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Technical Paper

Study of Emission and Combustion Characteristics of RME B100 Biodiesel from a Heavy Duty DI Diesel Engine

2007-01-23
2007-01-0074
A rapeseed methyl ester biodiesel RMEB100 was tested on a heavy duty DI diesel engine under steady state conditions. The combustion performance and exhaust emissions were measured and compared to a standard petroleum derived diesel fuel. The engine used was a 6 cylinder, turbocharged, intercooled Perkins Phaser Engine, with emission compliance of EURO 2, fitted with an oxidation catalyst. The exhaust samples were taken both upstream and downstream of the catalyst. Particulates were collected and analysed for VOF, carbon and ash. A MEXA7100 gas analysis system was used for legislated gas analysis such as CO, CO2, NOx and total hydrocarbons. A FTIR analysis system was deployed for gaseous hydrocarbon speciation, which is capable of speciating up to 65 species. The results showed a significant reduction in total particulate mass, particulate VOF, CO, THC and aldehydes when using RMEB100.
Technical Paper

Condensable and Gaseous Hydrocarbon Emissions and Their Speciation for a Real World SI Car Test

2007-01-23
2007-01-0062
Condensable and gaseous hydrocarbon emissions and speciation of the hydrocarbons have been investigated using a EURO1 emissions compliant SI (Spark Ignition) car. Exhaust gas samples were simultaneously collected upstream and downstream of the catalyst using a system containing cold ice trap, resin, particulate filter block and Teflon gas sampling bag. GC (Gas Chromatography) was employed to analyze for hydrocarbons and 16 of the more significant hydrocarbons are reported. The test was carried out using both cold start and hot start driving cycles. Results show that the benzene and toluene were major species emitted from the tailpipe under cold start conditions. Methylnaphthalene was a dominated hydrocarbon under hot start conditions. The cold start had significant influence on hydrocarbon emissions. The catalyst out benzene emissions for cold start was thirty times higher than that for hot start.
Technical Paper

The Use of a Water/Lube Oil Heat Exchanger and Enhanced Cooling Water Heating to Increase Water and Lube Oil Heating Rates in Passenger Cars for Reduced Fuel Consumption and CO2 Emissions During Cold Start.

2007-07-23
2007-01-2067
Lubricating oil takes all of the NEDC test cycle time to reach 90°C. Hence, this gives high friction losses throughout the test cycle, which leads to a significant increase in the fuel consumption. In real world driving, particularly in congested traffic, it is shown that lube oil warm-up is even slower than in the NEDC. Euro 1, 2 and 4 Ford Mondeo water and oil warm up rates in real world urban driving were determined and shown to be comparable with the results of Kunze et al. (2) for a BMW on the NEDC. This paper explores the use of forced convective heat exchange between the cooling water and the lube oil during the warm-up period. A technique of a step warm-up of the engine at 32 Nm at 2000 rpm (35% of peak power) was used and the engine lube oil and water temperature monitored. It was shown that the heat exchanger results in an increase in lube oil temperature by 4°C, which increased to 10°C if enhanced heat transfer to the water was used from an exhaust port heat exchanger.
Technical Paper

The Emerging Market for Biodiesel and the Role of Fuel Additives

2007-07-23
2007-01-2033
With growing concern over greenhouse gases there is increasing emphasis on reducing CO2 emissions. Despite engine efficiency improvements plus increased dieselisation of the fleet, increasing vehicle numbers results in increasing CO2 emissions. To reverse this trend the fuel source must be changed to renewable fuels which are CO2 neutral. A common route towards this goal is to substitute diesel fuel with esterified seed oils, collectively known as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters. However a fundamental change to the fuel chemistry produces new challenges in ensuring compatibility between fuel and engine performance/durability. This paper discusses the global situation and shows how fuel additives can overcome the challenges presented by the use of biodiesel.
Technical Paper

Oil Quality with Oil Age in an IDI Diesel Passenger Car Using an On Line Lubricating Oil Recycler Under Real World Driving

