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Technical Paper

The Emerging Market for Biodiesel and the Role of Fuel Additives

2007-07-23
2007-01-2033
With growing concern over greenhouse gases there is increasing emphasis on reducing CO2 emissions. Despite engine efficiency improvements plus increased dieselisation of the fleet, increasing vehicle numbers results in increasing CO2 emissions. To reverse this trend the fuel source must be changed to renewable fuels which are CO2 neutral. A common route towards this goal is to substitute diesel fuel with esterified seed oils, collectively known as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters. However a fundamental change to the fuel chemistry produces new challenges in ensuring compatibility between fuel and engine performance/durability. This paper discusses the global situation and shows how fuel additives can overcome the challenges presented by the use of biodiesel.
Technical Paper

Fuel Additive Performance Evaluation for Volume Production Application of a Diesel Particulate Filter

2001-03-05
2001-01-1286
Diesel particulate filter (DPF) technology is becoming increasingly established as a practical method for control of particulate emissions from diesel engines. In the year 2000, production vehicles with DPF systems, using metallic fuel additive to assist regeneration, became available in Europe. These early examples of first generation DPF technology are forerunners of more advanced systems likely to be needed by many light-duty vehicles to meet Euro IV emissions legislation scheduled for 2005. Aspects requiring attention in second generation DPF systems are a compromise between regeneration kinetics and ash accumulation. The DPF regeneration event is activated by fuel injection, either late in the combustion cycle (late injection), or after normal combustion (post injection), leading to increased fuel consumption. Therefore for optimum fuel economy, the duration of regeneration and/or the soot ignition temperature must be minimised.
Technical Paper

Experience of Fitting London Black Cabs with Fuel Borne Catalyst Assisted Diesel Particulate Filters - Part 1 Regulated Emissions and Regeneration Performance

2002-10-21
2002-01-2784
Forthcoming emissions legislation is driving the passenger car manufacturers towards the fitting of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) as original equipment. However such initiatives are not retrospective and due to the replacement rate of the vehicle fleet, there is a time lag before the full benefit of the new measures are fully realised. To overcome this drawback, in areas with a particular problem such as heavily congested city centres, retrospective legislation has been introduced, for example in Hong Kong and Tokyo. Legislation mandating the retrofitting of DPFs obviously has an immediate effect on particulate emissions. Other authorities are thus investigating the efficacy of such measures. To add to the data base for such assessments Octel is running a demonstration programme using London Black Cabs. Four cars have been fitted with a DPF, an on-board dosing system to meter a fuel borne catalyst (FBC) into the fuel and a data logger to monitor the DPF performance.
Technical Paper

Experience of Fitting London Black Cabs with Fuel Borne Catalyst Assisted Diesel Particulate Filters - Part 2 Non-Regulated Emissions Measurements

2002-10-21
2002-01-2785
Forthcoming emissions legislation is driving the passenger car manufacturers towards the fitting of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) as original equipment. In areas with a particular problem such as heavily congested city centres, retrospective legislation has also been introduced, for example in Hong Kong and Tokyo. Legislation mandating the retrofitting of DPFs obviously has an immediate effect on particulate emissions. Other authorities are thus investigating the efficacy of such measures. However with the increasing use of DPF technology concerns are now being raised over some currently unregulated emissions such as ultra fine particulate and NO2, although total particulate mass and oxides of nitrogen are regulated. To add to the data base for such issues a programme of work was run using London Black Cabs. Four cars were fitted with a DPF, an on-board dosing system to meter a fuel borne catalyst (FBC) into the fuel and a data logger to monitor the DPF performance.
Technical Paper

Preliminary Results from a Six Vehicle, Heavy Duty Truck Trial, Using Additive Regenerated DPFs

