical Paper

Insights into Deposit Formation in High Pressure Diesel Fuel Injection Equipment

2010-10-25
2010-01-2243
The need to meet the US 2007 emissions legislation has necessitated a change in Diesel engine technology, particularly to the fuel injection equipment (FIE). At the same time as these engine technology changes, legislation has dictated a reduction in fuel sulphur levels and there has also been increased use of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) or biodiesel as a fuel blending component. The combination of changes to the engine and the fuel has apparently led to a sharp rise in the number of reports of field problems resulting from deposits within the FIE. The problem is usually manifested as a significant loss of power or the engine failing to start. These symptoms are often due to deposits to be found within the fuel injectors or to severe fouling of the fuel filter. The characteristics of the deposits found within different parts of the fuel system can be noticeably different.
Technical Paper

Practical Experience of Fitting DPFs to Buses in Chile

2005-05-11
2005-01-2146
Continuing research into the effect of vehicle emissions is driving legislation, which is increasingly being enacted to encourage the retrofitting of emissions control devices. Of particular concern are emissions of diesel particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. More recently the adverse effects of nitrogen dioxide in particular, have been highlighted. A programme of work is underway in Santiago to demonstrate the suitability of retrofitting diesel particulate filters (DPF) to urban buses. This paper presents data, including regulated and unregulated emissions, from a bus fitted with a DPF that relies on a fuel borne catalyst (FBC) to facilitate regeneration of the DPF.
Technical Paper

DPF Technology for Older Vehicles and High Sulphur Fuel

2005-01-19
2005-26-020
The most cost-effective way to reduce the level of diesel particulate emissions is to retrofit exhaust aftertreatment devices. While diesel oxidation catalysts will reduce the mass of particles emitted, they will not significantly reduce the number of ultrafine particles, that are considered the most harmful to health. Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) are therefore considered the most effective retrofit devices. One obstacle to the widespread adoption of DPFs is that many DPF technologies require low sulphur fuel. Using a Fuel Borne Catalyst (FBC) to facilitate regeneration of the DPF allows a sulphur tolerant DPF system to be produced.
Technical Paper

Fouling of Two Stage Injectors - An Investigation into Some Causes and Effects

1997-05-01
971619
In the quest for improved fuel efficiency and reduced CO2 emissions, motor manufacturers are increasingly turning to the High Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) diesel engine for passenger car use. To achieve acceptable levels of noise and emissions at low loads two stage injection is being utilised. Such injection systems are prone to nozzle coking due to the small fuel metering holes, low opening pressures and low fuel flow rates under part load operation. This coking leads to a rapid deterioration of emissions performance. This paper describes work done to investigate conditions leading to this phenomena and the possible mechanisms involved.
Journal Article

Possible Mechanism for Poor Diesel Fuel Lubricity in the Field

2012-04-16
2012-01-0867
Traditionally, diesel fuel injection equipment (FIE) has frequently relied on the diesel fuel to lubricate the moving parts. When ultra low sulphur diesel fuel was first introduced into some European markets in the early 1980's it rapidly became apparent that the process of removing the sulphur also removed other components that had bestowed the lubricating properties of the diesel fuel. Diesel fuel pump failures became prevalent. The fuel additive industry responded quickly and diesel fuel lubricity additives were introduced to the market. The fuel, additive and FIE industries expended much time and effort to develop test methods and standards to try and ensure this problem was not repeated. Despite this, there have recently been reports of fuel reaching the end user with lubricating performance below the accepted standards.
Technical Paper

A Novel Fuel Borne Catalyst Dosing System for Use with a Diesel Particulate Filter

2003-03-03
2003-01-0382
A novel dosing system for fuel borne catalyst (FBC), used to assist regeneration with a diesel particulate filter (DPF), has been developed. The system was designed for on-board vehicle use to overcome problems encountered with batch dosing systems. Important design features were simplicity, to minimise system cost, and the use of in-line dosing rather than batch dosing linked to tank refuelling. The paper describes the development of the dosing system which continuously doses FBC into the fuel line feeding the engine injection pump. The theoretical considerations behind the concept are explored, together with the realities imposed by fuelling regimes in which a variable proportion of the fuel flowing through the injection pump is passed back to the fuel tank. Two types of system are considered, ie where 1) FBC is added to the fuel in direct proportion to the flow rate of fuel and 2) FBC is added at a constant time-based rate.
Technical Paper

A Method for Assessing the Low Temperature Regeneration Performance of Diesel Particulate Filters and Fuel-borne Catalysts