2001-05-07
2001-01-1898
A method of cleaning lubricating oil on line was investigated using a fine 1 micron bypass particulate filter, followed by an infra-red heater to remove water and light diesel fractions in the oil. A Ford 1.8 litre IDI diesel passenger car was investigated under real world driving conditions. Comparison was made with the oil quality without the recycler. All the tests were carried out on the same vehicle over 7000 miles with and without the recycler. The results showed that the on line oil recycler cleaning system reduced the rate of reduction of TBN and the rate of increase of TAN by 54% and 50% respectively. The reduction in the rate of carbon accumulation in the oil was 42%. There was also a reduction in fuel dilution. All the wear metals in the oil were greatly reduced by the recycler, the iron was reduced by 76%, the lead was reduced by 85% and the aluminum was totally removed.
Technical Paper

The Influence of an On Line Oil Recycler on Oil Quality from a Bus in Service Using Synthetic Oil

2001-05-07
2001-01-1969
A method of cleaning lubricating oil on line was investigated using a one micron bypass particulate filter followed by an infra-red heater, to remove water, dissolved gases and light diesel fractions in the oil. The impact of this oil recycler on oil quality was studied using synthetic oil in an on-road bus test. The bus was of Euro-1 emissions standard and equipped with a Cummins 6 cylinder 8.3 litre turbo-charged inter-cooled DI engine. Comparisons tests were undertaken with and without the oil recycler for about 28,000 miles. Oil samples were analysed about every 2000 miles. The results showed that the on line oil recycler achieved significant improvements in the oil quality. With the recycler, the TBN depletion rate was reduced by 52%, the TAN increase rate was reduced by 27% and the carbon accumulation rate in the oil was reduced by 42%. The fuel dilution was reduced by the recycler.
Technical Paper

The Influence of an On Line Oil Recycler on Emissions from a Low Emission DI Diesel Engine as a Function of Oil Age

2001-09-24
2001-01-3617
A method of cleaning lubricating oil on line was investigated using a fine 1μm bypass particulate filter followed by a 150°C infra-red heater, to remove water and light diesel fractions in the oil. The impact of this oil recycler on diesel particulate and gaseous emissions was investigated over a 72 hour oil age. Comparison tests were undertaken without and with the recycler on a Euro 2 Perkins Phaser 180Ti, 6-cylinder, 6-litre, turbo-charged inter-cooled DI diesel engine fitted with an oxidation catalyst. Emissions were sampled from both upstream and downstream of the catalyst about every 10 hours. The tests were carried out at 2000rpm and 100kW with 473 Nm load. A stop start test cycle was used with a cold start each time and a typical test period of 2 hours. The results showed that this engine had extremely low particulate emissions and was well inside the Euro 2 emissions limits.
Technical Paper

Fuel Additive Performance Evaluation for Volume Production Application of a Diesel Particulate Filter

2001-03-05
2001-01-1286
Diesel particulate filter (DPF) technology is becoming increasingly established as a practical method for control of particulate emissions from diesel engines. In the year 2000, production vehicles with DPF systems, using metallic fuel additive to assist regeneration, became available in Europe. These early examples of first generation DPF technology are forerunners of more advanced systems likely to be needed by many light-duty vehicles to meet Euro IV emissions legislation scheduled for 2005. Aspects requiring attention in second generation DPF systems are a compromise between regeneration kinetics and ash accumulation. The DPF regeneration event is activated by fuel injection, either late in the combustion cycle (late injection), or after normal combustion (post injection), leading to increased fuel consumption. Therefore for optimum fuel economy, the duration of regeneration and/or the soot ignition temperature must be minimised.
Technical Paper

Experience of Fitting London Black Cabs with Fuel Borne Catalyst Assisted Diesel Particulate Filters - Part 1 Regulated Emissions and Regeneration Performance

2002-10-21
2002-01-2784
Forthcoming emissions legislation is driving the passenger car manufacturers towards the fitting of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) as original equipment. However such initiatives are not retrospective and due to the replacement rate of the vehicle fleet, there is a time lag before the full benefit of the new measures are fully realised. To overcome this drawback, in areas with a particular problem such as heavily congested city centres, retrospective legislation has been introduced, for example in Hong Kong and Tokyo. Legislation mandating the retrofitting of DPFs obviously has an immediate effect on particulate emissions. Other authorities are thus investigating the efficacy of such measures. To add to the data base for such assessments Octel is running a demonstration programme using London Black Cabs. Four cars have been fitted with a DPF, an on-board dosing system to meter a fuel borne catalyst (FBC) into the fuel and a data logger to monitor the DPF performance.
Technical Paper