2002-03-04
2002-01-0431
Impending legislation will make it almost inevitable that heavy-duty trucks will have to be fitted with some form of particulate removal after-treatment device. The challenge is to provide a system that is not only environmentally acceptable and cost effective but also durable enough to meet the demands of the trucking industry. Diesel particulate filters (DPF), in conjunction with fuel borne catalysts to facilitate regeneration, are now a recognised technology for meeting future passenger car emissions limits. Retrofitting of such systems to older technology vehicles, where specific environmental concerns exist, has demonstrated the possibility of applying this technology to the heavy-duty vehicle sector. Most of these retrofit applications tend to be to vehicles with a relatively low duty cycle. Whereas this type of duty cycle poses the greatest challenge to the successful regeneration of the filters it is not necessarily the most arduous test of the durability of the system.
Technical Paper

Particulate Trap Selection for Retrofitting Vehicle Fleets Based on Representative Exhaust Temperature Profiles

2001-03-05
2001-01-0187
1 A methodology for correctly matching trap systems to the vehicle types was developed within the scope of a feasibility study to retrofit the entire Swiss fleet of on-road HDV. Representative test vehicles from 11 vehicle categories were equipped with high capacity data loggers during a period of 4-6 weeks. Statistical evaluation of exhaust temperatures indicate that data on averages, peaks and frequency distributions alone can be misleading, because these tend to over-estimate the available exhaust enthalpy. Analysis of dwell time intervals, at certain temperature levels, is a better method to assess the energy available for the regeneration. Such verification of duty cycles is indispensable before retrofitting traps and choosing either active or passive regeneration systems.
Technical Paper

NanoMet, a New Instrument for On-line Size- and Substance- Specific Particle Emission Analysis

2001-03-05
2001-01-0216
Swiss EPA and European occupational health authorities have sponsored the development of a new sampling and measuring system designed to fulfil future requirements of differentiated particle analysis in field use and for certification purposes. The system suppresses the formation of condensates by applying hot dilution. Solid carbonaceous particles are distinguished from ash particles by means of two different sensors. Particles are size classified by their mobility; their active surface is measured. The measurable size ranges from less than 10 nm to 1 micrometer. The detection limit corresponds to a mass concentration of elemental carbon (EC) of about 0.1 μg/m3. The time resolution of 1 second is suitable for on-line analysis of particulate emission during all types of transient cycles, even no-load acceleration. The system includes a compact diluter with tunable dilution factor from 30 to 3000.
Technical Paper

Filtration of Diesel Soot Nanoparticles and Reliability in Swiss HDV Retrofitting

2005-01-19
2005-26-015
Based on the emission inventory Fig. 1, the Swiss 1998 Ordinance on Air Pollution Control (OAPC) mandates curtailment of carcinogenic diesel particle emissions at type B construction sites [1]. Moreover, particle traps are compulsory at underground workplaces [2]. In compliance, more than 6,000 Diesel engines were retrofitted with various particle trap systems. Many traps surpassed 99% filtration efficiency and secondary emissions were mostly prevented. However, trap failure due to mechanical and thermal damage was initially rather high at about 10%. By the year 2000 the failure rate was halved to about 6%. Thanks to focussed improvements, the year 2003 statistics show yearly failures of “only” about 2%. The Swiss target is to retrofit 15,000 construction machines with traps, fully compliant with environmental directives, having 5,000 operating hours durability and failure rates below 1%. Traps must pass the VERT suitability test before deployment.
Technical Paper

Secondary Emissions Risk Assessment of Diesel Particulate Traps for Heavy Duty Applications

2005-01-19
2005-26-014
Most particulate traps efficiently retain soot of diesel engine exhaust but the potential hazard to form secondary emissions has to be controlled. The Diesel Particle Filter (DPF) regeneration is mainly supported by metal additives or metallic coatings. Certain noble or transition metals can support the formation of toxic secondary emissions such as Dioxins, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), Nitro-PAH or other volatile components. Furthermore, particulate trap associated with additive metals can penetrate through the filter system or coating metals can be released from coated systems. The VERT test procedure was especially developed to assess the potential risks of a formation of secondary pollutants in the trap. The present study gives an overview to the VERT test procedure. Aspects of suitability of different fuel additives and coating metals will be discussed and examples of trap and additive induced formation of toxic secondary emissions will be presented.
Technical Paper