2000-06-19
2000-01-1922
Fuel-borne catalysts are now an accepted means of aiding the self-regeneration of diesel particulate filters (DPFs). In the past it has been possible to assess the effect of these fuel additives by investigating the temperature at which the filter reaches a pressure drop equilibrium. Under these temperature conditions, the particulate matter is oxidised at the same rate as it is being deposited and there is thus no change in pressure drop across the filter. This technique adequately demonstrates the oxidation temperature of the carbon in the presence of the catalyst. However, it is now well known that such fuel additives also influence the low temperature oxidation of particulate bound hydrocarbons. This phenomenon is not detected by the filter equilibrium technique.
Journal Article

A Novel Technique for Investigating the Nature and Origins of Deposits Formed in High Pressure Fuel Injection Equipment

2009-11-02
2009-01-2637
Recent developments in diesel fuel injection equipment coupled with moves to using ULSD and biodiesel blends has seen an increase in the number of reports, from both engine manufacturers and fleet operators, regarding fuel system deposit issues. Preliminary work performed to characterise these deposits showed them to be complicated mixtures, predominantly carbon like but also containing other possible carbon precursor materials. This paper describes the application of the combination of hydropyrolysis, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry to the analysis of these deposits. It also discusses the insights that such analysis can bring to the constitution and origin of these deposits.
Technical Paper

Combining Fuel Borne Catalyst, Catalytic Wash Coat and Diesel Particulate Filter

2001-03-05
2001-01-0902
In view of increasing concern over diesel particulates and tightening legislation to control their emission, much work has been done to develop diesel particulate filters (DPFs) and systems to allow them to work reliably. Although a filter will effectively trap solid particles, any material in the vapour phase, such as unburned hydrocarbons, may pass through the filter and subsequently condense. The use of a catalytic wash coat, either on the DPF itself or on a separate substrate, has been proposed to oxidise these hydrocarbons and thus reduce the total material emitted. The use of fuel borne catalysts to aid the regeneration of trapped material within the DPF is also well documented. Such catalyst will also catalyse the oxidation of any hydrocarbons bound up within the particulate. The oxidation of such hydrocarbon occurs at a lower temperature than that of carbon itself, thus allowing lower temperature regeneration of the DPF.
Technical Paper

Diesel Particulate Filters and Fuel Borne Catalysts as a Viable Solution to Reduced Airborne Particulate

2001-11-01
2001-28-0041
There is mounting worldwide concern over the health effects of airborne ultra-fine particles. Of greatest concern are the risks due to the cancer-inducing properties of these particles and the aggravation of existing respiratory diseases by the ultra-fine (i.e. <2.5 micron) fraction. This disquiet has already resulted in legislation, regulations and other measures, either mandated or proposed, in the industrialised world to severely restrict particulate emissions from diesel-fuelled automotive transport. Emissions of particles from both new and existing vehicles have been addressed. With the rapid growth anticipated in some developing countries they to will need to address this problem. This paper outlines some alternative solutions to the problem, ranging from alternative power sources, alternative fuels, alternative engine technologies and after-treatment strategies. It also outlines what is required to implement these different solutions.
Technical Paper

Service Application of a Novel Fuel Borne Catalyst Dosing System for DPF Retrofit

2005-04-11
2005-01-0669
A dosing system has been developed to facilitate the addition of a fuel borne catalyst (FBC) to a vehicle's fuel supply. The on-board dosing system was primarily designed to reduce cost and complexity. One embodiment of the design provided an additional benefit, namely the automatic adjustment of treat rate according to duty cycle. For high duty operating cycles where average exhaust gas temperatures are high, a low treat rate of FBC is supplied. Conversely at low duty where the exhaust temperature is lower, a higher treat of FBC is delivered. Data from field applications are presented to demonstrate this feature.
Technical Paper

Field Experience of DPF Systems Retrofitted to Vehicles with Low Duty Operating Cycles

2004-01-16
2004-28-0013
For many years now, epidemiologists have been highlighting the potential damage to health and the associated cost, caused by diesel particulate emissions. There is still debate concerning the crucial characteristics of these particles, however many authorities have concluded that it is their duty to legislate the reduction of such emissions. The most common approach is to legislate that all new vehicles should meet ever stricter emissions limits. This puts the onus and the cost on the engine manufacturers. The emissions limits in developing countries are inevitably less stringent than those in the developed world, this gives the indigenous manufacturers the opportunity to compete and develop. However, vehicle replacement intervals dictate that the effect of legislation controlling new vehicles takes many years to propagate throughout the existent vehicle fleet.
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