Experience of Fitting London Black Cabs with Fuel Borne Catalyst Assisted Diesel Particulate Filters - Part 2 Non-Regulated Emissions Measurements

2002-10-21
2002-01-2785
Forthcoming emissions legislation is driving the passenger car manufacturers towards the fitting of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) as original equipment. In areas with a particular problem such as heavily congested city centres, retrospective legislation has also been introduced, for example in Hong Kong and Tokyo. Legislation mandating the retrofitting of DPFs obviously has an immediate effect on particulate emissions. Other authorities are thus investigating the efficacy of such measures. However with the increasing use of DPF technology concerns are now being raised over some currently unregulated emissions such as ultra fine particulate and NO2, although total particulate mass and oxides of nitrogen are regulated. To add to the data base for such issues a programme of work was run using London Black Cabs. Four cars were fitted with a DPF, an on-board dosing system to meter a fuel borne catalyst (FBC) into the fuel and a data logger to monitor the DPF performance.
Technical Paper

Preliminary Results from a Six Vehicle, Heavy Duty Truck Trial, Using Additive Regenerated DPFs

2002-03-04
2002-01-0431
Impending legislation will make it almost inevitable that heavy-duty trucks will have to be fitted with some form of particulate removal after-treatment device. The challenge is to provide a system that is not only environmentally acceptable and cost effective but also durable enough to meet the demands of the trucking industry. Diesel particulate filters (DPF), in conjunction with fuel borne catalysts to facilitate regeneration, are now a recognised technology for meeting future passenger car emissions limits. Retrofitting of such systems to older technology vehicles, where specific environmental concerns exist, has demonstrated the possibility of applying this technology to the heavy-duty vehicle sector. Most of these retrofit applications tend to be to vehicles with a relatively low duty cycle. Whereas this type of duty cycle poses the greatest challenge to the successful regeneration of the filters it is not necessarily the most arduous test of the durability of the system.
Technical Paper

Particulate Trap Selection for Retrofitting Vehicle Fleets Based on Representative Exhaust Temperature Profiles

2001-03-05
2001-01-0187
1 A methodology for correctly matching trap systems to the vehicle types was developed within the scope of a feasibility study to retrofit the entire Swiss fleet of on-road HDV. Representative test vehicles from 11 vehicle categories were equipped with high capacity data loggers during a period of 4-6 weeks. Statistical evaluation of exhaust temperatures indicate that data on averages, peaks and frequency distributions alone can be misleading, because these tend to over-estimate the available exhaust enthalpy. Analysis of dwell time intervals, at certain temperature levels, is a better method to assess the energy available for the regeneration. Such verification of duty cycles is indispensable before retrofitting traps and choosing either active or passive regeneration systems.
Technical Paper

NanoMet, a New Instrument for On-line Size- and Substance- Specific Particle Emission Analysis

2001-03-05
2001-01-0216
Swiss EPA and European occupational health authorities have sponsored the development of a new sampling and measuring system designed to fulfil future requirements of differentiated particle analysis in field use and for certification purposes. The system suppresses the formation of condensates by applying hot dilution. Solid carbonaceous particles are distinguished from ash particles by means of two different sensors. Particles are size classified by their mobility; their active surface is measured. The measurable size ranges from less than 10 nm to 1 micrometer. The detection limit corresponds to a mass concentration of elemental carbon (EC) of about 0.1 μg/m3. The time resolution of 1 second is suitable for on-line analysis of particulate emission during all types of transient cycles, even no-load acceleration. The system includes a compact diluter with tunable dilution factor from 30 to 3000.
Technical Paper

Impact of Traffic Conditions and Road Geometry on Real World Urban Emissions Using a SI Car

2007-04-16
2007-01-0308
A precision in-vehicle tail-pipe emission measurement system was installed in a EURO1 emissions compliant SI car and used to investigate the variability in tail-pipe emission generation at an urban traffic junction and uphill/downhill road, and thereby the impact of road topography on emissions. Exhaust gas and skin temperatures were also measured along the exhaust pipe of the instrumented vehicle, so the thermal characteristics and the efficiency of the catalyst could be monitored. Different turning movements (driving events) at the priority T-junction were investigated such as straight, left and right turns with and without stops. The test car was run until hot stable operating conditions were achieved before each test, thereby negating cold start effects.
Technical Paper