DPF Technology for Older Vehicles and High Sulphur Fuel

2005-01-19
2005-26-020
The most cost-effective way to reduce the level of diesel particulate emissions is to retrofit exhaust aftertreatment devices. While diesel oxidation catalysts will reduce the mass of particles emitted, they will not significantly reduce the number of ultrafine particles, that are considered the most harmful to health. Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) are therefore considered the most effective retrofit devices. One obstacle to the widespread adoption of DPFs is that many DPF technologies require low sulphur fuel. Using a Fuel Borne Catalyst (FBC) to facilitate regeneration of the DPF allows a sulphur tolerant DPF system to be produced.
Technical Paper

Retrofitting Urban Buses to Reduce PM and NO2

2004-06-08
2004-01-1939
In an attempt to improve ambient air quality, retrofit programmes have been encouraged; targeting reductions in PM emissions by means of diesel particulate filters (DPFs). However depending on the DPF design and operating conditions increased nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions have been observed, which is causing concern. Previous work showed that retrofitting a DPF system employing a fuel borne catalyst (FBC) to facilitate regeneration, reduced NO2 emissions. This paper outlines the investigation of a base metal coated DPF to enhance the reduction of NO2. Such a DPF system has been fitted to older technology buses and has demonstrated reliable field performance.
Technical Paper

Field Experience of DPF Systems Retrofitted to Vehicles with Low Duty Operating Cycles

2004-01-16
2004-28-0013
For many years now, epidemiologists have been highlighting the potential damage to health and the associated cost, caused by diesel particulate emissions. There is still debate concerning the crucial characteristics of these particles, however many authorities have concluded that it is their duty to legislate the reduction of such emissions. The most common approach is to legislate that all new vehicles should meet ever stricter emissions limits. This puts the onus and the cost on the engine manufacturers. The emissions limits in developing countries are inevitably less stringent than those in the developed world, this gives the indigenous manufacturers the opportunity to compete and develop. However, vehicle replacement intervals dictate that the effect of legislation controlling new vehicles takes many years to propagate throughout the existent vehicle fleet.
Technical Paper

Retrofitting TRU-Diesel Engines with DPF-Systems Using FBC and Intake Throttling for Active Regeneration

2005-04-11
2005-01-0662
Transport Refrigeration Units (TRU) powered by small diesel engines emit high PM and cause locally high PM levels. The concomitant health risks spurred efforts to devise a cost-effective curtailment of these emissions. Diesel particulate filters (DPF) of ceramic honeycomb construction very efficiently trap PM emissions, even ultrafines in the lung penetrating size range of below 300 nm. A fuel borne catalyst (FBC) can facilitate trap regeneration, by lowering the exhaust temperature requirements, but cannot alone guarantee reliable regeneration under all operating conditions of the TRU. A Swiss development team together with industrial partners therefore developed a fully automatic active regeneration system for the California Air Resources Board.
Technical Paper

Service Application of a Novel Fuel Borne Catalyst Dosing System for DPF Retrofit

2005-04-11
2005-01-0669
A dosing system has been developed to facilitate the addition of a fuel borne catalyst (FBC) to a vehicle's fuel supply. The on-board dosing system was primarily designed to reduce cost and complexity. One embodiment of the design provided an additional benefit, namely the automatic adjustment of treat rate according to duty cycle. For high duty operating cycles where average exhaust gas temperatures are high, a low treat rate of FBC is supplied. Conversely at low duty where the exhaust temperature is lower, a higher treat of FBC is delivered. Data from field applications are presented to demonstrate this feature.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Particulate PAH Emissions for Diesel, Biodiesel and Cooking Oil using a Heavy Duty DI Diesel Engine

2008-06-23
2008-01-1811
An investigation was conducted into particulate PAH emissions from a heavy duty DI diesel engine using; a typical diesel fuel, 100% methyl ester derived from waste cooking oils, and 100% rapeseed oil supplied as fresh cooking oil. This study quantifies the particulate PAH levels emitted at two steady state load conditions, with comparison of the oxidation catalyst efficiency for the main species identified. The engine used was a 6 cylinder, turbocharged, intercooled Perkins Phaser engine, with emission compliance of EURO 2. Particulate samples were also analysed for VOF and carbon content. Both biofuels resulted in reductions in the most abundant particulate PAH species, particularly at the lower load condition. Larger species such as Benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene and benzo (k)fluoranthene were detectable for all fuels upstream of the catalyst but were oxidized to near or below detection limits downstream of the catalyst.
Technical Paper

Urban Air Quality Improvements by Means of Vehicular Diesel Particle Filters

2008-04-14
2008-01-0336
The project objective was to investigate the ultrafine solid particle emissions of the prevalent traffic, by performing field measurements at an urban traffic artery in Zurich/Switzerland. Subsequently, various scenarios were postulated to assess the potential of the diesel particle filters (DPF) to improve curbside air quality. Soot aerosols are known to be carcinogenic [1]. If all heavy-duty diesel vehicles were equipped with DPFs, then the number of particles emitted from the entire vehicle fleet could be reduced by 75 to 80%. For PM10, the curtailment scope is considerably lower, around 20%, because more than half of those emissions are not from the exhaust and therefore would not be filtered.
Technical Paper

Particle Filter Properties after 2000 hrs Real World Operation

2008-04-14
2008-01-0332
Diesel particle filters (DPFs) efficiently eliminate soot, fuel-, and oil-ash emissions of diesel engines, but little data are available with respect to long term aging or deterioration effects of DPFs under real world operating conditions. Aging of wash coat- and catalyst-materials, catalyst poisoning, ash sintering, adsorption and long lasting storage of semi- or non-volatile substances can take place, which over time may influence filtration and conversion properties of DPFs. Herein we report to what extent DPF aging may affect particle filtration characteristics. We compared particle number concentrations (PN), and particle mass (PM) emissions after a 2000 operating hours endurance test (VFT2). Such a controlled field test is required by VERT verification procedures, which lately were published as a national standard (SNR 277205).
Technical Paper

Comparison of Exhaust Emissions and Particulate Size Distribution for Diesel, Biodiesel and Cooking Oil from a Heavy Duty DI Diesel Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-0076
Rape oil, as used in fresh cooking oil (FCO), and the methyl ester derived from waste cooking oil (WCOB100) were tested as 100% biofuels (B100) on a heavy duty DI diesel engine under steady state conditions. The exhaust emissions were measured and compared to those for conventional low sulphur (<50ppm) diesel fuel. The engine used was a 6 cylinder, turbocharged, intercooled Perkins Euro2 Phaser Engine, fitted with an oxidation catalyst. The engine out gaseous emissions results for WCOB100 showed a large decrease in CO and HC emissions, but a small increase in NOx emissions compared to diesel. However, for FCO the CO and HC increased relative to WCOB100 and CO was higher than for diesel, indicating deterioration in fuel/air mixing. The particulate matter (PM) emissions for WCOB100 were similar to those for diesel at the 23kw condition, but greatly reduced at 47kw. The FCO produced higher engine out PM at both power conditions due to a higher volatile organic fraction (VOF).
Technical Paper

Combining Fuel Borne Catalyst, Catalytic Wash Coat and Diesel Particulate Filter

2001-03-05
2001-01-0902
In view of increasing concern over diesel particulates and tightening legislation to control their emission, much work has been done to develop diesel particulate filters (DPFs) and systems to allow them to work reliably. Although a filter will effectively trap solid particles, any material in the vapour phase, such as unburned hydrocarbons, may pass through the filter and subsequently condense. The use of a catalytic wash coat, either on the DPF itself or on a separate substrate, has been proposed to oxidise these hydrocarbons and thus reduce the total material emitted. The use of fuel borne catalysts to aid the regeneration of trapped material within the DPF is also well documented. Such catalyst will also catalyse the oxidation of any hydrocarbons bound up within the particulate. The oxidation of such hydrocarbon occurs at a lower temperature than that of carbon itself, thus allowing lower temperature regeneration of the DPF.
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