Filtration of Diesel Soot Nanoparticles and Reliability in Swiss HDV Retrofitting

2005-01-19
2005-26-015
Based on the emission inventory Fig. 1, the Swiss 1998 Ordinance on Air Pollution Control (OAPC) mandates curtailment of carcinogenic diesel particle emissions at type B construction sites [1]. Moreover, particle traps are compulsory at underground workplaces [2]. In compliance, more than 6,000 Diesel engines were retrofitted with various particle trap systems. Many traps surpassed 99% filtration efficiency and secondary emissions were mostly prevented. However, trap failure due to mechanical and thermal damage was initially rather high at about 10%. By the year 2000 the failure rate was halved to about 6%. Thanks to focussed improvements, the year 2003 statistics show yearly failures of “only” about 2%. The Swiss target is to retrofit 15,000 construction machines with traps, fully compliant with environmental directives, having 5,000 operating hours durability and failure rates below 1%. Traps must pass the VERT suitability test before deployment.
Technical Paper

Secondary Emissions Risk Assessment of Diesel Particulate Traps for Heavy Duty Applications

2005-01-19
2005-26-014
Most particulate traps efficiently retain soot of diesel engine exhaust but the potential hazard to form secondary emissions has to be controlled. The Diesel Particle Filter (DPF) regeneration is mainly supported by metal additives or metallic coatings. Certain noble or transition metals can support the formation of toxic secondary emissions such as Dioxins, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), Nitro-PAH or other volatile components. Furthermore, particulate trap associated with additive metals can penetrate through the filter system or coating metals can be released from coated systems. The VERT test procedure was especially developed to assess the potential risks of a formation of secondary pollutants in the trap. The present study gives an overview to the VERT test procedure. Aspects of suitability of different fuel additives and coating metals will be discussed and examples of trap and additive induced formation of toxic secondary emissions will be presented.
Technical Paper

DPF Technology for Older Vehicles and High Sulphur Fuel

2005-01-19
2005-26-020
The most cost-effective way to reduce the level of diesel particulate emissions is to retrofit exhaust aftertreatment devices. While diesel oxidation catalysts will reduce the mass of particles emitted, they will not significantly reduce the number of ultrafine particles, that are considered the most harmful to health. Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) are therefore considered the most effective retrofit devices. One obstacle to the widespread adoption of DPFs is that many DPF technologies require low sulphur fuel. Using a Fuel Borne Catalyst (FBC) to facilitate regeneration of the DPF allows a sulphur tolerant DPF system to be produced.
Technical Paper

Retrofitting Urban Buses to Reduce PM and NO2

2004-06-08
2004-01-1939
In an attempt to improve ambient air quality, retrofit programmes have been encouraged; targeting reductions in PM emissions by means of diesel particulate filters (DPFs). However depending on the DPF design and operating conditions increased nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions have been observed, which is causing concern. Previous work showed that retrofitting a DPF system employing a fuel borne catalyst (FBC) to facilitate regeneration, reduced NO2 emissions. This paper outlines the investigation of a base metal coated DPF to enhance the reduction of NO2. Such a DPF system has been fitted to older technology buses and has demonstrated reliable field performance.
Technical Paper

Field Experience of DPF Systems Retrofitted to Vehicles with Low Duty Operating Cycles

2004-01-16
2004-28-0013
For many years now, epidemiologists have been highlighting the potential damage to health and the associated cost, caused by diesel particulate emissions. There is still debate concerning the crucial characteristics of these particles, however many authorities have concluded that it is their duty to legislate the reduction of such emissions. The most common approach is to legislate that all new vehicles should meet ever stricter emissions limits. This puts the onus and the cost on the engine manufacturers. The emissions limits in developing countries are inevitably less stringent than those in the developed world, this gives the indigenous manufacturers the opportunity to compete and develop. However, vehicle replacement intervals dictate that the effect of legislation controlling new vehicles takes many years to propagate throughout the existent vehicle fleet.
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